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treasurer Danby, June 1673, on no longer able to serve him—that, his taking the oaths before him in 'had his advice prevailed, he would the court of chancery, he remarks, have engaged his life and fortuna no doubt with a strong feeling of 'to have made him the most be. the difficulties of his own situation, loved and powerful prince in " that the address and means to at. Christendom; and that, seeing him • tain great things are oftentimes in the hands of a party so contrary 6 very different from those that are ' to the interests he had been al. • necessary to maintain and establish 'ways contending for, he was sa

a sure and long possession of them. ' tisfied tbe king's next step must be Lord Shaftesbury continued to be to send for the great seal. The much consulted and caressed by the king seemed much affected, and king during the whole interval promised never to forsake bim or which elapsed between the recess of the protestant interest; but would parliament on the 29th March, and not be dissuaded from bis purpose its next meeting, late in October. of dissolving, or at least proroguing But though the king was prevailed the parliament after a session of a few upon to re-assemble the parliament days. Lord Shaftesbury predicted al this juncture, adverse counsels the dangerous consequences of this again predominated in his ever step, and the irreparable breach it fluctuating mind ; and lord Shaftes, must create between the king and bury was assured that he meant to the nation. But Charles was imdissolve the parliament, to renew his movable; and instigated by the connections with France, to con- duke of York and the popish factinue the Dutch war, and to permit tion, he sent, as Shaftesbury was the marriage of the duke of York prepared to expect, secretary Cowith the princess of Modena. That ventry to demand the seal, Novem nobleman then took his final reso- ber 9th, 1673." The same day, lution; and by the language which as we are informed by Dr. Kennet, 'he used at the conimencement of "he was visited by prince Rupert, the session he shewed how little he 'and most of the peers and persons was disposed to keep any measures of quality about the town, wbo with the court. After finisbing the acknowledged that the nation had speech which he delivered ex officio •been obliged to him for the just and by command, he expressed, discharge of the trust that had contrary to the established custom, ' been reposed in him, and return and to the indignation of the popished him their thanks. junto, his own hearty wishes and « But justice to the memory of • prayers that this session might lord Shaftesbury requires, that the

equal, might exceed the honour confused and invidious statements of of the last; that it might perfect Mr. Hume should be more closely what the last begun, for the safety investigated, in order to manifest

of the king and kingdom-that the utter incompetency of that ce • it might be for ever famous for lebrated historian to pass a juda • having established upon a durable ment upon this nobleman's charac• foundation our religion, laws, and ter and conduct. Mr. Hume affirms.

properties.' Shortly after he told after Burnet indeed, that sir Orlan the king, " that, though he was do Bridgeman was removed from • deeply sensible of the personal his office for refusing to affix the hobligations he owed him, he was great seal to the declaration of



dalgence, and intimates that Shaf- accurate. According to the fashion tesbury was made chancellor for of the times, the speech delivered that very purpose ; whereas sir Ore by the chancellor in the king's name lando Bridgeman continued in pose was considered as the king's speech, session of the great seal eight months and was previously agreed upon in after the declaration was signed, council as part of it. Lord Shafsealed, and published, i. e. from the tesbury expressed in strong terms to 15th of March to the 17th Novem, his friend the famous Locke bis ber 1672, and was then, as stated uneasiness at the part which he was in the official notice, permitted to thus compelled to act, particularly ' resign on account of his great age noticing the obnoxious phrase de ' and infirmities.'

lenda est Carthago.' And M. le " Mr. Hume asserts, after BurClerc remarks upon the occasion, nel, that lord Shaftesbury suggested that those in Holland) who did to Clifford the infamous advice of ' not know the chancellor spoke shutting up the exchequer; although only ex officio, conceived a bad these stalesmen were at this very opinion of him.' 'The earl of timeinveterate political adversaries. Clarendon had in the same manner And there is extant a paper of ob- vindicated, ex officio and in his ca. jections, admirably penned, left by pacity of chancellor, the first Dutch lord Shaftesbury with the king, war, which he had previously and against that violent and iniquitous vebemently opposed in the cabinet, measure ; and also a letter of the without any imputation upon his same nobleman, in which, adverte political integrity; and why should ing to this report, he styles it 'fool. there be one standard of rectitude 'ish as well as false. If any man for Clarendon and another for Shaf

consider,' says hę, the circum- tesbury? The apology for both must stance of the time when it was be found in lord Shaftesbury's own done, and that it was the prologue weighty remark in his address to of making lord Clitford lord high the earl of Danby.. treasurer, he cannot very justly " Mr. Hume's narrative evidently

suspect me of the counsel for that implies, if it does not expressly af5 business, unless he thinks me at firm, that lordShaftesburyabandoned " the same time out of my wits.' thecourt because theking, intimidated And the duke of Ormond, a man of by the commons, had cancelled the honour, though of the Clarendon declaration; whereas the king had or York party, was heard to declare as yet given no tokens of an intention * his wonder why people accused to recede from the declaration; and lord Ashley of giving that advice ; lord Chford bad vindicated it in

for he himself was present when it high and lofty terms, calling the was first moved by lord Clifford, vole of the house of commons and he heard lord Ashley passion- ' monstrum horrendum, ingens !! ately oppose it.

when lord Sbaftesbury arose, and . " Mr. Hume tells us, that in the said he must differ toto cælo from famous speech made my lord Shaf- the noble lord who spoke last. And tesbury as chancellor in the spring then followed his famous speech in session of 1673, he enlarged on the condemnation of the declaration. topics suggested by the king, and The king, urged by the comadded many extraordinary positions mons, unsupported by the lords, and of his own. This is extremely in- alarmed at the defection of his most



popular minister, shortly after broke but that is indeed at the distance of the seal with bis own hand, March some pages,' that he maintained the 7th; and the next day lord Sbaf- · character of never betraying those tesbury, with the king's leave, re- friends whom he deserted.' la a ported it to the house of lords. letter written to the king some years

" Never,' says Mr. Hume, was subsequent to this period, he says, • turn more sudden, or less calcu, in reference to the early events of

lated to save appearances.' Immes his life, I never betrayed, as your • diately he entered into all the ca- ' majesty knows, the party or coun• bals of the country party, and "sels I was of.' Herather chose to

discovered to them, perhaps mag- lie under the imputation of advising * pified, the arbitrary designs of the the measure of shutting up the ex• court, in which he himself had chequer, than to reveal the king's ' borne so deep a share. But this counsels confidentially entrusted to is mere historical romance. Lord him. "I shall not deny,' says the Shaftesbury had never relinquished earl, but that I knew earlier of the his connections, with the country counsel, and foresaw what necessaparty, the leaders of which, Lyttel- «rily it must produce perhaps soonton, Powle, Russel, &c. were hisler than other men ; but I hope it particular friends ;--and he was ne- (could not be expected by any who ver accused or suspected by the pa- ' do in the least know me, that I triots in the house of commons of " should have discovered the king's any design inimical to the liberties secrets, or betrayed his business, or interests of his country.' On the ' whatever my thoughts were of it.' other band, if the king conceived And when, in avowed opposition to his conduct to be as base and trea- the court, several years afterwards he cherous as Mr. Hune represents it, made sonie severe reflections on how is his continuance in office for the then lord chancellor Nottinge the space of nine months after this ham, that noblemau arose in great period to be accounted for ? And heat, and thanked God that, whatwhy was be at last dismissed, as the ' ever his errors might be, he was high church historian Echard him- r not the man who had projected the self relates, with such unusual second Dutch war, who had promarks of respect and regard? But ' mulgated the declaration of indultruth is always consistent with itself; • gence, who had advised the sbutand the fact beyond all possibility of ting up of the exchequer, The rational denial is, that lord Shaltes- earl of Shaftesbury with the utmost bury had uniformly opposed the calmness observed, in auswer to these French system with all the weight implied charges, that there were of his influence and eloquence. By then in the house several lords who the force of his arguments the king • were in the secret of his majesty's had been often induced to pondercounsels at the period alluded to and to hesitate ; and that he acted he would accuse none, but he aptreacherously, is an assertion not pealed to all whether he was the auonly void of proof, but contrary to thor or the adviser of the measures the whole tenor of evidence. In in question. A profound silence reality, lord Shaftesbury carried ensued; and lord Arlington going up higher than almost any man his ideas to the king, who was himself preofhonour as a politician and states- sent in the house, remarked to him man. Mr. Hume himself allows, the generosity of lord Shaftesbury.


and the indiscretion of the chancel- vancement to the chancellorship, lor. And upon this the king ree M. Cronstrom, a Swede of high die buked the chancellor for meddling stinction, who had been resident in with the secrets of the council in so England, wrote his congratulations. public a place; and told him, 'he" This preferment and dignity, my knew nothing of those matters.' 'lord,' said be,' was due long since

“ So much for the charge of ' to your high merits; and I do treachery.-Upon other similar ac- ' humbly assure your excellency, it cusations of the historian it is un- ' is generally believed here, the innecessary to dwell. If, as Mr. Hume "terest of this and your nation will asserts, : lord Shaftesbury had sur. ' flourish under the wise conduct of

mounted all seuse of shame, if he • such a renowned chief minister of " was not startled at enterprises the state as you are. Though not ' 'most hazardous, if he was a man bred to the profession of a lawyer,

ofinsatiable ambition ;'-why did none of his decrees in chancery he not steadily persevere in the court were ever reversed; and amidst the system? had the opposition any violence and madness of party rage, thing better to offer him than the Dryden himself, in his famous pogreat seal of England ?

litical satire of Absalom and Abito" This nobleman is stigmatized phel, could not refuse to pay a triby Mr. Hume, as at the same time bute of praise to the moral and juunder the dominion of furious dicial integrity of bis character: and ungovernable passions, and practising the insidious arts of a deep

In Israel's court ne'er sat an Abethdin and designing demagogue. But these

With more discerning eyes and hande opposite characteristics are equally more clean : Temote from the truth. He had an Unbrib'd, unsought, the wretched to reextraordinary command of temper


Swift of dispatch, and easy of access." upon the most trying occasions; and his speeches, though bold and ardent, are not declamatory, but a- “ Farther, Mr. Hume is pleased cute, sagacious, and argumentative. to inform us," that lord ShastesHe equally disdained to disguise his · bury was reckoned a deist:' alOWD sentiments in complaisance to though incontrovertible evidence the prince or to the people. I do remains, that this nobleman was a

not kaow,' said he upon a certain firm believer in christianity accordoccasion (A.D. 1679) in the house ing to the most rational system of of lords, • how well what I have to protestantism, for which he even - say mav be received; for I never declared, in a very memorable destudy either to inake my court or bate in the house of lords on the

to be popular. I always speak non-resistance bill (1675), his rea' what I am commanded by the diness to sacrifice bis life. And

dictates of the spirit within me.' upon this occasion king Charles,

* In the high stations which he wlio was bimself, according to his filled, his virtues, if we will give frequent practice, present in the any credit to the testimonies of his house, declared that Shaftesbury contemporaries, were as conspicu- knew more law than all his judges, Ous as bis talents. His renown was . and more divinity than all his biextended far beyond the limits of shops.' his native country. On his ad- " It would extend this digressive



dissertation too far, to trace the “ When at length reduced to the misrepresentations of Mr. Hume re- necessity of taking refuge in Hol. lative to the conduct of lord Shaf- land, he was received by the repubtesbury subsequent to his resigna- lic, which according to his enemies tion of office, and public junction he had laboured to subvert, with the with the opposition, of which he highest honours. On bis arrival at was immediately acknowledged as Amsterdam, he was visited by se. tbe head. It must suffice to say, veral of the states and persons of that the historian exhibits a charac. distinction, one of whom smiling ter incongruous, incredible, impos- remarked · My lord, nondum est sible' a character from no one • deleta Carthago.' They told him • vice exempt,' yet the object of they were sensible his sufferings were universal affection and veneration, for the protestant cause, that be not the veneration of the mass of the bad been their real friend, and that people merely, but of the best and he had no enemies but who were wisest men of the age and country theirs likewise. They assured bim in which he lived-an Essex, an of their constant protection, and Holles, a Russel and a Sydney. And ordered bis portrait to be hung up to the injurious reproaches of Mr. in their public room. On his death, Hume may with infinitely pre- which happened shortly after, they ponderating advantage be opposed put themselves into mourning. Even the discriminating applause of the the ship which conveyed his body celebrated Locke, founded on long to England, was adorned with and intimate knowledge ; who says streamers and scutcheons, and the of this nobleman,' that in all the whole apparatus was, by an ex' variety of changes of the last age press decree of the states, exempted • he was never known to be either from the payment of tolls, fees and • bought or frighted out of his pub- customs. On the subsequent land. • lic principles.' And M. le Clerc ing at Poole in Dorsetshire, it was tells us, “ibat, to the end of his met by a cavalcade of the principal • life, Mr. Locke recollected with geutlemen of the county, who at• the greatest pleasure the delight tended the procession to his ancient • which he had found in the con- seat of Winborne, where, after all • versation of lord Shaftesbury; and his political conflicts, he reposed ' when he spoke of his good qualia from his labours, and received a - ties, it was not only with esteem, peaceful and honourable interbut with admiration.'


Sketch of the CHARACTER of QUEEN ANNE.

- [From Dr. Somerville's History of Great BRITAIN during the

Reign of QUEEN ANNE.]

TILDNESS, timidity, and chiedy, we may ascribe most of the TV anxiety we re constitutional interesting occurrences in her goingredients in the temper of this vernment, and private life. While princess ; and to their influence, she relied implicity upon the coun


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