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wall of the garrison. Here bones are found tbat are apparently human; and those of them that appear to be of the legs, arms, and vertebrae of the back, are scattered among others of various kinds and sizes, even down to the smallest bones of small birds. I found here the complete jaw-bone of a sheep; it contained its full complement of teeth, the enamel of which was perfect, and its whiteness and lustre in no degree impaired. In the hollow parts of some of the large bones was contained a minute crystallisation of pure and colourless calcareous spar; but, in most, the interior part consisted of a sparry crust of a reddish colour, scarcely in any de. grae transparent.
"At the northern extremity of the mountain, the concretion is generally found in perpendicular fissures. The miners there, employed upon the fortifications, in exacvating one of those fissures, found, at a great depth from the surface, two skulls, which were supposed to be human; but, to me, one of them, if not both, appeared to be too small for the human species. The bone of each was perfectly firm and solid; from which it is to be presumed, that they were in a state of maturity before they were inclosed in the concretion. Had they appertained to very young children, perhaps the bone would have been more porous, and of a less firm texture. .The probability is, tbat they belonged to a species of monkey, which still continues to inhabit, in considerable numbers, those parts of the rock which are to us inaccessible.
** This concretion varies, in its composition, according to the situation in which it is found. At the
extremity of Prince's Lines, high in the rock which looks towards Spain, \t is found to consist only of a reddish calcareous earth, and the bones of small birds cemented thereby. The rock around this spot is inhabited by a number of hawks, that, in the breeding season, nestle here, and rear their young; the bones in this concretion are probably the remains of the food of those birds. At the base of the rock, below King's Lines, the concretion consists of pebbles of the prevailing calcareous rock. In this concretion, at a very considerable depth under the surface, was found the under part of a glass bottle, uncommonly shaped, and of great thickness; the colour of the glass was of a dark green.
"In many parts of the rock I have found concretions, in which there are no bones of any kind; and on the elevated parts of the mountain, where the slopes are rapid, I.have found a breccia (if I may so call it), entirely consisting of snail-shells, combined in a mass of opaque stalactitical spar of a yellowish brown colour. The various progressive augmentations of this matter were to be traced in various shades of the same colour, which, like the zones of the antique alabaster, curve round, and follow the form of the shell. The purer matter, of this spar has penetrated the shells, and in their interior hollows has formed a lining of small crystals, generally colourless and perfectly transparent.
"I have bestowed more time in endeavouring to describe the composition, and the real situation, of this concretion of bones, than the subject, in the estimation of many,
will seem to deserve, and indeed consequence of inaccurate obser.
more than it deserves in my own vations and partial description, it is
opinion; but where an erroneous the duty of every new observer to
opinion has obtained a footing, in endeavour to correct it.
Essay on the Topography of the Iliad*, by Professor Heyne, of Gottingen, Aulic Counsellor to His Britannic Majesty, &c.
[From the fourth Volume of the Transactions of the Royal Societt
"T70R nine years had the war kept close within their walls, fol»
J/ between the Greeks and Tro- lowing the advice of their old menfi
jans been carried on. The former who saw plainly, that, if a siege
now lay encamped in the neighbour- should actually take place, the
hood of Troy, when the quarrel Greeks could make little impression
between Achilles and Agamemnon on the town: for the first rudiments
occasioned a division in the army, of the arts of attack were then
"Agamemnon, to convince A- hardly known. Encouraged, how
chilles that, even without his assist- ever, it should seem, by intelligence
ance, victory might be obtained, of the division in the Grecian army,
causes the army to march out of the the Trojans quitted the city, and
camp, and advance towards the met the Greeks in the field;—a
city. Hitherto the Trojans had new gratification to the praud spirit
"'The present essay follows out the train of ideas, suggested in a paper read before the Royal Society of Sciences at Gottingen, D- acie Homerica, el oppugnatione a. Traj.mii factil, in the year 1783, published in the sixth volume of their Transactions. All the disquisitions, there introduced, respecting the origin of military tactics, the manner of drawing up an army, and giving battle, and the art of fortifying and attacking a post, as described in the Iliad, are here omitted; many topics, on the other hand, are now corrected and enlarged. That essay was my first on the topography of the Iliad; a subject involved in so much difficulty. I allowed myself then to be misled by respect for Pope and Wood, so far as to renounce my own ideas, and to mould, according to the representations of these gentlemen, the views I had drawn from Homer himself. I soon found, however, that I had trusted to bad guides, and at once resolved, laying aside all secondary aids, to attempt, from the descriptions given in the poem itself, a sketch of the topography of the Iliad, such as Homer exhibits it. This essay I now present to the public. I had for a long time thrown it aside, when its coincidence with the information collected by M. Chevalier on the subject, induced me to revise it, and now inclines me to submit it, for further investigation, to the friends of the poet Amendment after this will be ah easy task."
"f Iliad, XV. 721, &c. The sage Polydamas, afterwards, likewise, when the design of an attack upon the camp seemed likely to misgive, gave his advice rather to retire again within the city, and take refuse, as formerly, behind the walls. But the rash Hector would not consent (XVIII 266. &c.) Unquestionably the long siege must have proved extremely harassing. The provisions, as well as the treasure, of Priam, were exhausted, as Hector himself urges. (Ibid. 238.) II.
of Achillps, that now, for the first time, when it was known he was not with the army, the Trojans should venture out into the plain.*
"The two armies met. Four principal battles are described in the Iliad. The first (the subject of our present investigation), on the plain between the camp and the city (Iliad, IV. 422. VI. 306.) ;— the second, when the Greeks were driven back to their camp (Iliad, VIII. 55—213) ;—the third, which extends not only to the flight of the Grecians into their camp, but likewise to the storming of the camp itself by the Trojans, who break in and set fire to a ship, till at length they are repulsed, aud pursued almost to the city by Patroclus. Here Fatroclus falls; and the Greeks put to flight are once more driven back to their camp. (Iliad, XI—XV11I.) In the fourth battle, Achilles beats back the Trojans again to the city, .and crowns bis victory by the fall of Hector.
"No lively idea can be formed, either of these battles, or of the storming of the camp, without same general conception of the environs of Troy.
"From Mount Ida, run two hilly ridges from the east down to the sea, where two promontories bound a jutting beach. The promontory on the north is Rhasteum; that on the south Sigeum. Within these two ridges lies a plain, sloping down to the shore, and inclosed within their semicircular
compass. (Strabo, XVIII, p. 8J?' B.) In this plain run two rivers: on the north side the Simois; oo the south the Scamander, called also the Xanthus. -The latter now discharges itself into the see to the south, below Sigeum; but formely, before approaching the shore, it must have united with the Simois, so that both rivers hid a common outlet into the sea, above or to tlie north of Sigeum. This embouchure was surrounded with many marshes, and hence was called Stomalimnt; a name which occurs but once in Homer, in an interpolated passage. (Iliad, VI. *.) The exact situation is laid down by Strabo (XIII. p. 890. A. Winy, V. 20. 33.+).
"The Grecian fleet was drawn on shore at a place between the two promontories. The distance betwixt the two, according to Strabo (p. 890. B. 891. A.), was 60 stadia (about two German or nice English miles), in a direct course by sea. The curvature of the Iaod, however, would increase the distance in keeping along the shore!. '" It is generally supposed, that the Grecia,-. camp extended from cape to cape. This notion involves very considerable difficulty. Had it done so, the camp must have reached beyond the Simois,. and the marshes on both sides of it; a circumstance by no means probable, particularly as the strPam is so apt to overflow; and not the smallest trace occurs in Homer, either of the river running through the camp,
"* Once only Hector had ventured beyond the Scrran gate, as far as the beech f.tt. but on that occasion he with difficulty escaped from Achillea."
"-|- Of all these places, the chaits of Pope and Wood five very different vir»»; that of M. Chevalier, however, accordi exactly with what is said by SHabo and Pliay."
*' I D'Anville, in his description of the Hellespont, fMemoires nV lAcrihu? it .Inscriptions, torn. XXIV. p. 319.) allows only half the distance; M. Chevalier doe* •*• same (ch. VIII.), on the authority of the passage in I'liny (v. H3), where the distance is reckoned from /Eanteum. Still, however, it is a contested point, what pait of d» coast must properly be regarded as Rhoeteum. (liliad, IX. 354. &c.) H.
or of the left wing being stationed beyond the river. When Homer, therefore, says, that the ships occupied the whole shore* between the two promontories, he probably •peaks in a poetical style, to Com. vey a magnificent idea; and it is more likely that the camp only e t retohed on both side3 towards the promontories Rhceteum and Sigeum, and that on the north-east it extended to the Simois.
"Within this space were the •hips of the Greeks bawled up on the land, at a considerable distance from the shore, with their sterns towards the land, and arranged in several rowsf. The rows, however, must have been drawn backward according to the oblique direction of the whole camp from the north towards Sigeum. Behind the foremost row of the ships the troops were encamped, so that the ships themselves must have served for a kind of rampart, as is plain from a comparison of different passages?. In the rear of the left wing must have been the marshes called Stomalimne. Strabo assigns parhclar names to several parts of
the coast, though he has not pot them down in geographical order||. As only one part of the coast bears the name of Station of the fleet, it may perhaps be inferred from this, that the Grecian camp occupied only a part of the beach.
*' The ships stood in the order in which they had been drawn ashore. The vessels of Protesilaus, accordingly, occupied the foremost place; and next to them were the ships of Ajax, the son of Telamon. (Iliad, XIII. 681. XV. 706, &c.) Ajax was stationed towards Rhoeteum, consequently on the left wing of the camp; Achilles, with his Myr. midons, on the right towards Sigeum §. In regard to the two extremities there is no doubt; but the arrangement in the intermediate space cannot be so exactly ascertained; unless, perhaps, thus far: Near to Ajax, and farther to the right, lay Idomeneus, with the Cretans (Iliad, X. 112.); beside him Nestor, with his Pylians; then followed Menestheus, with the A. thenians; next to him was Ulysses; near o whom were stationed the Argives, Myceneans, and Lacedav
Hiooof <tti/j.z fj.xy.fjv, Oto> citufyxBo* ax(m. '• He docs not expressly name either Sigeum or Rhceteum; on the contrary, he always place* the camp on the Hellespont, in the more extensive signification of that term, as meaning the northern part of the JEgenn Sea."
"t The ships are therefore said to have stood riixfoatai, (XIV. 35.) parallel and behind one another, like the steps of a ladder. This is the meaning we learn from Herodotus, (VII. 188.)"
"♦ Iliad, XV. 653, 6cc. 408. 420. XIV. 34."
"|| Strnbo (XIII. 8' 0. A.). ' After Rhceteum follows Sigeum, a town in ruins, the» • the station of the fleet, (to HmmQp.ot), and the harbour of the Greeks, (o A^oim 'Xi/*ti>,) and the Grecian camp (to A^a.'x-'« tTfariwitn,) and Stomalimne, and the mouth 'of the Scaoaander (viz. of the Scawander united with the Simois), then the promon'tory of Sigeum.' Compare Mela, I. 19. Pliny, V. 30. 33."
"$ Iliad, XI. adinit. It is true that in XVII. 458. it is said, that the horses of Achilles would not return without Patroclus to the Hellespont, a>L iwl rn« iwl Wxjwm> 'KxXr<Tirro». Bur this whole northern arm of the /Egean Sea, before the entrance of the strait, is more than once called the Hellespont. (Iliad, XVIII. 130. XXIV. 346. Odyss. XXIV. 82. also Iliad, VII. 86. XII. SO. XV. 233. XXIII. 2.) And hence must be derived the explanation of the epithets mXarit and imtpa, which do not seem well applied to the proper Hellespont; though, indeed, broadaai narrow are relative terms."