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is much superior to our filtering ■tones, or other methods by descent, in which, in time, particles of the stone, or the finer saw!) make a passage along wit it (he water.
"They make two wells, from' five to ten feet, or any depth, at a small distance, which have a communication ut bottom. The sepazation must be of clay well beaten, or of other substances impervious to water. The t«o wells are then filled with sand and gravel. The opening of that into which the water to be filtered is to run, must be somewhat higher than that into v.hich the water is to ascend, and this must not have sand quite up to its brim, that there may be jooni for the filtered water, or it may, by a spout, run into a vessel placed for that purpose. The greater the difference is between the height of the two wells, the faster the water will filter; but the less it is the better, provided a sufficient quantity of water be supplied by jt.
"This may be practised Iq a cask, tub, jar, or other vessel. The water may be conveyed to the bottom by a pipe, the lower end having a spunge in it, or the pipe may be filled with coarse sand.
"It is evident that all such particles, which by their gravity are carried down in filtration by descent, will not rise with the water in filtration by ascension. This might be practised on board ships at little expence.
'* The Arabians and the Turks have a preparation of milk, which . has similar qualities to the kumiss* of the Kalmuks: by< the first is is called Uban, by the Turks yaourt.
"To make it, thejr put to tit* milk made hot over the fire some old leban (or yaourt). In a few hours, more or less, according to the temperature of the air, it becomes curdled of an uniform «..-;■sistence, and a most pleasant acid; the cream is in great part separated, leaving the curd light and semitranspuTent. . The whey is much less subject to separate than in curds made with rennet with us, for th ' purpose of making cheese.
li Yaourt has tins singular quality, that, left to stand, it becomes dailv sourer, and at last dries, without having entered into the putrid fermentation. In this state it is preserved m bags, and in appearance resembles pressed curds after they have been broken by the band. This dry yaourt, mixed with water, becomes a fine cooling food or drink, of excellent service in fevers of the lnftaromntory or putrid kind. It se< nis to have none of those qualities which make rnilk improper in fevers, fresh yaourt is a great article of food among the native*, and Luropeans soon become fond of it.
"No other acid will make the same kind of curd: all that have been tried, alter the acid fermentation is over, become putrid. In Russia they put their milk in pots in an oven, and let it stand till it becomes sour, and this they use as an article of food in that state, or make cheese of it ; but it has none of the qualities of yaourt, though, when it is new, it has much of the teste. Perhaps new milk curdled with sour milk, and that again used as a ferment, and the same process continued, mi9ht, in lime, acquire tLe qualities of yaourt. which never can be made in Turkey without some old yaourt.
* For the method of prtpnrir.j kiiniis?, or kmimiss, with its use in medicare, see the New Annual Register for the year 1788, p. .
"Tliey give no rational account how it was first made; some of them told me an angel taught Abraham how to make it, and others, that an angel brought a pot of it to Hagar, which was the first yaourt (or leban).
"It merits attention as a delicious article of food, and as a medicine."
"The butter, which is mostly used in Constantinople, comes from the Crim and the Kuban. They do not salt it, but melt it in large copper pans over a very slow fire, and tcum off what rises; it will then preserve sweet a long time if the butter was fresh when it was melted. We preserve butter mostly by salting. I have had butter, which when fresh was melted and scummed in the Tartar manner, and then salted in our manner, which kept two yearsgood and fine tasted. Washing does not so effectually free butter from the curd and buttermilk, which it is necessary to do, in order to preserve it, as boiling or melting; when then salt is added to prevent the pure butyrous part from growing rancid, we certainly have the best process for preserving butter. The melting or boiling, if done with care, does not discolour or injure the taste.
"To the lovers of coffee, a few remarks on the Turkish manner of making it, in the best way, may not be unacceptable.
"Coffee, to be good, must either be ground to an almost impalpable powder, or it must be pounded as the Turks do, in an iron'mortar, with a heavy pestle. The Turks first put the coffee dry into tbe coffee-pot, and set it over a very slow fire, or embers, till it is warm, and isnds forth a fragrant'
smell, shaking it often; then from another pot they pour on it boiling water (or rather water in which the grounds of the last made coflee had been boiled, and set to become clear); thev then hold it a little lonyer over the fire, till there is on its top a white froth-like cream, but it must not boil, but only rise gently; it is then poured backwards and forwards two or three times, from one pot into another, and it soon becomes clear; they, however, often drink it quite thick. Some put in a spoonful of cold water to make it clear sooner, or lay a cloth dipt in cold water on the top of the pot.
"The reason why our West-India coffee is not so good as the Yemen coffee is, that on account of the climate it is never suffered to hang on the trees till it is perfectly ripe; and in the voyage it acquires a taste from the bad air in the hold of the ship. This may be remedied in Italy, by exposing it to the sun two or three months: with us, boiling water should be poured on it, and let to stand till it is cold, then it must be washed with other cold water, and, lastly, dried in an oven. Thus prepared, it will be nearly as good as the best Turkey coffee. It should be roasted in an open earthen or iron pan, and the slower it is roasted the better. As often as it crackles it must be taken off the fire. The Turks often roast it in a baker's oven while it is heating.
"The preservation of yeast having been a subject of much research in this country, the following particulars may perhaps deserve attention. On the coast of Persia my bread was made, in the English, manner, of good wheat flower, and with the yeast generally used there. It is thus prepared ; take a small
tea-cup or wine-glass full of split or In this cold climate, especially at •
bruised pease, pour on it a pint of cold season, it should stand longer
boiling water, and set the whole in to ferment, perhaps twenty-four or
a vessel all night on the hearth, or forty-eight hours. The above quan
any other warm place; the water tity made me as murh bread as two
will have a froth on its top next sixpenny loaves, the quality of
morning, and will be good yeast, which was very good and light."
Ode for tbc New Year.
By Henri James Pyb, Esq. Poet-laureat.
WHEN genial Zephyr's balmy wing
Expanding owns the fostering gale,
Deep-rooted in this kindred soil,
So Freedom here through many an age
And Treason's wiles, and Faction's rage;
Which Anarchy's rude breath had blown,
B'-holils her Idirest realms o'erthrown;
But tee! along the. daiifirrj Mpfe
The gathering clouds malignant louf", And, spreading o'er our blue domain,
Apainst our shores their thunders poor; While treach'rous friends and daring foes Around in horrid compact close >— Their swarming barks portentous shade With crowded sails the watery glade: When lo ! imperial George commands-—* Rush to the waves, Britannia's veteran bands— Unnumber'd hosts usurp in vain Dominion o'er bis briny reign; His fleets their monarchy's right proclaim With brazen throat, with breath of flame: And captive in bis ports their squadrons ride, Or mourn their shatter'd wrecks deep whelm'd beneath the tide.
From shore to shore, from pole to pole,
Emerging frorriits parent main,
Responsive pours the exultive strain—
The Stork, an Ode.
HEARD ye the whirlwind's flight sublime,
Borne on a murky cloud; „