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srrmon against it, since it was a Tice unknown. * At what a distance,' thought I, 'am I arrived 'from London and Paris."
"When we took our leave of Lavater, he begged we would write our names and place of abode in a book, which he appropriates to the use of inscribing the long list of his foreign visitors. An hour after my return from his house he came to pay me a visit, which I was taught to consider as an unusual compliment, since it is his general rule not to return the visits of strangers. Religion was the theme of his discourse,' and he talked of its pleasures, its consolations, and its hopes, with asolemnsort of enthusiastic fervor, which shewed how much his heart was interested in the subject, and how warmly his sensibility was awake to devotional feelings. Although his zeal was not without knowledge, yet it was somewhat difficult to discover what was hfe system of belief: whether lie was of Paul or Apollos, a follower of Calvin according to the established creed of the Swiss church, or whether he was not in some sort the frauier of a new doctrine himself.
"One of my fellow-travellers, who was anxious to wrest from the venerable pastor his confession of faith, brought in review before him the various opinions of the fathers, orthodox and heretic; from Justin Martyr and Origen, down to the bishop of St. David's and Dr. Priestley. But Lavater did not appear to have rnadc polemics his
study; he seemed to think right and wrong, in historical fact, of far less importance than right and wrong in religious sentiment; and above all, in human action. There was more of feeling than of logic in his conclusions; and he appeared to have taken less pains to examine religion,""than to apply its precepts to the regulation of those frailties and passions of the human heart, the traces of which, hidden from others, he had marked with such admirable accuracy in the character and expression of outward forms. For myself, I own the solemn, meek, affectionate expression of Lavater's pious sentiments, were peculiarly soothing to my feelings, after having beeu so long stunned with the cavils of French philosophers, or rather the impertinent comments of their disciples, who are so proud of their scepticism, that they are for ever obtruding it in conversation. Tho number of those disciples is augmented since the revolution, which has spread far and wide the writings of Rousseau and Voltaire; and every Frenchman, after having read those authors, though he may neither have taste enough to admire the charms of their genius, or virtue to feel the philanthropy of their sentiments, has, at least, acquired sufficient knowledge to assume the appellation of philosopher, and prove his claim to that title by enlisting himself under the banner of infidelity, without knowing th« use of his arras,"
MANNERS OF NATIONS.
Description of Kashmire, and Character of the In Habit Ants.
[From the second Volume of a Journey from Bengal .to England, through the northern Part of India, &c. by George Forster.]
"rjpHE valley of Kashmire is of X an elliptic form, and extends about ninety miles in a winding direction from the south-east to the north-west. It widens gradually to Islaamabad, where the breadth is about forty miles, which is continued with little variation to the town of Sampre, whence the mountains by a regular inclination to the westward, come to a point, and divide Kashmire from the territory of Muziufferabad. To the north and north-east, Kashmire is bounded by what is here termed the mountains of Thibet; a branch, I apprehend, of that immense range, which rising near the black sea, penetrates through Armenia, and skirting the south shore of the Caspian, extends through the north-east provinces of Persia, to Thibet and China. On the south-east and south, it is bouned by Kishtewar, and on the southwest and west, by Prounce, Muzsufferabad, and some other independent districts.
"The Jalum, the western of the Punjab rivers, having received the numerous rivulets of the valley, and the overflowing water of the lakes, becomes a spacious stream, and is discharged through the mountains near the town of Baramoulah,
where its current, from the declivity of the land, runs with rapid force. At Baramoulah the Kashmiriaus say Solomon rent the mountains, and gave a passage to the waters, whicb, from the beginning of time, had floated on their plains.
"About eight miles to the westward of the city, the Jalum is joined by a small river called the Chote, or little Scind, which, I was informed by a Kashmirian Pundit, arises in the Thibet mountains, and is the only stream not produced within the valley. Previously to the Mahometan conquest 6f India, Kashmire was celebrated for the learning of its Bramins and the magnificent construction of its temple. The period of its subjection to the Mahometans is not recorded in any history that I have seen, but we may believe, that a country, containing a valuable commerce and a profusion of natural beauties, would at an early date have attracted their notice and invited their conquest. It was governed in a long series of succession, by a race of Tartar princes, of the Clnfg or Chugatay tribe, until the year 1586, when Acbar subdued it; aided more, it is said, by intrigue, than the force of his arms. Kashmire remained annexed annexed to the house of Tiraur for the space of one hundred and sixty years; after which it was betrayed by the Mogul governor, to Ahmed £hah Duranny, who formed it into a province of the Afghan empire.
"The valley of Kashmire has geaerally a flat surface, and being copiously watered, yields abundaut crops of rice, which is the common food of the, inhabitants. At the base of the surrounding hills, where the land is higher, wheat, barley, and various other grains are cultivated. A superior species of saffron is also produced in this province, and iron of an excellent quality is found in the adjacent mountains. But the wealth and fame of Kashmire have largely arisen from the manufacture of shauls, which it holds unrivalled, and almost without participation. The wool of the sbaul is not produced in the country, but brought from districts of Thibet, lying at the distance of a month's journey to the north-east. It is originally of a dark grey colour, and is bleached in Kashmire by the help of a certain preparation of rice flour. The yarn of this wool is stained with such colours as may be judged the best suited for sale, and after being woven the piece is once washed. The border, which usually displays a. variety of figures and colours, is attached to the sbauls, after fabrication; but in so nice a manner that the junction is not discernible. The texture of the shaul resembles that of the shaloon of Europe, to which it has probably communicated the name. The price, at the loom, of an ordinary shaul, is eight rupees, thence, in proporlioual quality, it produces from'fifteen to twenty; and I have seen a very fine piece sold at forty rupees the first cost. But the value of this commodity may be largely enhanced by the in
troduction of flowered work; and when you are informed that the sum of one hundred rupees is occasionally given for a shaul to the weaver, the half amount may be fairly ascribed to the ornaments.
"A portion of the revenue of Kashmire is transmitted to the Afghan capital in shaul goods, which I had an opportunity of seeing previously to the dispatch, and, from the information then received, I am reasonably confirmed in the accuracy of this statement I have given. The shauls usually consist of three sizes, two of which, the long and the small square one, are in common use in India; the other, long and very narrow, with a large mixture of black colour in it, is worn as a girdle by the northern Asiatics.
"A wine is made in Kashmire, resembling that of Madeira, which, if skilfully manufactured, by age, would possess an excellent quality. A spirituous liquor is also distilled from the grape, in which, and the wine, the people of all kinds freely indulge.
"The Kashmirians fabricate the best writing paper of the east, which was formerly an article of extensive traffic; as were its lacquer ware, cutlery and sugars; and the quality of these manufactures clear* ly evince, that were the inhabitants governed by wise and liberal princes, there are few attainments of art which they would not acquire. But the heavy oppressions of the government, and the rapacious temper of the bordering sthtes, who exercise an unremitting rapacity on the foreign traders, and often plunder whole cargoes, have reduced the commerce of Kashmire to a declining and languid state. In proof of this position, the Kashmirians say, thai during their subjection to the Mogul dominion, the province
concontained forty thousand sbaul looms, and that at this day there ere Dot sixteen thousand. In Kashmire are seen merchants mid commercial agents of most of the principal cities of northern India, also of Tartary, Persia and Turkey, who at the same time advance their fortunes, and enjoy the pleasures of a fine climate and a country, over which are profusely spread the various beauties of nature.
"The dress of the Kashmirians consists of a large turban, awkwardly put on ; a great woollen vest with wide sleeves; and a sack, wrapped in many folds round the middle: under the vest, which may be properly called a wrapper, the higher class of people wear a pirahun or shirt, and drawers; but the lower order have no under garment, nor do they even gird up their loins. On first seeing these people in their own country, I imagined from their garb, the cast of countenance, which is long and of a grave aspect, and the form of their beards,that I had come amongst a nation of Jews. The same idea impressed also Mr. Bernier, who, carrying it further, has attempted, by the aid of some proofs more specious than substantial, to deduce their origin from the Jewish tribes that were carried into captivity.
"Tlie dress of the women is no less awkward than that of the men, and is ill adapted to display the beauties they naturally possess. Their outward, and ohe n only garment is of cotton, and shaped like a longlooseshirt. Ovcrthehair, which falls in a single braid, they wear a close cap, usually of a woollen cloth of a crimson colour; and to the hinder part of it is attached a triangular piece of the-same stuff,
which falling on the back conceal* much of the hair. Around the lower edge of the cap is rolled a small turban, fastened behind with, a short knot, which seemed to me the only artificial ornament about them. You will be pleased-to no« tice, that I speak of the dress of the ordinary women, such only being permitted to appear in public. The women of the higher classes are never seen abroad; nor is it consistent with the usage of any Mahometan nation even to speak of the female part of a family.
"The Kashmirians are stout, well formed, and, as the natives of a country lying in the thirty-fourth degree of latitude, may be termed a fair people, and their women in southern France or Spain would be called brunettes. But having been prepossessed with an opinion of their charms, I suffered a sensible disappointment; though Isaw some of the female dancers most celebrated for beauty and the attractions of their profession. A coarseness of figure generally prevails among them, with broad features, and they too often have thick legs. Though excelling in the colour of their complexion, they are evidently surpassed by the elegant form and pleasing countenance of the women of some of the western provinces of India.
"The city of Kashmire once abounded with courtesans, equally gay and affluent; but the rigorous contributions of the Afghans have greatry reduced their number, and driven most of those that remain into a languid poverty. The few that I saw, afforded me much plea, sure by their graceful ykill in dancing, and voices pecul'urly melodious. And here let me observe, lest I should afterwards forget, that the women of Kashmire are singularly larly fruitful: be the government ever so oppressive, of fortune at all points adverse, no baneful effects are seen to operate on the propagation of the species, which is . maintained with a successful perseverance. I will not presume to investigate the physical cause of a virtue so copiously inherent in the men and women of this country, but will simply intimate to you that its waters are well stored with fish, which is thought to be, a generative stimulus, and constitutes a principal article of the food of the people.
"The language of Kashmire evidently springs from the Sanscrit stock, and resembles in sound that of the Mahrattas, though with more harshness, which has probably induced the inhabitants to compose their songs in the Persic, or adopt those of the Persian poets. Yet in despite of the unpleasant tone of their speech, there is scarcely a person in the country, from youth to old age, who has not a taste for music.
*' The Kashmirians are gay and lively people, with strong propensities to pleasure. None are more eager in the pursuit of wealth, have more inventive faculties in acquiring it, or who devise more modes of luxurious expence. When a Kashmirian, even of the lowest order, finds himself in the possession of ten shillings, he loses no time in asfemblinghis party, andlaunching into the lake, solaces himself till the last farthing is spent. Nor can the despotism of an Afghan government, which loads them with a various oppression and cruelty, eradicate this strong tendency to dissipation; yet their manners, it is said, have undergone a manifest change, since the dismemberment of their country from Hindustan. Encouraged by the liberality and indulgence of the Moguls, they gave a
loose to their pleasures and the bent of their genius. They appeared in gay apparel,constructed costly buildings, and were much addicted to the pleasures of the table. The interests of this province were so strongly favoured at the court, that every complaint against its governors was attentively listened to, and any attempt to molest the people, re* strained or punished.
"In the reign of Aurungzebe, when the revenue of the different portions of the empire exceeded that of the present day, the sum collected in Kashmire amounted to three and a half lacks of rupees, but at this time, not less than twenty lacks are extracted by the Afghan governor, who, if his tribute be regularly remitted to court, is allowed to execute with impunity every act of violence. This extreme rigour has sensibly affected the deportment and manners of the Kashmirians, who shrink with dread from the Afghan oppressions, and are fearful of making any display of opulence. A Georgian merchant, who had long resided in the country, gave me the most satisfactory information of Kashmire. He said, that when he first visited the province, which was. governed by a person of a moderate disposition, the people were licentious, volatile, and profuse. But that, since the administration of the late chief, an Afghan of a fierce and rapacious temper, they had become dispirited, their way of living mean, their dress slovenly, and, though of a temper proverbially loquacious, they were averse from communicating Ordinary intelligence.
"During my residence in Kashmire, I often witnessed the harsh treatment which the common people received at the bands of their masters, who rarely issued an order