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independence, that, neither discou. “A Greek of the name of Sote raged by the abandonment of the tiri, was sent to Epirus and Albania, Russians, nor deterred by the ap- to distribute manifestoes, and comprehension of again incurring the bine an insurrection with the chiefs. dreadful vengeance of the Turks, An army was soon raised; their as soon as a fresh war broke out be- bead-quarters were at Sulli. They tween those powers they again took marched against the Pasha of Yáup arms.

nina (Janina) and completely de"A fleet was fitted out at Cron- feated his army in a pitched battle, stad, and sailed for the Archipela- in which his son was killed, and go, under the command of a brave, despoiled of his rich armour, which prudent, and experienced officer, they sent to the empress. admiral Greig, an Englishman, who ..“ They collected a sum of mo. had served in the former war, and ney by voluntary subscription of greatly distinguished himself under individuals, and fitted out at count Orlow; who, from an offi- Trieste an armament of twelve small cer in the guards, where he saw po ships, under the command of Lainother honourable service than quel. bro Canziani, a Greek, with which ling a riot at a brandy shop, was they sailed to the Archipelago. raised to the supreme command of They were every where victorious, a fleet and an army, and entrusted and the impression was so great with an expedition which required and alarming to the porte, that it had the greatest experience and talents. nearly drawn the whole Turkish The king of Sweden rendered to navy out of the Black Sea, and left the empress the essential service of the capital exposed to the attack of detaining her feet in the Baltic, by a formidable Russian feet, then in attacking it in that sea, and thereby the ports of the Crim. putting into her hand the naval suo “ The empress had sent a capperiority which, by. its absence, tain Psaro to Sicily, to establish mawould have passed into his. This gazines for the fleet coming out unill-timed diversion of the king of der admiral Greig, and several other Sweden retarded the fate of Tur- persons, to furnish the Greeks with key, and the interference of other money and ammunition, and to recourts saved it for this time ; at move the difficulties the Venetians, least they obliged the empress to still unwilling to offend the porte, make peace; but that peace would had thrown in their way, and the have been but of a few months' du- obstructions they had put to their ration, had not the death of prince communication by means of their Potemkio and some other circum- port Prevasi, the nearest to Sulli. stances intervened, which shall be In this state of things the Greeks spoken of in this place.

sent three deputies to St. Peters* In the nean time the empress burgh, with complaints against the sent manifestoes to all parts of persons commissioned to this serGreece, as she had done in the for- vice by the empress. They premer war, inviting the inhabitants sented the rich armour of the pasha i to take up arms, and co-operate of Yanina's son to her imperial inaa with her in expelling the enemies jesty ; but were prevented, by the of Christianity from the countries intrigues of those who feared an inthey had usurped, and regaining quiry into their scandalous pecula

them their ancient liberty and na- tions, for several months from pre* tional independence.'.

senting their petition, and explain

ing ing the business of their mission; and assumed a reputation by attriat length they succeeded in obtain. buting to himself exploits be never ing a private audience of the em- performed. If no ill consequences press, to which they were conduct- would ensue but to himself, we ed by Mr. Zoubov the favourite. should patiently await his appearThey presented a memorialinGreek, ance in our country, a boast howwith a translation in French, of ever which he never will perform which the following is an English but in his writings. How he has translation:

acted towards us, Y.I. M. will see in 66 Madam,

our memorial. We hear that he " It was not until we had long has received immense sums, wbich solicited in vain your imperial ma- he pretends to have expanded for jesty's ministers for an answer to us. We assure Y.I. M. that neither the memorial, which we had the he, nor any of your officers sent to bonour of presenting to them ; it us, ever paid us a single rouble. was not until, driven to the utmost The flotilla, and the other armadespair by the reflection of the ments of Lambro, were equipped dreadful evils wbich this delay at our own expence. One of us might produce to our countrymen, (deputies) abandoning his peaceful who (invited by the manifestoes of home, fitied out two vessels at his your imperial majesty) have taken own expence, and expeuded in ar. arms against the enemy of the Chris- maments 12,000 zechins, whilst the tian name, and deputed us to lay Turks massacrechhis mother and his the offer of their lives and their for- brother, levelled with the ground tunes at the foot of your imperial his possessions, and desolated bis throne; it was not till we had lost lands. all bopes of otherwise obtaining a " We never asked for your treaspeedy answer to stop those streams sures; we do not ask for them now; of the blood of our brethren which we only ask for powder and balls doubtless flow already through this (which we cannot purchase), and to delay, that we have at length dared be led to battle. We are come to to prostrate ourselves at your feet, offer our lives and fortunes, not to and to present our humble memo- ask for your treasures. rial to your imperial majesty in per. “ Deign, O great empress! glory son.

of the Greek faith! deign to read “ Another duty equally sacred, our memorial Heaven has reand which was a principal object of served our deliverance for the gloriour mission, induced us to take this ous reign of Y. 1. M. It is under Jaring step: it was to undeceive your auspices ibat we hope to Y. I. M. whom (as well as your deliver from the hands of barbaministers) there have been people rous Mahomedans our empire, audacious enough to mislead. We which they have usurped, and our have learned with indignation, that patriarcbat and our holy religion, the chevalier Psaro now erects bim- which they have insulted; to free self into a chief and conductor of the descendants of Athens and Laour people ; a man abhorred by our cedemon from the tyrannic yoke of nation, out of the dregs of which ignorant savages, under which he ruse, and where he would have groans a nation whose genius is not remained, if he had not, with an extinguished ; a nation which glows unheard-of audaciousness, deceived with the love of liberty ; which the your inperial majesty's ministers iron yoke of barbarism has not vi

lified;

lified; which has constantly before of their mission, and concluded by its eyes the images of its ancient doing homage to him as their em heroes, and whose example ani- peror (BadineUY TW 'Hansywv.) He mates its warriors even to this day, answered them in the same lan

“Our superb ruins speak to our guage, “Go, and let every thing cyes, and tell us of our ancient · be according to your wishes.' grandeur ; our innumerable ports, “ With this memorial they preour beautiful country, the heavens sented a plan of operation, from which smile on us all the year, the which I shall extract only a few ardour of our youth, and even of particulars :-They proposed, after our decrepid elders, tell us that na- the empress had furnished them ture is not less propitious to us than with cannon, and enabled them to it was to our fore-fathers. Give us augment the squadron under Lamfor a sovereign your grandson Con- bro Canziani, and sent them enstantine: it is the wish of our na- gineers to conduct the siege of tion (the family of our emperors strong places, to begin their first is extinct), and we shall become operations by marching from Sulli, what our ancestors were.

where the congress was held, and « We are not persons who have whence they had a correspondence dared to impose on the most magna- with all Greece.-Their route was nimous of sovereigns : we are the de- to be first to Livadia and to Athens, puties of the people of Greece, fur- dividing into two corps. In their nished with full powers and other inarch they were to be joined at apdocuments, and as such prostrated pointed places by troops from the before the throne of Her, whom, Morea and Negroponte. To this next to God, we look on as our sa- island the fleet of Lambro was to viour; we declare that we shall be sail. They were then to proceed till our latest breath,

in one body to Thessalia and to the your imperial majesty's city of Salonichi, where they would most faithful and most receive large reinforcements from

devoted servants, Macedonia. The whole army being (L. 8.) Pano Kiri.

then assembled, they were to march (L. S.) CHRISTO Lazzotti. to the plains of Adrianople, with

(L. s.) Niccolo PANGOLO. (as they calculated) three hundred St. Petersburgh,

thousand men, to meet the Russians, April, 1790."

and proceed to Constantinople, “ As these people are out of the where they hoped the Russian feet reach of Turkish vengeance, I have would be arrived from the Crim; not scrupled naming them. if not, they esteemed their own

66 The empress received them force sufficient to take that city, very graciously, and promised them and drive the Turks out of Europe the assistance they asked. They and their islands. were then conducted to the apart. “In this plan the establishment ments of her grandsons, and offer, and the disposition of magazines, ing to kiss the hand of the eldest and retreats in cases of disaster, grand duke, Alexander, he pointed were provided for.' The force of to bis brother Constantine, telling the Turks in different parts, and the them, it was to him that they were different movements to oppose to address themselves ; they repre- them, were calculated. All their sented to him in Greek the object resources, and the amount of the

troops

troops eacb place had engaged to “The fate of the armament furnish, were plainly stated, as well commanded by the gallant Lambro as the means they had adopted to deserves to be mentioned. carry on a secret correspondence “ The Greeks proved on this oc. with all parts of the country, both casion their love of liberty, their with respect to their own allies and passion for glory, and a persevethe movements of the Turks. To rance in toils, obedience to disci. enter more into particulars would pline, and contempt of danger and not be justifiable in me.

death, worthy of the brightest pages “ The empress sent them to the of their history; they fought with, army in Moldavia, to prince Po. and conquered very superior num. temkin, giving them 1,000 ducats bers; and when at last they were for their journey thither. They attacked with an inequality of left Petersburgh the il May 1790. force, as great as Leonidas bad to In August they were sent to Greece encounter, they fought till their by the way of Vienna, and major whole fleet was sunk, and a few general Tamara with them, to su- only saved themselves in boats, perintend the wbole expedition, and " Lambro had only resources furnish them with the assistance left to fit out one single ship; the they required.

news of a peace arrived; but boil• It merits attention, that the ing with indignation at the neglect king of Prussia had posted an arıny he had experienced from the Rusof 150,000 men, in June 1790, on sian agents, and thirsting for rethe frontier of Bohemia; that the venge, he sailed notwithstanding, convention of Reichenbach was and attacked and defeated several signed the 27th of July. The sen- Turkish vessels : he was declared a timents of the court of London pirate, and disavowed by Russiarespecting the war, and its probable but he was not intimidated-at interference in as serious a way as length he was again overpowered; Prussia had done, were known at he disdained to strike; bis vessel St. Petersburgh. It is to these cir- sunk under him, and he again escumstances we must attribute the caped in his boat, and took refuge slowness with wbich the projects of in the mountains of Albania. the Greeks were seconded. They " The conduct of the Russian were assured that they should have agents to him was the most scanda. every succour they required, and lous. The peculation of all those much more money was sent, but entrusted at a distance with the em. not much of it disbursed; they press's money was become so glarwere enjoined to prepare every ing and common, that they lookthing, but to undertake nothing, ed on it as their own property. till the proper moment should ar- Lambro was suffered to be imprie rive for their acting, which, they soned for debts contracted for his were told, depended on many cir- armaments, and was only released cumstances of which they were ig- by the contributions of bis counnorant. Lambro in the mean time trymen. acted by himself, but could under- « In the spring of 1791, an artake nothing of any consequence. mament was prepared in England Things remained thus till after the to sail for the Baltic, to force the campaign was ended, and prince empress to make peace. The king Potenkin came to St. Petersburgh. of Prussia was ready to co-operate

[graphic]

by land. Instead of the fleet, Mr. was known to her general) con• Fawkener arrived at Petersburgh. cluded a peace, the interference of It was still undetermined by the bis majesty in bringing about that empress, whether she should brave event had a' weighty effect. England and Prussia (though from “ When the news of the signing the turn affairs had taken in Eng. the preliminaries reached the Rus land, and the arrival of another sian feet, it had bea ien the Turks in ambassador, she was assured she had the Black Sea, and was pursuing little to fear from our feet, and them into the channel of Constanconsequently, little from the Prus- tinople, where they must inevitably sian army), or make peace with the have been destroyed. Had the Turks on the conditions she had Russian admiral been a man of consented to, when she was more se- more experience, they might all riously alarmed.

have been taken in the engagement. “ In this uncertainty a courier “ Thus ended a war, which, had was kept ready to depart with in- it not been for the interference of structions to general Tamara. The Great Britain and Prussia, would king's envoy was informed of this have placed the empress's grandson circumstance, and would have on the throne of Constantinople; learnt immediately the contents of and, had not circumstances impethe dispatch, which would have rivusly prescribed to them the part made him acquainted with the em- they acted, we should have had, in press's resolution respecting the pro- Russia and Greece, allies which secution of the war, or consenting would, long ago, have enabled his to peace. The courier, however, majesty and the emperor, in all huwas not dispatched. The business man probability, to have humbled was terminated with the king's joint a foe, which now threatens all Eu. envoys. Prince Potemkin depart- rope with total subversion, and even ed for tbe army, and on his road to become the instrument of emanlearnt the victory gained by Rep- cipating Greece from the Turkish nin over the vizir's army, and the tyranny, not to become an indesigning the preliminaries of peace. pendent people, but to be oppressSecret orders had been sent to Rep- ed by a worse tyranny, under the nin, as soon as the empress had re- name of liberty. solved to conclude a peace, which « The Suliotes still maintain he fortunately executed; and it is their independence: they were ofcertain that he received a copy of ten attacked by the Turks, but the arrangemeat made with the were as often successful; they king's ministers, before he signed fought seventeen battles or skirthe preliminaries. Impediments mishes, the last of wbich had pearwere thrown in the way of the de ly been fatal to them, as appears by parture of the messenger dispatched the following paper, communicatto Constantinople, so that he did ed to me by a drogoman, now in not arrive till any interference of the British service, which will our ambassador could be of no ef. throw much light on the character fect.

of the inhabitants of Epirus; and " It is plainly to be seen, that it contains, besides, very curious though the empress pretended she and interesting matter. The authenhad of her own accord (and before ticity of what he relates cannot be the arrangement with his majesty called in question, as it very exact

1798.

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