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eat pork; but if the husband and wile are of different religions, they make no scruple of boiling in the same pot a piece of pork and a piece of mutton.
"All strangers, Turks, Europeans, Greeks, or others, who happen to pass oil their territory, or are caught by them, are carried to their public market, and there sold. "Being one day at Yanina, at the Greek archbishop's house, 1 saw a Piedmontese priest, who, travelling in these parts, had been seized by the Paramathians, and told: his story, as related to me by the prelate, is as follows: Soliman Ciapar being at his house one day on a visit, told him, that he Imd bought a Frank for four piastres, but that he was good for nothing, and though he beat him daily, he could not make him do so much work as his bread was worth; he would therefore, he said, when he got home, kill him as a useless beast. The archbishop offered to buy him for the four piastres he had cost, and to pay the money immediately, if Ciapar would give security (for here no one trusts another.) The bargain being settled, the Frank was sent: he proved to be a man of learning, and the archbishop established a school under bis direction at Yanina, for Greek children. When I was there, he gained fifty and sixty piastres a month, and was so pleased with his situation and the kindness of the archbishop, that he had resolved to remain in that country, and marry. "A stranger might travel into these mountains, and would be treated hospitably by the inhabitants, if, while he was in a neighbouring country, he put himself under the protection of a Paramathian, who would give security for 1 ii being brought back safe.
"But to return to the pasha's expedition. The second day after the army had encamped in the plains of Sulli, the pasha caused captain Giavella to be brought before him, and told him, that if he would inform him how he could get possession of the mountain, he would not only spare his life, but make him beluk-basbee of the province. Giavella answered, that if he would set him at liberty, he would go to the mountain, and engage his party, and at least half the inhabitants, to submit to him, and take up arms against Bogia; that by these means he could introduce the pasha's troops into the Tripa, when'the other party would also be glad to make their peace without righting. The pasha asked him what security he would give for his performing his promises. Giavella answered, he would give him as an hostage his only son, a boy of twelve years of age, who was dearer to him than his own life, that if he deceived him he might put his son to death. Giavella accordingly called bis son down from the mountain; but as soon as he got to the mountain himself, he wrote to the pasha as follows:
'Ali Pasha, I am glad I have de'ceived 'a traitor; 1 am here to de1 fend my country against a thief. 'My son will be put to death, but 1 I will desperately revenge him be'fore I fall myself. Some men, 'like you Turks, will say I am a 'cruel father to sacrifice my son * for my own safety. I answer, if 'you take the mountain, my son 'would have been killed, with all' 'the rest of my family and my 'countrymen; then I could not 'have revenged his death. If we 'are victorious, I may have other 'children, my wife is young. If 'my son, young as he is, is not E 3 'willing 'willing to be sacrificed for his 'country, he is not worthy to bve, 'or to be owned by me as my son. 'Advance, traitor, I am impatient 'to be reveuged. I am your sworn * enemy, captain Gravella.'
"The pasha did not think proper in his rage to put the hostage immediately to death, but sent him to Yaniua, to his son Velim-bey, who governed in bis absence. I was present when the boy was brought before him: he answered the questions put to him with a courage and audaciousness that astonished every one. Velim-bey told him, he only waited the pasha's orders to roast hiin alive. I don't fear you, the boy answered; my father will do the same to your father or your brother, if he takes them. lie was put in a dark prison, and fed on bread and water.
"The pasha attacked the village of Kapha, and was repulsed three different times with great loss; but captain Bogia considering the disparity of numbers, as the Sulioies had only 900 men in the Tripa, resolved to abandon this posi, which the Albanese took possession of the next time they attacked it, though with considerable loss, the Suliotes firing at them from among the rocks in safely.
"The pasha's troops, suffering very much through want of water, which was brought to them six leagues on horses, as all those who attempted to fetch.water fr.oin the brook under the Sulli mountain ■were killed by stones the women rolled down on them, or shot by the men, began to mutiny; the pasha therefore determined to storm the Tripa the next day, and having assembled the principal officers, and chosen 800 Albanians, he exposed all his treasure in bis tent, which consisted of Venetian ducats, and
told them, it should all be distributed among them if they took Tripa; and tha}, besides, they should have all the immense riches which it was known were there. The next day the 800 Albanians, having at their head Mehmetember, and in the main body two sous of Soliman Ciapar, and in the rear captain Brogno, marched to the assault, and drawing tin ir sabres, declared they' would not shraihe them till they were victorious.
"Captain Bogia left 400 men to garrison Tripa, and sent four hundred to lie in ambuscade in the forest on each side of the road, with orders not to attack till the signal ayreed on was made from the second lower, in which he shut himself up with sixty men, and from whence, by means of signals, he commanded the movements. Giavella went with the troops into the forest like a common soldier, the better to take his meditated revenge. The ambuscade was commanded by Demetrius, Bogia'sson.
"The head of the Albanian column advanced without molestation as far as the second tower, which they surrounded, and summoned Bogia to surrender. He replied, he could not trust himself to them, but would submit to captain Brogno when he arrived; they therefote marched further up towards Tripa, leaving him, as they thought, a prisoner. The pasha's army, seeiug the Albanese bad advanced without resistance to the top of the mountain, and fearing to be deprived of a share of the plunder of Tripa, left their lents, and ran up the mountain with shouts of victory. When Bogia saw that the enemy, in number about 4,000, had advanced to the third lower, which was near the Tripa, he rang a bell, the signal
for for a general attack, which was a general slaughter: the ambuscade preventing and returning. They were in every part exposed »o the fire of the Suliotes, who were covered by the rocks or the trees, and from the second tower Bogia made great havoc. - The women from the heights rolled down great stones, which for that purpose are always piled up. The enemy deftnded themselves, when the Suliotes came out to meet them, with great obstinacy; they were, however, all killed, except 1<K), who surrendered themselves prisoners. Among them was a son of Soliman Ciapar, and many officers. The Suliotes had fifty-seven killed and twentyseven wounded. Giavella was among the slain. After shooting from the ambuscade a great number of the enemy, he sallied out with some of his friends, to avenge the supposed death of his son, and to fight till all the enemy were kiled, or he himself fell. After making a gTeat havoc among the enemy-, into the thickest of whose ranks he had ran forward with desperate valour, he fell, covered with wounds, and surrounded by heaps of slain.
"The bodies being thrown down from the rocks into the Turkish camp, struck the remainder of the army with such a panic that they fled with great precipitation towards Yanina, and abandoned the pasha. Bogia profited of their disorder to send 200 men, who, falling on the rear, cut off great numbers. The pasha himself escaped with difficulty, and killed two horses before he got back to Yanina. All the baggage, ammunition, arms, provisions, and the pasha's treasure, fell into the hands of the Suliotes, besides four large cannon, which they drew up to the Tripa, and
which was a great acquisition to them. •
"The other corps, towards, Prevasa, Arta, and Cbimsera, followed the example of the main body, and reached Yanina in great haste. So great indeed was their panic, that none of them stopt till they got within the walls of the city, thinking they were still pursued by the Suliotes.
"In the mean time, the communication being opened with the Chima?riotes, the Sulian army increased in two days so much, that they found themselves strong enough to offer the pasha battle ih the open plains. Tbey marched to an eslaie of the pasha's near Yanina, and took possession of it, whence they sent him a letter, threatening to take him prisoner in his haram. They pursued the Paramathians into their country, where they cut down the trees, and drove away vast herds of cattle and flocks of sheep to Sulli.
"The pasha, apprehensive for the safety of his capital, sent a bishop to propose peace to the Suliotes. It was concluded on the following conditions:
"1st. That the pasha cedes to the Suliotes all the territory as fat as Dervigiana (six leagues from Yanina) inclusively.
"2. That all the Sulioten, who were prisoners, should be set at liberty. (Then Giavella's son returned safe to Sulli.)
"3. The pasha should pay 100,000 piastres as a ransom for the prisoners the Suliotes had made.
"With the Par'amathians they concluded a separate peace, as they are not dependent on the pasha.
"The conditions were, that they
should in future be allies, and that
they should on all occasions succour
E 4 the the Suliotes, both with men, arras, and provisions, when they were at war.
"Returned borne to their mountain, the Suliotes divided the booty, and the 100,000 piastres, into five parts: one was destined to the repair of churches, which the Turks had damaged, antf to build a new one on the Tripa, dedicated to the holy virgin; the second part was put into the public box for the service of the community ; the third was equally divided among all the inhabitants, without distinction of rank or age; the two other parts were distributed to the families of those who bad lost men in battle*.
"This peace was soon broken by the pasha, who was twice afterwards defeated, and the Suliotes gained still greater honour.
"The writer of this journal further says, that in this country
there are ten Greeks to one Turk; that the Sulian army always consists of about 20,000 men, including their nearest neighbours on tbe Chimajra mounlains. He points out how easy it would have been for them to have put in effect what their chiefs had concerted with the Russians. But I avoid entering into particulars, as I might give information to those who would make a bad use of it.
"It was afterwards discovered, that the French consul, Mr.de la Salas, had advised the pasha to get possession of Sulli and Chimxra, as then he would have nothing to fear from the porte, if lie threw off all obedience; and that the French could then supply him with artillery and ammunition, &c. Mr. de la Sala was one day shot dead in the street at Prevasa by a captain of Lambro's fleet."
Character and present Condition of the Tuscans. [From the first Volume of Selections from the Most Celebrated
FOREIGN LITERARY JOURNALS.]
"JTHHERE is not a country in X Italy which nature has so richly endowed with all the properties that have an influence on the happy formation of man as Tuscany. It is bounded towards the north and east by tbe Apennine mountains, which pot only shield it from the frosty winds, but water it with rivers and streams and salubrious springs. Ever-verdant hills and dales in alternate undulations form the surface of the country from one end to the other, becoming thus alone one scene of delight both to the bodily and the
mental eye. This charming interchange of elevation and descent, of bills and vallies, is every where richly productive of all for which the lesser Asia and the isles of Greece.are so celebrated, as affording the most valuable nutriment to mankind ; and as to the wines, they are partly improved. What else may be wanting to the comfort of lite is supplied by industry and commerce.
"As the inhabitants of this favoured climate neither breathe the watry exhalations of the slimy l'o, nor the streams of Vesuvius, so
keepkeeping the mean betwixt the slug, gish dulness of the Lombards, and the fiery enthusiasm of the Neapolitans, they are fitted by nature for whatever requires understanding and dexterity. As far as history reaches, they have ever taken the lead of all other European nations in arts and sciences. To the Romans they taught religion, the theatrical art, manufactures and commerce; and, on the return of light, after a universal darkness of several ages, not only the imitative arts, but likewise history, poetry, a nd rhetoric, mathematics and physics, here found their first restorers.
"Florence is both the centre and the capital of this renowned nation. He that traverses Italy, and surveys this city, with its circumjacent territories, is immediately convinced that a totally different genius here prevails among mankind. Regularity, ornament, and fine taste, pervade their public places, streets,and villas, the statues, libraries, and galleries both in public and private edifices. The people are every where civil; and though, in their expression, one hears a disagreeable aspiration, more or less, according to the various districts of the state ; yet their speech itself is so genuine and regular, so full of ingenious proverbs and happy phrases, that, with all the corruptions which the reading and imitation of French writings have introduced, it may still be considered as the best living source of genuine language.
"The Florentine loves employment, is very diligent and industrious. Where he has a prospect of but a small gain, or of advantageously reaching his aim, he is not to be discouraged by the method he must pursue or the pains it may
cost him; no .delay, no obstacle can make him slacken his industry or abate his ardour; though be see with his keen perceptions the improbability of success. He then desists as readily and without murmuring, from the farther prosecution of his project, as he is ingenious in the invention of some other process. To this industry of the Florentines we are indebted for the rise of experimental philosophy; and their opulence in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries was a signal effect of it.
"They are contented with a. little, and are immoderately disposed to joy. Half a dozen of wretched pouies, or a couple of old-fashioned chaises running a race, or a match at tenuis, is a grand spectacle at Florence, and sufficient to make the town elate with pleasure. Happy the prince who has such a people to govern! It costs him, but little to attain his wishes, and to change every discontent that may arise among them into pleasure and satisfaction.
"Among so contented and industrious a people great crimes are exceedingly rare. A man must , have resided many years in Florence and in general in Tuscany, if he can speak of three or four murders or considerable robberies. Nothing seems more useless here, says the famous count Carli, in bis Saggio politico ed economico sopra la Toscana, than the officers of justice; and nothing does so much honour to the wisdom and benignity of the reigning grand duke, as the abolition of capital punishments among so tractable a people.
"The difference remarked by Plato between Athens and Thebes in Greece, holds good in some measure in Tuscany between Flo-.