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"Jealousy, and an innate disposition to secrecy, are ass'gued as the chief causes of this separation. They hold it as a maxim, that he who talks least thinks best; and that the most perfect man is not he who has most good qualities, bat fewest bad ones. Pride might also operate, as they wish not to shew their apartments, no more than their wives and daughters, unless they be arrayed in their best attire.

"Yet, however we may regret the many innocent enjoyments of which the females are thus deprived, their seclusion is productive of much domestic felicity. Their bland and simple manners are not liable to be corrupted, nor their attachments dissipated by an extensive communication with the world. The fond husband, thus solaced, is happy, supremely happy in the society of a virtuous partuer, whose sole affection is concentered within the narrow circle of her family.

"As to their persons in general, the women are rather below than above tfie middle stature, but graceful and beautiful. No'females are less, studious of .enchanting their attractions by artificial means, or counterfeiting, by paltry arts, the charms that nature has withheld. To the most regular features, thev add a sprightly deposition and captivating carriage. The round face, and full fed form, are more esteemed in this country, than the long tapering visage and thin delicate frame. Most nations entertain some peculiar idea of beauty hi the lineaments and cast of the face; that of the Portuguese will be best understood by their own description of a perfect beauty, which is as follows:

"The forehead should be broad, smooth and white. The eyes large, bright, and quick, but at the same time still and modest. With respect

to the colour there are divers 07*7 nions; some prefer the blue, some the black, and others the green. A Portuguese named Villa-Real, wrote a treatise in praise of the last. The eye-brows should be large, of a black colour, and form an arch concentric with that of the eye-lid. To be properly adjusted to the rest of the face, the nose should desceud in a direct line from the forehead, and form a regular pyramid.

"The mouth, the portal of the human structure through which the messengers of the intellect have constant egress, ought to be rather small than large. The lips rather full than thin; rather relieved than sunk, and the edge of a pure carnation. Teeth are accounted •beautiful when they are white, regular, and of equal size, resembling a row of pearls set in an arch of ruby.

"The cheeks must be smooth, and somewhat relieved; the centre of a pure carmine colour, fading insensibly into a lily white; both colours so perfectly blended and proportiontd, that neither should predominate.

"With respect to the neck, there is great majesty in one which is large and smooth, rising from the shoulders like an alabaster column.

"But among all the female charms, the most transcendant are the breasts. In form they should resemble a lemon; in colour and smoothness the orange blossom.

"The most beautiful hands are long and white; the fingers full and tapering. Feet are not accouuted pretty it they be not small.

"Of the stature, the niWdle siae is most admired. Without a graceful walk, the most perfect beauty appears awkward; whereas a modest, airy, and serene movement, enhances every other charm; and bespeaks the tranquillity of a mind 'formed formed in the school of virtue and decorum.

"They usually sit upon cushions, which, among the better sort, are of crimson velvet. One of their principal employments is spinning flax, for which they still use the spindle and distaff. The women of the province of Miubb are so celebrated for this branch of industry, that formerly it was customary to conduct the bride to the house of her spouse, preceded by a youth carrying a spinning apparatus. In the houses of the most respectable merchants, traders, and farmers, the female part of the family disdain not to occupy their time in this manner. Accomplishments, such as people of very humble circumstances in England commonly bestow on their daughters, as dancing, music, drawing, and languages, are unknown here; even among ladies of the first rank.

"Cottons, muslins, aud coloured silks, they ver}' rarely wear. A kind of black garment called mnntitha, over a petticoat of the same colour, both of woollen cloth or silk, but. oftener of the former, is the usual dress, except in Lisbon, where the women wear black silk mantos; a kind of garment that covers the head and upper part of the body. Cloaks and petticoats of divers colours, made of woollen cloth, fringed with gold lace or ribbands, are worn by the inferior ranks. The country-women, except on Sundays and holidays, still wear the ancient national dress—a jacket and petticoat.

"Wi>ii respect to the dress of the nun, it differs not from that of the English or French except in one garment, namely the caput, like that ol the Spaniards and Italians; and even this, of late yeais, is much disused, as it a* been often knowu

to serve for worse purposes than cover a ragged coat. It is an excellent garment, however, for travelling in winter.

"To describe the dresses of the several religious orders is foreign to our purpose; let it suffice, therefore, to observe, that the difference in their respective habiliments consists more in the colour than in the shape.

"The intermediate class between the nobility and merchants is composed of men of small independent property in lands or houses, derived from their fathers, or purchased with the fruits of their own industry; in the capacity of merchants or factors, or by their economy whilst in office under government. These are the gentlemen of Portugal. Comparatively speaking, they are few in number, but their virtues are many. Protectors of the poor, benevolent and humane citizens of the world. Men, who, whilst they enlighten the nation by their talents, and pursue its most substantial interest, are the most ready and able to protect and maintain its rights.

"There is one class of people here, than whom, perhaps, few nations can produce a more inoffensive and industrious, and at the same time a more degraded and oppressed; these are ' the pillars of the state,' the peasantry, who aVe kept in a state of vassalage by a baud of petty tyrants, assuming the title of Fidalgos.

"Among those, to whom this title properly appertains, there are undoubtedly many who have a just claim to honour aud respect ; not from the antiquated immunities of feudal times, but from their personal virtuws. We entirely separate them from the ignorant, intolerant wretches, who grind the face

of of the poor, and depopulate the land.

"Indeed, I am informed by a Portuguese gentleman of very high rank, who sincerely deplores the wretched state of the peasantry of his country, that the ch'ef p.irt of their miseries is owing not to government, but to these gentry. I know not how to give the reader a just idea of them; by privilege they are gentlemen, in manners clowns; beggars in fortune, monarchs in pride. Too contemptible for the notice of the sovereign; to excite the jealousy of the nobles, they are too weak; but too strong for the peasantry, from whom they axact adoration. They are to be seeu in every town, in every village and hamlet, wrapt up to the eyes in capots, brooding over their imaginary importance. The industrious husbandman mustnotaddress them but on his knees. His fate, and that of his family, are at tbeir mercy. On the most trivial preteuce they cite him to the court of the next camarca, or shire. The wretched farmer, in vain, attempts to justify himself, and after exhausting his resourcesto fee lawyers, he is sure to be cast at the end of a tedious and vexatious suit. His property is then seized upon, even to his very implements; and if it be not found sufficient to answer all demands, he is doomed to perish in a prison. Many industrious families have been thus annihilated; and others, apprehensive of sharing the same fate, have forsaken their lands, and often the kingdom, to seek protection in the colonies.

"Beggars are a formidable clas9 in this country. Several laws have been enacted from time to time, to diminish the number and restrain the licentiousness of this vagrant train, but in vain. They ramble

1798.

about, and infest every place, not entreating charity, but demanding it. At night they assemble in hordes at the best mansion they can find, and having taken up their abode in one of the out-offices, they call for whatever they stand in need of, like travelers at an inn; here they claim the privilege of tarrying three days, if agreeable to them.

"When a gang of these sturdy fellows meet a decent person on the highway, he must offer them money; and it sometimes happens that the amount of the offering is not left to his own discretion. Saint Anthony assails him on one side, Saint Francis on the other. Having silenced their clamour in behalf of the favourite saints, he is next attacked for the honour of the Virgin Miry; and thus they rob him for the love of God.

"Iu the year 151-4, a law was made, ten ling to decrease the number" of beggars with which the kingdom was infested. By one article it was ordained, that the lame should learn the trade of a tayloror shoemaker. That the maimed, for their subsistence, should serve thosa who would employ them; and that the blind, in consideration of their food and raiment, should devote their lime to one of the labours of the for?e, blowing th? bellows.

"W.Ji respect to diversions, bunting, hawking, and fishing, which were formerly practised, are now very much disused; indeed, there are but few pHrts, except in the province of Al-niejo, wherein the first can be well exercised, oa account of the mountainous surface of the country; besides, the want of good cattle is another obstruction; for such is the feebleness of the horses and mules, that thny are obliged to employ oxen is drawing all their vehicles of burden. ■J? "Hores-l'

"Horsp-racing is a sport to which they are utter strangers, nor do gentlemen ride abroad for amusement but very seldom; and then a guide must attend them, lest they should lose their way.

"People of fashion, and delicate peisons, usually travel in litters. And ladies sometimes take short excursions in the country, upon an ass, or a mule.

"In passing through the streets, the people in general are fond of

riding fast; but in the country they move very deliberately, insomuch (hat it is not unusual to see even the post-boy sleeping on his mule. "Billiards, cards, and dice, particularly the two last, are the chief amusement of every class. Their only athletic exercise is bull-fighting, and fencing with the 'quarterstaff: the latter is confined to the common people; the former has been often described."

Amusements and Manners of the Modern Parisians.

[From the First Volume of a Tour In Switzerland, &c. by H. M.

Williams.]

"T F the morning at Paris is deX voted to business, the evoking at least belongs to pleasure: over those hours she holds an undivided empire, but is worshipped at innumerable altars, and bailed by ever-varying rituals.

"During the last winter the amusements of twenty-four theatres, which were opened every night, were every night succeeded by public and private balls, in such numbers, that there were no less than two thousand ball-rooms inscribed on the registers of the police, which keeps its wakeful vigils over every sort of amusement, in all their gradations, from the bright blaze of waxen tapers which displays the charms of nymphs dressed a la sauyqge or d la grec, who grace the Splendid ball de Ruhlieu; to the oily lamp which lights up the seventh story, or the vaulted cellar, where (he blind tidlei's animating scrape calls the-sovereign people to the coyilpn of wooden shoes.

"These two thousiind*ball-rooms ff the capital afibrd ample proof

that no revolution has taken place in the niiiuners of the French, and that they are still a dancing nation. They have indeed of late fully demonstrated to the world that they are capable of greater things; and that when the energies of their souls are called forth, they can follow Buonaparte across fne bridge of Lodi; but when their minds return to their natural position, every barrack has a room appropriated for dancing, and the heroes of Arcole, as well as the muscadhu of Paris.

* All knit hands, and beat the ground
'In a light fantastic round.'

"The fetes of the court, it is asserted by the few persons remaining in France, by whom they were frequented, were but tawdry splendour compared with the classical elegance which prevails at the fetes of our republican contractors. As a specimen of these private balls, I shall trace a short sketch of a dance lately given by one of the furnishers of stores for fleets and armies, in bis spacious hotel, where all the furniture. furniture, in compliance with the present fashion at Paris, is antique; where all that is not Greek is Roman; where stately silken beds, massy sofas, worked tapestry, and gilt ornaments, are thrown aside as rude Gothic magnificence, and every couch resembles that of Pericles, every chair those of Cicero; where every wall is finished in arabesque, like the baths of Titus, and every table, upheld by Castors and Polluxes, is covered with Athenian busts and Etruscan vases; where that modern piece of furniture a clock is concealed beneath the classic bar of Phoebus, and the dancing hours; and every chimneyiron is supported by a sphinx, or a griffin. The dress of his female visitors was in perfect harmony with the furniture of his hotel; for although the Parisian ladies are not suspected of any obstinate attachment to Grecian modes of government, they are most rigid partisans of Grecian modes of dress, adorned like the contemporaries of Aspasia —the loose light drapery, the naked arm, the bare bosom, the sandaled feet, the circling zone, the golden •hains, the twisting tresses, all display the most inflexible conformity to the laws of republican costume. The most fashionable hair-dresser of Paris, in order to accommodate himself to the classical taste of his fair customers, is provided with a variety of antique busts as models; and when he waits on a lady, enquires if she chooses to bedrest that day d la Cleopatre, la Dianne, or la Psyche? Sometimes the changeful nymph is a vestal, sometimes a Venus; but the last rage has been the Niobe': of late fat and lean, gay and grave, old and young, have been all d la Niobe; and the many-curled periwig, thrown aside by the fashionable class, now decorates the heads of petty shop-keepers.

■" The fair Grecians being determined not to injure the contour of fine forms by superfluous incumbrances, no fashionable lady at Paris wears' any pockets, and the inconvenience of being without is obviated by sticking her fan in her belt, sliding in a flat purse of mo. rocco leather, only large enough to contain a few louis, at the side of her neck, and giving her snuff-box and her pocket-handkerchief to the care of the gentleman who attends her, and to whom she applies forthem whenever she ha3 occasion.

"For a short time during the winter, in defiance of frost and snow, the costume of a few reigning belles was not d la grec, but d la sauvage. To be dressed d la sauyage, was to have all that part of the frame which was not left uncovered clad in a light drapery of flesh colour. The boddice under which no linen was worn (shift3 being an article of dress long since rejected at Paris, both by the Greeks and the savages), the boddice was made of knitted sHk, clinging exactly to the shape, whicli is perfectly displayed ; the petticoat was on one side twisted up by a light festoon'; and the feet, which were either bare or covered with a silk stocking of flesh colour^ so woven as to draw upon the toes like a glove upon the fingers, were decorated with diamonds. These gentle savages, however, found themselves so rudely treated when* ever they appeared, by the sovereign multitude, that at length the fashions of Otaheite were thrown aside, and Greece remains the standing order of the day.

"But to return to the contractor, and his ball—After several hours had past in dancing cotillons, which the young women of Paris perform with a degree of perfection—a light nyniphish grace unseen elsewhere— i' 2 and

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