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mented anxiety: which is, by this thought, increased still further And if you become at all embarrassed, the knowledge that there are so many to sympathize, not only with that embarrassment, but also with each other's feelings on the perception of it, heightens your confusion to the utmost.

'The same causes will account for a skilful orator's being able to rouse so much more easily, and more powerfully, the passions of a multitude: they inflame each other by mutual sympathy and mutual consciousness of it. And hence it is that a bolder kind of language is suitable to such an audience; a passage which, in the closet, might, just at the first glance, tend to excite awe, compassion, indignation, or any other such emotion, but which would, on a moment's cool reflection, appear extravagant, may be very suitable for the Agonistic style; because, before that moment's reflection could take place in each hearer's mind, he would be aware, that every one around him sympathized in that first emotion; which would thus become so much heightened as to preclude, in a great degree, the ingress of any counteracting sentiment.

'If one could suppose such a case as that of a speaker (himself aware of the circumstance), addressing a multitude, each of whom believed himself to be the sole hearer, it is probable that little or no embarrassment would be felt, and a much more sober, calm, and finished style of language would be adopted.'

There are two kinds of orators, the distinction between whom might be thus illustrated. When the moon shines brightly we are apt to say, 'How beautiful is this moon-light!' but in the day-time, 'How beautiful are the trees, the fields, the mountains !'—and, in short, all the objects that are illuminated; we never speak of the sun that makes them so. Just in the same way, the really greatest orator shines like the sun, making you think much of the things he is speaking of; the secondbest shines like the moon, making you think much of him and his eloquence.

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'To use too many circumstances, ere you come to the matter, is

wearisome.'

Bacon might have noticed some who never 'come to the matter.' How many a meandering discourse one hears, in which the speaker aims at nothing, and—hits it.

'If you dissemble sometimes your knowledge of that you are thought to know, you shall be thought, another time, to know that you know not.'

This suggestion might have come in among the tricks enumerated in the Essay on ' Cunning.'

ESSAY XXXIII. OF PLANTATIONS.1

PLANTATIONS are amongst ancient, primitive, and heroical works. When the world was young it begat more children, but now it is old, it begets fewer; for I may justly account new plantations to be the children of former kingdoms. I like a plantation in a pure soil, that is, where people are not displanted5 to the end to plant in others; for else it is rather an extirpation than a plantation. Planting of countries is like planting of woods; for you must make account to lose almost twenty years' profit, and expect your recompense in the end; for the principal thing that hath been the destruction of most plantations, hath been the base and hasty drawing of profit in the first years. It is true, speedy profit is not to be neglected, as far as it may stand3 with the good of the plantation, but no farther.

It is a shameful and unblessed thing to take the scum of people and wicked condemned men, to be the people with whom you plant; and not only so, but it spoileth the plantation; for they will ever live like rogues, and not fall to work, but be lazy, and do mischief, and spend victuals, and be quickly weary, and theu certify over to their country to the discredit of the plantation. The people wherewith you plant ought to be gardeners, ploughmen, labourers, smiths, carpenters, joiners, fishermen, fowlers, with some few apothecaries, surgeons, cooks, and bakers. In a country of plantation, first look about what kind of victual the country yields of itself to hand; as chesnuts, walnuts, pine-apples, olives, dates, plums, cherries, wild honey, and the like, and make use of them. Then consider what victual or esculent things there are, which grow speedily, and within the year; as parsneps, carrots, turnips, onions, ra

1 Plantations. Colonies. 'Towns hero arc few, either of the old or new

plantations.'Beylin.

* Displant. 'Those French pirates that ditplanted us.'—Beaumont and Fletcher, 3 Stand. To be consistent with. 'His faithful people, whatsoever they rightly

ask, the; shall receive, as far as may stand with the glory of God and their own

everlasting good.'—Hooker.

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dish, artichokes of Jerusalem,1 maize, and the like: for wheat, barley, and oats, they ask too much labour; but with peas and beans you may begin, both because they ask less labour, and because they serve for meat as well as for bread; and of rice likewise cometh a great increase, and it is a kind of meat. Above all, there ought to be brought store of biscuit, oatmeal, flour, meal,2 and the like, in the beginning, till bread may be had. For beasts or birds, take chiefly such as are least subject to diseases, and multiply fastest: as swine, goats, cocks, hens, turkeys, geese, house-doves, and the like. The victual in plantations ought to be expended almost as in a besieged town, that is, with certain allowance; and let the main part of the ground employed to3 gardens or corn be to* a common stock, and to be laid in, and stored up, and then delivered out in proportion; besides some spots of ground that any particular person will manure for his own private.6 Consider likewise, what commodities the soil where the plantation is doth naturally yield, that they may some way help to defray the charge of the plantation; so it be not, as was said, to the untimely prejudice of the main business, as it hath fared with tobacco in Virginia. Wood commonly aboundeth but too much, and therefore timber is fit to be one. If there be iron ore, and streams whereupon to set the mills, iron is a brave6 commodity where wood aboundeth. Making of bay salt, if the climate be proper for it, would be put in experience;7 growing silk, likewise, if any be, is a likely commodity; pitch and tar, where store of firs and pines are, will not fail; so drugs and sweet woods, where they are, cannot but yield great profit; soap ashes likewise, and other things that may be thought of; but moil1 not too much under ground, for the hope of mines is very uncertain, and useth to make the planters lazy in other things. For government, let it be in the hands of one, assisted with some counsel, and let them have commission to exercise martial laws, with some limitation. And, above all, let men make that profit of being in the wilderness, as2 they have God always, and his service before their eyes. Let not the government of the plantation depend upon too many counsellors and undertakers8 in the country that planteth, but upon a temperate number; and let those be rather noblemen and gentlemen, than merchants; for they look ever to the present gain. Let there be freedoms from custom, till the plantation be of strength, and not only freedom from custom, but freedom to carry their commodities where they may make their best of them, except4 there be some special cause of caution. Cram not in people, by sending too fast, company after company, but rather hearken6 how they waste, and send supplies proportionably; but so as the number may live well in the plantation, and not by surcharge be in penury. It hath been a great endangering to the health of some plantations, that they have built along the sea and rivers, in marish" and unwholesome grounds; therefore, though you begin there, to avoid carriage and other like discommodities,7 yet build still rather upwards from the stream than along it. It concerneth likewise the health of the plantation that they

1 Artichokes of Jerusalem. A well-known culinary plant, originally of Brazil: the name Jerusalem being merely a corruption of the Italian Girasole—that is Sun-flower, or Turn-sole.

2 'Flour is still used in Suffolk to signify, exclusively, that which is finely sifted; and 'meal' that which comes from the mill.

* To. In. 'Still a greater difficulty upon translators rises from the peculiarities every language has to itself.'—Felton.

* To. For. See page 248. 'The proper business of the understanding is not that which men always employ it to.'Locke.

* Private. Particular use or benefit; private object.'Nor must I be unmindful of my private,
For which I have called my brother and the tribunes,
My kinsfolk, and my clients to be near me.'—Ben Jonson.

6 Brave. Excellent; fine.'A brave attendance.'—Shakespere.

7 Experience. Experiment; trial. 'As curious experiences did affirm.' Say. 1 Moil. To toil; to drudge.

'Now he must moil and drudge for one he loathes.'—Dryden. 3 As. That. See page 23.

3 Undertakers. Managers of affairs.

'Nay, if you be an undertaker, I am for you.'—Shakespere. —(Now confined to the managers of funerals.)

4 Except. Unless. See page 282. 6 Hearken. Watch; observe.

'They do me too much injury

That ever said I hearkened for your death.'—Shakespere. 'I mount the ten-ass, tbence the town survey, And hearken what the fruitful sounds convey.'—Dryden.

6 Marish. Marshy, swampy. 'The fen and quagmire, so marish by kind, are to be drained.'—Tusser.

7 Discommodities. Inconveniences. 'We stand balancing the discommodities of two corrupt disciplines.'—Milton.

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