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some countries), were wont1 to put great trust in eunuchs, because they that are envious towards all are obnoxious2 and officious towards one: but yet their trust towards them hath rather been as to good spials3 and good whisperers than good magistrates and officers; and much like is the reason of deformed persons. Still the ground is, they will, if they be of spirit, seek to free themselves from scorn, which must be either by virtue or malice •* and therefore, let it not be marvelled/ if sometimes they prove excellent persons; as was Agesilaus, Zanger the son of Solyman, iEsop, Gasca, president of Peru; and Socrates may go likewise amongst them, with others.
Bacon is speaking principally of original deformities, not such as result from accident or disease. And it is very remarkable how much less tendency these latter have, than the other, to produce such effects as he is speaking of.
1 Wont. To be accustomed. 'Now at the feast the governor was wont to release unto them a prisoner.'—Matt. xxvii. 15. 'I this night, have dream'd, If dream'd, not as I oft am wont, of thee.'—Milton. * Obnoxious. Subject; submissive. 'The writings of lawyers, which are tied and obnoxious to their particular laws.'—-Bacon. 5 Spials. Spies.
'The Prince's spials have informed me.'—Shakespere.
4 Malice. Vice. (Not, as now, restricted to malevolence.) 'In malice be ye children.'—1 Cor. xiv. 20. 'Not using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness.' —I Pet. ii. 16.
'Marvel. To wonder at. 'Marvel not that I said unto thee, ye must be born again.'—John iii.
ESSAY XLV. OF BUILDING.
HOUSES are built to live in, and not to look on; therefore, let use be preferred before1 uniformity, except where both may be had. Leave the goodly fabrics of houses, for beauty, only to the enchanted palaces of the poets, who build them with small cost. He that builds a fair house upon an ill seat,2 committeth himself to prison—neither do I reckon it an ill seat only where the air is unwholesome, but likewise where the air is unequal; as you shall see many fine seats set upon a knap3 of ground, environed with higher hills round about it, whereby the heat of the sun is pent in, and the wind gathereth as in troughs; so as" you shall have, and that suddenly, as great diversity of heat and cold as if you dwelt in several places. Neither is it ill' air only that maketh an ill seat, but ill ways, ill markets; and if you consult with Momus, ill neighbours. I speak not of many more; want of water, want of wood, shade, and shelter, want of fruitfulness, and mixture of grounds of several natures; want of prospect, want of level grounds, want of places at some near distance for sports of hunting, hawking, and races; too near the sea, too remote; having the commodity of navigable rivers, or the discommodity of their overflowing; too far off from great cities, which may hinder business; or too near them, which hircheth1 all provisions, and maketh everything dear; where a man hath a great living laid together, and where he is scanted;2 all which, as it is impossible perhaps to find together, so it is good to know them, and think of them, that a man may take as many as he can; and, if he have several dwellings, that he sort3 them so, that what he wanteth in the one he may find in the other. Lmcullus answered Pompcy well, who, when he saw his stately galleries and rooms so large and lightsome, in one of his houses, said, 'Surely, an excellent place for summer, but how do you in winter?' Lucullus answered, 'Why do you not think me as wise as some fowls are, that ever change their abode towards the winter?54
1 Preferred before. Preferred to.
'0 Spirit that dost prefer Before all temples, the upright heart and pure, Instruct me.'—Milton. 3 Seat. Site. 'It remaineth now that we find out the teat of Eden.'— XalMgh.
3 Knap. A prominence; a knoll.
'Hark, on knap of yonder hill,
4 As. That. See page 23.
'There some ill planet reigns.'—Shakespere. * Commodity. Advantage; convenience. See page 418.
To pass from the seat to the house itself, we will do as Cicero doth in the orator's art, who writes books De Oratore, and a book he entitles Orator; whereof the former delivers the precepts of the art, and the latter the perfection. We will therefore describe a princely palace, making a brief model thereof; for it is strange to see, now in Europe, such huge buildings as the Vatican and Escurial, and some others be, and yet scarce a very fair5 room in them.
First, therefore, I say, you cannot have a perfect palace, except you have two several6 sides; a side for the banquet, as is spoken of in the book of Esther, and a side for the household; the one for feasts and triumphs,' and the other for dwelling. I understand both these sides to be not only returns, but parts of the front; and to be uniform without, though severally partitioned within; and to be on both sides of a great and stately tower in the midst of the front, that, as it were, joineth them together on either hand. I would have, on the side of the banquet in front, one only goodly room above stairs, of some forty feet high; and under it a room for a dressing, or preparing place, at times of triumphs. On the other side, which is the household side, I wish it divided at the first into a hall and a chapel, with a partition between, both of good state and bigness,1 and those not to go all the length, but to have at the farther end a winter and a summer parlour, both fair; and under these rooms a fair and large cellar sunk under ground; and likewise some privy kitchens, with butteries and pantries, and the like. As for the tower, I would have it two storeys, of eighteen feet high a-piece above the two wings; and goodly leads upon the top, railed with statues interposed; and the same tower to be divided into rooms, as shall be thought fit. The stairs likewise to the upper rooms, let them be upon a fair and open newel, and finely railed in with images of wood cast into a brass colour, and a very fair landing place at the top. But this to be, if you do not point2 any of the lower rooms for a dining place of servants; for otherwise you shall have the servants' dinner after your own, for the steam of it will come up as in a tunnel. And so much for the front, only I understand the height of the first stairs to be sixteen feet, which is the height of the lower room.
1 Lurch. To absorb. (From Pourehe—a game in which the stakes are put into a box, where the loser is obliged to leave them. Hence perhaps the expression ' to bo left in the lurch.')
1 Scanted. Limited; restricted. 'I am scanted in the pleasure of dwelling on your actions.'—Dryden.
* Sort. To chuse.
'To sort some gentlemen well skilled in music'—Shakespere.
* Plut. Vil. Lucull. 30.
* Fair. Handsome.
'Carry him to my fairest chamber.'—Shakespere.
* Several. Separate. 'He dwelt in a several house.'—2 Kings xv. 5. 7 Triumphs. Shows on festive occasions. See page 390.
Beyond this front is there to be a fair court, but three sides of it of a far lower building than the front; and in all the four corners of that court fair staircases, cast into turrets on the outside, and not within the rows of buildings themselves; but those towers are not to be of the height of the front, but rather proportionable to the lower building. Let the court not be paved, for that striketh up a great heat in summer, and much cold in winter, but only some side alleys with a cross, and the quarters to graze, being kept shorn, but not too near shorn. The row of return on the banquet side, let it be all stately galleries; in which galleries let there be three or five fine cupolas in the length of it, placed at equal distance, and fine coloured windows of several works; on the household side, chambers of presence and ordinary entertainments with some bed-chambers; and let all three sides be a double house, without thorough lights on the sides, that you may have rooms from the sun, both for forenoon and afternoon. Cast1 it also that you may have rooms both for summer and winter, shady for summer and warm for winter. You shall have sometimes fair houses so full of glass, that one cannot tell where to become2 to be out of the sun or cold. For embowed* windows, I hold them of good use; in cities, indeed, upright do better, in respect of the uniformity towards the street; for they be pretty retiring places for conference, and, besides, they keep both the wind and sun off— for that which would strike almost through the room, doth scarce pass the window; but let them be but few, four in the court, on the sides only.
1 Bigness. Size, whether great or small. 'Several sorts of rays make vibrations of several bignesses.'—Sir Isaac Newton. 5 Point. To appoint.
'To celebrate the solemn bridall cheere
Beyond this court let there be an inward4 court, of the same square and height, which is to be environed with the garden on all sides; and in the inside, cloistered on all sides upon decent and beautiful arches, as high as the first storey; on the under storey, towards the garden, let it be turned to a grotto, or place of shade, or estivation; and only have opening and windows towards the garden, and be level upon the floor, no whit5 sunk under ground, to avoid all dampishness; and let there be a fountain, or some fair work of statues in the midst of the court, and to be paved as the other court was. These buildings to be for privy lodgings on both sides, and the end for privy galleries; whereof you must foresee that one of them be for an infirmary, if the prince or any special person should be sick, with chambers, bed-chamber, 'antecamera' ['anti-chamber'],
1 Cast. To plan.
'From that day forth, I cast in careful mind
5 Become. To betake oneself.
'I cannot joy until I be resolved
3 Eiubowcd. Bowed.
'I saw a bull as white as driven snow, With gilden horns, embowed like the moon.'—Spbnsbr. * Inward. Inner. 'Though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day.'—2 Cor. iv.
6 Whit. The least degree. Sec page 421.