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and giving them battle, which may very properly be as. cribed to our author, who was engaged in a war against that people.

The best editions of Arrian are, that of Gronovius, Gr. & Lat. Leyden, 1704, fol.; of Raphelius, Gr. & Lat. Amsterdam, 1757, 8vo; and of Schmeider, Leipsic, 1798, 8vo. Schmeider also published the “Indica cum Bonav. Vul. canii interpret. Lat.” 8vo. ibid. 1798. Dodwell's “Dissertatio de Arriani Nearcho," in which the authenticity of the voyage of Nearchus is contested, is affixed to this edition of the Indica, in connexion with Dr. Vincent's able refutation of that attack. The expedition was translated into English by Mr. Rook, Lond. 1729, 2 vols. 8vo. illustrated with historical, geographical, and critical notes, with Le Clerc's criticism on Quintus Curtius, and some remarks on Perizonius's vindication of that author. Rook also added the Indica, the division of the empire after Alexander's death, Raderus's tables, and other useful documents.

ARRIGHETTI (PHILIP), a native of Florence, where he was born in 1582, and died in 1662, was appointed by pope Urban VIII. canon of the cathedral. He wrote a great many books, among which are, 1. “ The Rhetoric of Aristotle,” divided into fifty-six lessons ; 2.“ A translation of the Poetic" of the same author ; 3. “Four Academical discourses,” on pleasure, laughter, spirit, and honour. 4. “A life of St. Francis." 5. Some pious writings, particularly a " Treatise on vocal and mental Prayer.” His father, Nicholas Arrighetti, died at Florence in 1639, and was a man of learning, and skilled in mathe. matics. There was also a jesuit of the same name, who published “ The theory of Fire,” in 1750, 4to; and died at Sienna in 1767.'

ARRIGHETTO or ARRIGO (HENRY), a Latin poet of the twelfth century, was born at Settimello near Florence, and for some time was curate of Calanzano. Disturbed by the vexations he met with from certain enemies, he gave up his benefice, and became so poor that he was obliged to subsist on charity ; from which circumstance he obtained the surname of Il Povero. He painted his dis

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I Gen. Dict.-Fabr. Bibl. Græc.-Voss, de Hist, Græc.Moreri.Clark's Bibliog. Dict.--Saxi: Onomasticon.

• Dict. Hist. ; and for Nicholas, Biog. Universelle.-Fabroni Vit. Italor. fol. XVI.


grace and his misfortunes in elegiac verse, in a manner so

a pure and pathetic, that they were prescribed as models at all public schools. They remained in manuscript in various libraries until about a century ago, when three editions of them were published in Italy. The first is that of 1684, 8vo; the second is incorporated in the History of the Poets of the middle ages by Leiser ; and the third was printed at Florence in 1730, 4to, with a very elegant translation into Italian, by Dominic Maria Manni.

ARRIGHI (FRANCIS), a native of Corsica, was professor of law at Padua, where he died May 28, 1765. He was remarkably tenacious of his opinions, and carried on a long controversy with some antiquaries relative to the explanation of an ancient epitaph. His principal writings are, “ A History,” in Latin, « of the war of Cyprus, in seven books; and a “ Life of Franciscus Maurocenus.'

ARRIGONI (FRANCIS), of Bergamo, was born there Dec. 1, 1610; and died July 28, 1645. He applied himself to the study of the Greek language, and was employed by the cardinal Frederick Boromeo, in decyphering the Greek manuscripts of the Ambrosian library. He wrote some “ Eulogies," and “Discourses,” which were collected and published at Bergamo in 1636; “ The Theatre of Virtue,” and other pieces, which are noticed by Vaerini in his history of the writers of Bergamo.'

ARRIVABENE (JOHN FRANCIS), of a noble family of Mantua, flourished about the year 1546. Enjoying much intimacy with Possevin and Franco, he imbibed their taste for poetry, and composed “ Maritime Eclogues,” which were printed with the “Maritime Dialogues” of Botazzo, at Mantua, in 1547. Arrivabene was no less distinguished as a prose writer, and there are many of his letters and essays in Ruffinelli's collection, published at Mantua about the same time.

ARRIVABENE (JOHN PETER), of the same family as the preceding, became bishop of Urbino, where he died in 1504, in the sixty-third year of his age. He had been the scholar of Philelphus, under whom he studied the Greek language with great diligence. He wrote, 1. “Gonzagidos,” a Latin poem, in honour of Ludovico, marquis of Mantua, a celebrated general, who died in 1478. 2. “ Latin epistles,” with those of James Piccolomini, called the car| Biog. Universelle.—Dict. Hist.

? Dict. Hist.

3. Ibid. * Ibid. -Biog. Universelle.



dinal of Pavia, printed at Milan in 1506. From his Gonzagidos, first printed by Meuschenius in his collection entitled “ Vitæ summorum dignitate et eruditione' virorum,” vol. III. Cobourg, 1738, it appears that the author had been present at many of the victories and transactions which he there relates.'

ARRIVABENE (HYPPOLITO), a descendant of the same family, who died March 22, 1739, practised with great reputation as a physician at Rome. He printed his “ Poems” at Modena in 1717, and an academical dissertation, the title of which is, “ La vera 'idea della Media cina," Reggio, 1730, 4to. ?

ARROW SMITH (John), an English divine and writer, was born at or near Newcastle-upon Tyne, March 29, 1602. He was admitted of St. John's college, in Cambridge, in 1616, and took his first two degrees from thence in 1619 and 1623. In this last year he was chosen fellow of Katherine hall, where he is supposed to have resided some years, probably engaged in the tuition of youth; but in 1631 he married, and removed to Lynn in Norfolk. He continued in this town, very much esteemed, for about ten or twelve years, being first assistant or curate, and afterwards minister in his own right, of St. Nicholas chapel there. He was afterwards called up to assist in the assembly of divines; had a parish in London, and is named with Tuckney, Hill, and others, in the list of Triers, as they were called : i. e. persons appointed to examine and report the integrity and abilities of candidates for the eldership in London, and ministry at large. When Dr. Beale, master of St. John's college, was turned out by the earl of Manchester, Mr. Arrowsmith, who had taken the degree of B. D. from Katherine hall eleven years before, was put into his place; and also into the royal divinity chair, from which the old professor Collins was removed; and after about nine years possession of these honours, to which he added that of a doctor's degree in divinity, in 1649, he was farther promoted, on Dr. Hill's death, to the mastership of Trinity college, with which he kept his professor's place only two years; his health being considerably impaired. He died in Feb. 1658-9.

Dr. Arrowsmith is represented as a learned and able divine, but somewhat stiff and narrow; his natural temper is said to have been incomparably better than his principles, and all agree that he was a man of a most sweet and engaging disposition. This, says Dr. Salter, appears through all the sourness and severity of his opinions, in his “ Tactica Sacra,” a book written in a clear style, and with a lively fancy; in which is displayed at once much weakness and stiffness, but withal great reading; and a very amiable candour towards the persons and characters of those, from whom he found himself obliged to differ. This book he dedicated to the fellows and students of his college, and published it in 1657, to supply the place of his sermons, which his ill health would not permit him to preach in the chapel. He also printed three sermons; and in 1659 his friends, Horton and Dillingham, masters of Queen's and Emanuel coileges, published a collection of his theological aphorisms in quarto, with the title of “ Armilla Catechetica." Dr. Whichcote, in one of his

1 Biog. Universelie.-Roscoe's Leo.-Mazzuchelli.

3 Dict. Hist.

” letters, speaks of him with high respect, although he had no agreement with him in his principles, which were Calvinistic. Mr. Cole praises him for being remote from the latitudinarian principles of modern times.'

ARSENIUS, bishop of Constantinople, was called to the metropolitan see, from a private monastic life, in 1235, by the emperor Theodore Lascaris; who, a little before his death, constituted him one of the guardians of his son John, an infant in the sixth year of his age.

Arsenius was renowned for piety and simplicity ; but these afforded no security against the ambition and perfidy of the age. Michael Palæologus usurped the sovereignty; and Arsenius at length, with reluctance, overpowered by the influence of the nobility, consented to place the diadem on his head, with this express condition, that he should resign the empire to the royal infant when he came to maturity. But after he had made this concession, he found his pupil treated with great disregard, and, probably repenting of what he had done, he retired from his see to a monastery. Sometime after, by a sudden revolation, Palæologus recovered Constantinople from the Latins; and amidst his successes, found it necessary to his reputation to recall the bishop, and he accordingly fixed him in the metropolitan see; such was the ascendancy of Arsenius's character. Palæologus, however, still dreaded the youth, whom he had so deeply injured ; and, to prevent him from recovering his throne, he had recourse to the barbarous policy of putting out his eyes. Arsenius hearing this, excommunicated the emperor, who then exhibited some appearance of repentance. But the bishop refused to admit him into the church, and Palæologus meanly accused him of certain crimes before an assembly, over which he had absolute sway. Arsenius was accordingly condemned, and banished to a small island of the Propontis. Conscious of his integrity, he bore his sufferings with serenity; and requesting that an account might be taken of the treasures of the church, he shewed that three pieces of gold, which be had earned by transcribing psalms, were the whole of bis property. The emperor, after all this, solicited him

1 Dr. Salter's Preface to Whichcote's Letters appended to Dr. W's Aphorisms, 1753.—Neal's Hist, of the Puritans, vol. II.-Cole's MS Athenæ Cantab. in Brit, Mus.

. to repeal his ecclesiastical censures, but he persisted in his refusal ; and, it is supposed, died in his obscure retreat. Gibbon, with his usual suspicions respecting the piety and virtue of an ecclesiastic, endeavours to lessen the character of this patriarch.'

ARSENIUS, archbishop of Monembasia, or Malvasia in the Morea, was a learned philologist of the fifteenth century. He was the particular friend of pope Paul III. and wrote to him some very elegant letters. He submitted also to the Romish church, which gave so much offence to the heads of the Greek church, that they excommunicated him. There are of his extant, a “ Collection of Apophthegms,” printed at Rome, in Greek; and another “Colsection of Scholià on seven of the tragedies of Euripides," printed at Venice in 1518, 8vo; Basil, 1544 ; and again at Venice in 1533. His collection of Apophthegms, or « Præclara dicta Philosophorum,” has no date of year. The time of his death is uncertain, but he was alive in 1535. '

ARSILLI (FRANCIS), a celebrated poet and physician, flourished in the beginning of the sixteenth century, under the pontificates of Leo X. and Clement VII. He was a native of Sinigaglia, and after having studied at Padua, practised medicine at Rome; but, according to the eloge of his friend Paul Jovius, seldom passed a day without producing some poetical composition. He either possessed, or affected that independence of mind which does not ac*i Cave. Du Pin.-Milner's Church Hist. vol. IV. p. 16. ! Gen. Dict.Hodius de Græcis illust. Fabr. Bibl. Græc.-Saxii Onomast.

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