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and said through the fog, which hung, covenanted mercies are extended towards between them like blown flour,
her, and that she is a member of the flock “Is that Poorgrass with the corpse?” of Christ.” Gabriel recognized the voice as that of. The parson's words spread into the the parson.
heavy air with a sad yet unperturbed ca“The corpse is here, sir,” said Gabriel. dence, and Gabriel shed an honest tear.
“I have just been to inquire of Mrs. Bathsheba seemned unmoved. Mr. ThirdTroy if she could tell me the reason of ly then left them, and Gabriel lighted a the delay. I am afraid it is too late lantern. Fetching three other men to now for the funeral to be performed assist him, they bore the unconscious truwith proper decency. Have you the ant indoors, placing the coffin on two registrar's certificate ?"
benches in the middle of a little sitting“No," said Gabriel. “I expect Poor room next the hall, as Bathsheba directed. grass has that ; and he's at the . Buck's Every one except Gabriel Oak then Head.' I forgot to ask him for it." left the room. He still indecisively lin
“Then that settles the matter. We'll gered beside the body. He was deeply put off the funeral till to-morrow morn- troubled at the wretchedly ironical aspect ing. The body may be brought on to that circumstances were putting on with the church, or it may be left here at the regard to Troy's wife, and at his own farm and fetched by the bearers in the powerlessness to counteract them. In morning. They waited more than an spite of his careful maneuvring all this hour, and have now gone home.” day, the very worst event that could in
Gabriel had his reasons for thinking any way have happened in connection the latter a most objectionable plan, not with the burial had happened now. Oak withstanding that Fanny had been an imagined a terrible discovery resulting inmate of the farmhouse for several from this afternoon's work that might years in the lifetime of Bathsheba's un-cast over Bathsheba's life a shade which cle. Visions of several unhappy contin- the interposition of many lapsing years gencies which might arise from this delay might but indifferently lighten, and Ritted before him. But his will was not which nothing at all might altogether relaw, and he went indoors to inquire of move. his mistress what were her wishes on the Suddenly, as in a last attempt to save subject. He found her in an unusual Bathsheba from, at any rate, immediate mood : her eyes as she looked up to him anguish, he looked again, as he had were suspicious and perplexed as with looked before, at the chalk writing upon some antecedent thought. Troy had not the coffin-lid. The scrawl was this simyet returned. At first Bathsheba assent-ple one, “ Fanny Robin and child." Gaed with a mien of indifference to his briel took his handkerchief and carefully proposition that they should go on to the rubbed out the two latter words. He church at once with their burden ; but then left the room, and went out quietly immediately afterwards, following Ga- by the front door. briel to the gate, she swerved to the extreme of solicitousness on Fanny's account, and desired that the girl might be brought into the house. Oak argued upon the convenience of leaving her in
From Chambers' Journal. the waggon, just as she lay now, with her
THE LIFE OF FLOWERS. flowers and green leaves about her, merely Nulla planta sine animå (No plant wheeling the vehicle into the coach-house without a soul), Aristotle is said to have till the morning, but to no purpose., “It observed. The proposition can certainly is unkind and unchristian,” she said, " to not be maintained on scientific grounds; leave the poor thing in a coach-house all and even the great German poet, who night."
glorifies the flowers as "decked with the Very well, then,” said the parson. hues of a splendour divine,” is obliged at “And I will arrange that the funeral shall last to address to them the invocatioa : take place early to-morrow. Perhaps Mrs. Troy is right in feeling that we can
Weep, kindly children of the Spring, not treat a dead fellow-creature too
To you has Heaven a soul denied. thoughtfully. We must remember that Yet, for the imagination and the feelthough she may have erred grievously in ings, there is a sense in which the saying leaving her home, she is still our sister; is true. We are in the habit of imputing and it is to be believed that God's un-'to flowers a sort of personality, in a much
higher degree than to other inanimate of the woods. Atropa Belladonna! It things. It is not only that the love we bear suggests some Florentine countess of the then for their beauty, their frailty, and middle ages with dark, alluring eyes, who tenderness, lifts them above the category "wooed but to destroy,” subtle, poisonof things, to rank them in a higher; they ous perfumes exhaling from her luxuriant have so much more to say to the feelings, hair! and say it so much more specially, than But to descend from the realms of fancy any other class of natural objects, that to those of fact, there really are many we get to speak of them in terms de- phenomena connected with the life of scriptive not merely of form, size, colour, plants closely resembling those of animal, bearing, &c., but in such as attribute to not to say of conscious existence. The them personal character, human qualities pimpernel, prescient of the coming showand passions. Each one seems to breathe er, closes its petals an hour or two bea sentiment and speak a language of its fore it descends ; the sensitive plant own. We need not go to the poets for shrinks from a foreign touch, and huddles proof and illustration of our point; the lan- its pairs of leaflets together, as if cowerguage of common life will supply us with ing under the presence of a foe; the both. It does not restrict itself to such water-lilies, at the approach of evening, epithets as tall, stately, slender, and the draw down their white or yellow heads like, in referring to the flowers; we hear of beneath the surface, and so await the rethe flaunting foxglove, the lowly violet, the turn of day. Such phenomena are usumodest daisy, the deadly nightshade, the ally referred to automatic movement, weeping willow. Sometimes the name But call them what we will, they are the itself, without the addition of any adjec- first faint suggestions, the dim prophetive, bears witness to some single, dis- cies of that fully developed, glorious continct, and powerful impression of quali- sciousness, of which the complex and ties in the plant, other than those which magnificent phenomena of intellect and appeal to the senses. Day's-eye, eye- will are part and parcel. The plant-life bright, nightshade, are all of this class. is but the life of man in its elementary We know not how and when such names and undeveloped state. came into being; but we all feel their fit- We might go a little farther, without ness. They must have had some single losing hold of the ground of safe speculainventor, we suppose, but the universal tion. The flowers are planted by the acceptation of them is a proof of the roots fast down in the earth; yet, through sameness and universality of the impres- the stiffest clay and marl, winding round sion made by each individual flower rocks, displacing stones, they struggle upon the common heart and imagination. upwards to the light of day. By a similar Nay, sometimes even Science itself yields necessity, man, too, climbs upwards to the fascination, and in reconstructing towards the ideal. The soul is unconfloral nomenclature for its own purposes, tented with what is low and dark, and, like instead of conferring upon a plant a name the plant, struggles towards the heaven founded upon some characteristic pecul- of truth, and the light of God's presence. iarity (differentia, as the logicians say), Once more, how nearly the plantwhich shall serve as a basis for classifica- lise resembles our own in its periods, tion into order, genus, species, it does but its seasons, its epochs ! Like us, they translate the old poetical name, or embody have their period of childhood, in which the conception it conveys under a new they put forth buds only; in youth, image. Thus the magnificent plant with they attain to fuller beauty and strength; the lurid blossoms, and the black, lus- in the 'ripe autumn of their days, they cious, poisonous, berries, which pre- bring their fruit to perfection; and then sented itself to the imagination of our fade away. As their vital energies, beforefathers as some baleful shadow of tween the beginning and end of their night, beneath which "all life expires,” lives, first grow, and then decline, so each becomes in scientific terminology Atropa individual day witnesses a corresponding Belladonna, which we shall venture to waxing and waning. With sunrise, they translate as “Fate-fraught, beautiful awaken, bloom airily throughout the day'; Damsel.” Science recognizes the truth and, like us, shut their eyes wearily toof the idea expressed by the old name, gether, when the night is come. but does justice to the incomparable At the approach of Night all Nature beauty of this the largest of the English puts on an attitude of expectation. A herbaceous plants (not excepting the bur- deep silence settles down on lands, and dock), in size and aspect the real queen 'woods, and waters. Hushed are all the
living creatures that with song, or hum, leaves. The phenomena of plant-life, and thousandfold other voices of restless- then, during the night are diverse ; but ness, or passion, or pain, made vocal the all remind us of something human, and, hours of day. They all slumber : in the generally, of something connected with high grass, on lofty boughs, or whereso- sleep. ever they have built their houses, nests, But, again, this so-called sleep of plants, or other habitations. Over the whole extends to all their parts; to the foliageplant-kingdom, too, has the Night poured leaves for instance. In general, they out the cup of her drowsy enchantments. press more closely to the stem ; some Vanished are all the flowers which in the fold up like the fowers; others hang sunlight heamed upon us like merry, more loosely on to the stem, and lie one laughing, joyous human faces. Here and over another, just as our limbs are prone there, a single one lingers half-open in to dispose themselves when the tension the deepening shades. But most of them of the muscles is relaxed in slumber. In have folded their petals close together, this manner, the feather-like leaflets of and returned to the bud-like form of their the Mimosas, Acacias, Cassias, and of all infancy; just as human faces in sleep put similar Papilionaceous plants, arrange off the marks of thought, and care, and themselves by night; while the leaves of guilt, and wear once more childhood's the trefoil, and still more of the woodlook of innocence and calm.
sorrel, cling together by the edges, and This phenomenon is called the sleep of remain thus till daylight. plants, which, supposing that they really Besides these day-flowers, there are sleep, have certainly different manners of uight-flowers, chiefly tropical. These are sleeping. To speak familiarly, some go generally very short-lived. They will to sleep with their eyes open, others with bloom, and load the air with perfume a their eyes shut. They do not all fold their summer's night through, and then drop petals close together, in the manner we off. Of night-flowers, the most magnifi. have described; but all exhibit sleep- cent and striking is the Cereus grandiphenomena of some kind. Of those which flora, or Night-blowing Cereus. At about do thus close and assume the bud-form, midnight, its broad white blossoms, six the various species of the Composite family or eight inches in diameter, burst forth are the most numerous, and, by reason of so suddenly that you can almost see them their bright yellow and white, or wholly unfold. At the same instant, the conyellow flowers, the most conspicuous. servatory is filled with a delicious odour, Members of this family are the Dande- which we have heard compared to valion, Daisy, Hawkbit, "Hawkweed, and nilla. Cat's Ear. Our readers may soon see for We cannot end more satisfactorily this themselves (if they have not noticed al- little essay upon flowers than with Heinready) how the ligulate florets of the ray, rich Heine's beautiful words about their at the approach of night, close up over odours : “ Odours are the feelings of the tubular florets of the disk, like some flowers ; and as the human heart in the fond mother bending over a child, and night-time, when it believes itself alone lulling it to sleep.
and unlistened to, feels more profoundly But monopetalous flowers-those whose than by day; so the flowers, too modest corolla is formed of a single piece — can- to utter themselves in the light, seem to not do this. They keep their corolla open wait for the covering of darkness to by night, as by day; but they do not express their feelings completely, and wholly resist the soothing sleep-sugges- breathe them out in soft odours." tions of the darkness, nevertheless. See how the foxglove and the stately mullein droop their proud heads, like a man thoroughly tired by a long day's toil or travel; and how the Euphorbias, or
From The Saturday Review. the masses of tiny-flowered wood-galium,
SICILY. bend their blossoms towards each other, EVERY nation has some thorn in its like a group of children crouching to-side, and Italy has more than one ; but, gether for mutual warmth and comfort of all its thorns, Sicily is perhaps the during nocturnal cold and rain! So, too, most troublesome. Sicily has had a mellike children seeking protection beneath ancholy history, and has been going their mother's apron, the tender blos- downwards ever since it ceased to be the soms of the touch-me-not balsam at night- granary of Rome. It has been confall cover and hide beneath their own quered, pillaged, overrun by its numerous oppressors, but never has had any | Government to protect it, society in good done to it; and its last holders be- Sicily would be arrayed' altogether fore it was annexed to the kingdom of against the Italian Government. And Victor Emmanuel, the Neapolitan Bour-what troubles England with regard to bons, adopted the simple plan of allow- Ireland also troubles Italy with regard to ing it to do exactly as it pleased, and get Sicily. A Constitutional Government on as it best could with its inveterate must respect the forms of freedom, and abuses, provided it yielded a handsome as Sicily returns deputies to the Italian annual revenue for the King to spend. Parliament, these deputies, although poFrom time immemorial there has existed litically they may not belong to the party in Sicily a peculiar species of brigandage, in Sicily hostile to the Government, natwhich is even now one of the greatest urally seek to please their local friends powers in the island. The brigands are by calling out that Sicily is enslaved and not like the Neapolitan brigands. They oppressed whenever means adequately do not form bands, and swarm about dis- strong are taken to repress crime. It is tricts which they have made their own. not therefore to be wondered at that They are part and parcel of ordinary Sicily annoys and embarrasses each Sicilian society, and seem to pursue the Italian Ministry in turn; and of no part ordinary avocations of life in the four of the Italian Kingdom is it more true western provinces, and especially in the than of Sicily that Ultramontanism is for city of Palermo. When they are wanted Italy a political danger, and not merely a by their chiefs to act they are ready, and preposterous creed, and that it means the meanwhile they do a large amount of central energy of a great force which is robbery and murder on their own ac- doing its utmost to shake off a civilizacount in a quiet way, and with almost tion it detests, and to restore the beloved perfect impunity. If they commit smaller reign of every kind of abuse. crimes they are, indeed, punished when À writer in the Revue des deux Mondes, they are caught, but if they go high M. Louis-Lande, has collected from enough in crime to be tried by a jury, Italian sources many curious facts bearthey are acquitted as a matter of course. ing on the recent history of Sicily. BeFrom time immemorial, also, the brig. fore Garibaldi arrived in 1860 to make ands have been the allies of the clergy ; Sicily the basis of those operations which not always the political allies, for the were to end in imposing on Sicily the brigands joined Garibaldi with conspicu-Government of Victor Emmanuel, there ous enthusiasm, but the social and do- was a state of things, even in the bad parts mestic allies, and now they and the of the island, which had a strange outside priests are sworn friends, and hate with show of order. The police were the equal intensity the Italian Government. brigands, and the brigands were the poFormerly the Sicilian Church had a sort lice; and there was a kind of organized of independence of Rome, but since the robbery which made things not so very proclamation of the Pope's Infallibility bad for those who had no choice but to this independence has been abandoned, submit to be fleeced. The public force and the Sicilian priests are the obedient consisted of what were termed “compatools of the directing authorities of Ul- nies of arms," relics of the times when tramontanism. The soil of Sicily is for each feudal owner had his retainers to the most part the property of great hold. fight for him and carry on his quarrels ers, and such cultivation as is bestowed with his neighbours. The captain of a on it is the work of peasants who live in company undertook to be responsible towns and go out to labour for a few for the peace of a district. If any very hours in the day. There are no villages, great outrage was committed, or if the no farmhouses, and scarcely any roads, injured person had sufficient social standso that there is no rural population to ing to call with effect for redress, the withstand the brigands, or to be op- captain paid an indemnity. No one ever pressed by them. The great proprietors thought of following up the offender by have long been accustomed to live on any process of law; but if the criminal very comfortable terms with the brigands was one of the friends of the brigand and the priests, with both of whom they police, the captain repaid himself by made satisfactory bargains. Were it not spoiling as quickly as he could some inthat Eastern Sicily is more advanced in habitant of a neighbouring district, while civilization than Western, and that even if the criminal was a stranger trespassin Western Sicily there is some sort of ing on the sacred ground of the company, commercial life which asks the Italian I then he was killed off at the first oppor.
tunity, and the Judge of the district It is a bad state of things, but it must for the farce of having Judges was kept be said, in justice to the Italian Governup – was merely informed that there had ment, that it is a state of things which it been a death, and no more trouble was has worked hard to mend. General Meditaken. For eleven years the whole po-ci, one of Garibaldi's companions, was lice of Sicily was under the direction of sent to Palermo in 1868, and for four years a first-class brigand, who, until he got held the chief civil and military authority excited by adverse political news in 1859, in his hands, and made even the brig: was the mildest of men, and made every-ands respect him. But there were loud thing as comfortable as possible. There outeries against this unconstitutional was a sort of security under
his union of the civil and military powers, administration. Travellers paid to be and it unfortunately happened that some safe, and they were safe. And it was of the leaders of the Parliamentary Oponly towards the close of this supreme position who had joined in these outpolice-brigand's reign that he lost his cries came into office, and had to see the authority, because à brigand in a very result of their clamour in the resignation inferior position ventured to try to as- of General Medici, and in things getting sassinate him in open day as he was much worse in Palermo since he left. walking with his wife, and was allowed The Palermo brigands tried the experito escape with impunity. When Gari- ment in 1866 of an open outbreak against baldi arrived, the brigands generally the Government, and for about a week took his side, and, as a good way of the city was in their hands. But when a showing their enthusiasm for his sacred sufficient number of troops could be colcause, broke open all the prisons, and lected, the insurgents received so severe restored their suffering brethren to a a lesson that it will be with very great liberty by which they profited so much hesitation that they will again openly defy that Garibaldi's regiments were quite in- Italy: If Italy went to war and encounconveniently full of convicts. But Gari-tered disasters of any kind, a Sicilian inbaldi was not the sort of man to let his surrection would be a certainty. But, followers pursue their own devices; and as things are at present, there is more of while his Dictatorship lasted he made a sul.en opposition to everything the the brigands feel they had a master. At Government does than risk of a violent last, however, the Italian Government catastrophe. The law is looked upon as took possession of Sicily, and behaved as a foreign and evil invention by the true a regular government is bound to do. Sicilian, and he resists it as much as he It introduced. law and trial by jury, and dares, and gains glory and social esteem reforms in the police and in the magis- by the amount of resistance that he ventracy, and did its very best to put down tures to show. If a new law is introbrigandage by main force. But its suc- duced which is distasteful to the brig. cess has been very imperfect, for the ands and the priests, it is simply ignored, brigands gained more by having juries to unless the penalties of disregarding it try them than they lost by having soldiers are too heavy. The people of Palermo to hunt them down. It is indeed most for the most part decline to go through difficult to hunt brigands down in Sicily, the form of civil marriage, without which for almost every one is a brigand or a the religious ceremony has no legal effect. friend of a brigand, and no one would | The Government can make their childream for a moinent of doing anything dren illegitimate in point of law, but it so unhandsome, so dishonourable, and cannot make them marry otherwise than so un-Sicilian as helping Justice to catch as they please. In fact, it is not those and punish a murderer. There is, too, who are at present confronting it that strong local spirit in Sicily, and the the Government can hope to do much Sicilians are indignant that they have with, or reduce to order and obedience. not Home Rule after their own fashion, It is obliged to look to the future, to edand that strangers like the Italians per-ucate children, to make roads, to imsist in interfering and forbidding them to prove ports, to lay the foundations of a cut each other's throats. Sicily for the new era of material prosperity. It has Sicilians is the cry of the brigands; and done much more in this way for Sicily as Sicily for the Sicilians means Sicily than could have been expected, considfor the Ultramontanes, it is the cry of the ering the great disadvantages under priests too, and the sort of treason which which it has to work. It has built a Prince Bismarck so much dislikes is great number of schools, and got a fair quite the fashion in Sicilian pulpits. proportion of children to attend them;