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living creatures that with song, or hum, leaves. The phenomena of plant-life, and thousandfold other voices of restless- then, during the night are diverse ; but ness, or passion, or pain, made vocal the all remind us of something human, and, hours of day. They all slumber : in the generally, of something connected with high grass, on lofty boughs, or whereso- sleep. ever they have built their houses, nests, But, again, this so-called sleep of plants, or other habitations. Over the whole extends to all their parts; to the foliageplant-kingdom, too, has the Night poured leaves for instance. In general, they out the cup of her drowsy enchantments. press more closely to the stem ; some Vanished are all the flowers which in the fold up like the fowers; others hang sunlight heamed upon us like merry, more loosely on to the stem, and lie one laughing, joyous human faces. Here and over another, just as our limbs are prone there, a single one lingers half-open in to dispose themselves when the tension the deepening shades. But most of them of the muscles is relaxed in slumber. In have folded their petals close together, this manner, the feather-like leaflets of and returned to the bud-like form of their the Mimosas, Acacias, Cassias, and of all infancy; just as human faces in sleep put similar Papilionaceous plants, arrange off the marks of thought, and care, and themselves by night; while the leaves of guilt, and wear once more childhood's the trefoil, and still more of the woodlook of innocence and calm.
sorrel, cling together by the edges, and This phenomenon is called the sleep of remain thus till daylight. plants, which, supposing that they really Besides these day-flowers, there are sleep, have certainly different manners of uight-flowers, chiefly tropical. These are sleeping. To speak familiarly, some go generally very short-lived. They will to sleep with their eyes open, others with bloom, and load the air with perfume a their eyes shut. They do not all fold their summer's night through, and then drop petals close together, in the manner we off. Of night-flowers, the most magnifi. have described; but all exhibit sleep- cent and striking is the Cereus grandiphenomena of some kind. Of those which flora, or Night-blowing Cereus. At about do thus close and assume the bud-form, midnight, its broad white blossoms, six the various species of the Composite family or eight inches in diameter, burst forth are the most numerous, and, by reason of so suddenly that you can almost see them their bright yellow and white, or wholly unfold. At the same instant, the conyellow flowers, the most conspicuous. servatory is filled with a delicious odour, Members of this family are the Dande- which we have heard compared to valion, Daisy, Hawkbit, "Hawkweed, and nilla. Cat's Ear. Our readers may soon see for We cannot end more satisfactorily this themselves (if they have not noticed al- little essay upon flowers than with Heinready) how the ligulate florets of the ray, rich Heine's beautiful words about their at the approach of night, close up over odours : “ Odours are the feelings of the tubular florets of the disk, like some flowers ; and as the human heart in the fond mother bending over a child, and night-time, when it believes itself alone lulling it to sleep.
and unlistened to, feels more profoundly But monopetalous flowers-those whose than by day; so the flowers, too modest corolla is formed of a single piece — can- to utter themselves in the light, seem to not do this. They keep their corolla open wait for the covering of darkness to by night, as by day; but they do not express their feelings completely, and wholly resist the soothing sleep-sugges- breathe them out in soft odours." tions of the darkness, nevertheless. See how the foxglove and the stately mullein droop their proud heads, like a man thoroughly tired by a long day's toil or travel; and how the Euphorbias, or
From The Saturday Review. the masses of tiny-flowered wood-galium,
SICILY. bend their blossoms towards each other, EVERY nation has some thorn in its like a group of children crouching to-side, and Italy has more than one ; but, gether for mutual warmth and comfort of all its thorns, Sicily is perhaps the during nocturnal cold and rain! So, too, most troublesome. Sicily has had a mellike children seeking protection beneath ancholy history, and has been going their mother's apron, the tender blos- downwards ever since it ceased to be the soms of the touch-me-not balsam at night- granary of Rome. It has been confall cover and hide beneath their own quered, pillaged, overrun by its numerous oppressors, but never has had any | Government to protect it, society in good done to it; and its last holders be- Sicily would be arrayed' altogether fore it was annexed to the kingdom of against the Italian Government. And Victor Emmanuel, the Neapolitan Bour-what troubles England with regard to bons, adopted the simple plan of allow- Ireland also troubles Italy with regard to ing it to do exactly as it pleased, and get Sicily. A Constitutional Government on as it best could with its inveterate must respect the forms of freedom, and abuses, provided it yielded a handsome as Sicily returns deputies to the Italian annual revenue for the King to spend. Parliament, these deputies, although poFrom time immemorial there has existed litically they may not belong to the party in Sicily a peculiar species of brigandage, in Sicily hostile to the Government, natwhich is even now one of the greatest urally seek to please their local friends powers in the island. The brigands are by calling out that Sicily is enslaved and not like the Neapolitan brigands. They oppressed whenever means adequately do not form bands, and swarm about dis- strong are taken to repress crime. It is tricts which they have made their own. not therefore to be wondered at that They are part and parcel of ordinary Sicily annoys and embarrasses each Sicilian society, and seem to pursue the Italian Ministry in turn; and of no part ordinary avocations of life in the four of the Italian Kingdom is it more true western provinces, and especially in the than of Sicily that Ultramontanism is for city of Palermo. When they are wanted Italy a political danger, and not merely a by their chiefs to act they are ready, and preposterous creed, and that it means the meanwhile they do a large amount of central energy of a great force which is robbery and murder on their own ac- doing its utmost to shake off a civilizacount in a quiet way, and with almost tion it detests, and to restore the beloved perfect impunity. If they commit smaller reign of every kind of abuse. crimes they are, indeed, punished when À writer in the Revue des deux Mondes, they are caught, but if they go high M. Louis-Lande, has collected from enough in crime to be tried by a jury, Italian sources many curious facts bearthey are acquitted as a matter of course. ing on the recent history of Sicily. BeFrom time immemorial, also, the brig. fore Garibaldi arrived in 1860 to make ands have been the allies of the clergy ; Sicily the basis of those operations which not always the political allies, for the were to end in imposing on Sicily the brigands joined Garibaldi with conspicu-Government of Victor Emmanuel, there ous enthusiasm, but the social and do- was a state of things, even in the bad parts mestic allies, and now they and the of the island, which had a strange outside priests are sworn friends, and hate with show of order. The police were the equal intensity the Italian Government. brigands, and the brigands were the poFormerly the Sicilian Church had a sort lice; and there was a kind of organized of independence of Rome, but since the robbery which made things not so very proclamation of the Pope's Infallibility bad for those who had no choice but to this independence has been abandoned, submit to be fleeced. The public force and the Sicilian priests are the obedient consisted of what were termed “compatools of the directing authorities of Ul- nies of arms," relics of the times when tramontanism. The soil of Sicily is for each feudal owner had his retainers to the most part the property of great hold. fight for him and carry on his quarrels ers, and such cultivation as is bestowed with his neighbours. The captain of a on it is the work of peasants who live in company undertook to be responsible towns and go out to labour for a few for the peace of a district. If any very hours in the day. There are no villages, great outrage was committed, or if the no farmhouses, and scarcely any roads, injured person had sufficient social standso that there is no rural population to ing to call with effect for redress, the withstand the brigands, or to be op- captain paid an indemnity. No one ever pressed by them. The great proprietors thought of following up the offender by have long been accustomed to live on any process of law; but if the criminal very comfortable terms with the brigands was one of the friends of the brigand and the priests, with both of whom they police, the captain repaid himself by made satisfactory bargains. Were it not spoiling as quickly as he could some inthat Eastern Sicily is more advanced in habitant of a neighbouring district, while civilization than Western, and that even if the criminal was a stranger trespassin Western Sicily there is some sort of ing on the sacred ground of the company, commercial life which asks the Italian I then he was killed off at the first oppor.
tunity, and the Judge of the district It is a bad state of things, but it must for the farce of having Judges was kept be said, in justice to the Italian Governup – was merely informed that there had ment, that it is a state of things which it been a death, and no more trouble was has worked hard to mend. General Meditaken. For eleven years the whole po-ci, one of Garibaldi's companions, was lice of Sicily was under the direction of sent to Palermo in 1868, and for four years a first-class brigand, who, until he got held the chief civil and military authority excited by adverse political news in 1859, in his hands, and made even the brig: was the mildest of men, and made every-ands respect him. But there were loud thing as comfortable as possible. There outeries against this unconstitutional was a sort of security under
his union of the civil and military powers, administration. Travellers paid to be and it unfortunately happened that some safe, and they were safe. And it was of the leaders of the Parliamentary Oponly towards the close of this supreme position who had joined in these outpolice-brigand's reign that he lost his cries came into office, and had to see the authority, because à brigand in a very result of their clamour in the resignation inferior position ventured to try to as- of General Medici, and in things getting sassinate him in open day as he was much worse in Palermo since he left. walking with his wife, and was allowed The Palermo brigands tried the experito escape with impunity. When Gari- ment in 1866 of an open outbreak against baldi arrived, the brigands generally the Government, and for about a week took his side, and, as a good way of the city was in their hands. But when a showing their enthusiasm for his sacred sufficient number of troops could be colcause, broke open all the prisons, and lected, the insurgents received so severe restored their suffering brethren to a a lesson that it will be with very great liberty by which they profited so much hesitation that they will again openly defy that Garibaldi's regiments were quite in- Italy: If Italy went to war and encounconveniently full of convicts. But Gari-tered disasters of any kind, a Sicilian inbaldi was not the sort of man to let his surrection would be a certainty. But, followers pursue their own devices; and as things are at present, there is more of while his Dictatorship lasted he made a sul.en opposition to everything the the brigands feel they had a master. At Government does than risk of a violent last, however, the Italian Government catastrophe. The law is looked upon as took possession of Sicily, and behaved as a foreign and evil invention by the true a regular government is bound to do. Sicilian, and he resists it as much as he It introduced. law and trial by jury, and dares, and gains glory and social esteem reforms in the police and in the magis- by the amount of resistance that he ventracy, and did its very best to put down tures to show. If a new law is introbrigandage by main force. But its suc- duced which is distasteful to the brig. cess has been very imperfect, for the ands and the priests, it is simply ignored, brigands gained more by having juries to unless the penalties of disregarding it try them than they lost by having soldiers are too heavy. The people of Palermo to hunt them down. It is indeed most for the most part decline to go through difficult to hunt brigands down in Sicily, the form of civil marriage, without which for almost every one is a brigand or a the religious ceremony has no legal effect. friend of a brigand, and no one would | The Government can make their childream for a moinent of doing anything dren illegitimate in point of law, but it so unhandsome, so dishonourable, and cannot make them marry otherwise than so un-Sicilian as helping Justice to catch as they please. In fact, it is not those and punish a murderer. There is, too, who are at present confronting it that strong local spirit in Sicily, and the the Government can hope to do much Sicilians are indignant that they have with, or reduce to order and obedience. not Home Rule after their own fashion, It is obliged to look to the future, to edand that strangers like the Italians per-ucate children, to make roads, to imsist in interfering and forbidding them to prove ports, to lay the foundations of a cut each other's throats. Sicily for the new era of material prosperity. It has Sicilians is the cry of the brigands; and done much more in this way for Sicily as Sicily for the Sicilians means Sicily than could have been expected, considfor the Ultramontanes, it is the cry of the ering the great disadvantages under priests too, and the sort of treason which which it has to work. It has built a Prince Bismarck so much dislikes is great number of schools, and got a fair quite the fashion in Sicilian pulpits. proportion of children to attend them;
it has spent large sums on public works ; chance of displaying a political temper at it will soon open up the interior of the all. The masses have only just begun to island, which is at present almost un- will about politics, and nobody can pretend known to the dwellers on the coast; it is to state accurately what their will is, - to making Palermo an excellent commercial assert that it is not conservative, or to harbour, and a very considerable commer- maintain that the new depositaries of cial centre. In the meantime, if it only power will not come to much the same will abolish trial by jury and give up all conclusions as the old depositaries did. attempts to govern Sicily according to We are always hearing of socialism and Sicilian ideas, then, as M. Louis-Lande communisın, and the like ; but Jacqueries says, there may be hopes for Sicily even have occurred before without much politiin this generation. He invites his French cal result, and after all, outside England readers to look at Ireland and see the a heavy majority of the European peoples happy effects produced there by Coer- are in some form or other possessed of cion Acts. Perhaps Irishmen would not landed property. They have not shown think the comparison complimentary; as yet anything like a strong inclination but it is only when foreign critics ex- to be rid of individual rulers, or except in amine carefully into the difficulties under France to eject the families which hiswhich government is often actually carried toric events have placed in the position on that they can recognize that measures of hereditary leaders. Even in France, must often be taken which Liberal Gov- if the eldest Bourbon had been a person ernments honestly regret.
of modern ideas — a man, for example, like the head of the American branch of the Braganzas, the sort of King, Mr. Huxley would make, - he would be at
this moment on a throne, with the acquiFrom The Spectator. THE FUTURE OF ROYALTY.
escence of a large majority of the effect
ive males of France; and that he is not The Confirmation of Prince Frederick is, after all, very much an accident. His William Albert Victor of Hohenzollern, cousin of Aumale in his place would have the eldest son of the Crown Prince ofbeen Sovereign almost to a certainty. Prussia, would hardly have been de- The peoples may show an active disscribed in such detail, or by telegraph, like to Royalty one day, possibly will but for the dulness of the season, but show it, but they have bitherto been at still it has an interest of a kind for all most undecided, and a very little change speculative politicians. The lad is the might reawaken everywhere the loyalty future heir of the greatest throne now ex- which military success has reawakened isting in the world, but it may be forty in Prussia. It is hardly twenty-six years years before he ascends it, and it is dif- yet since belief in the Hohenzollern ficult to avoid a moment's speculation seemed extinct in Prussia, and now uniwhether, when his turn has arrived, the versal suffrage returns a nearly unthrone will be there to receive him. In broken majority of loyalists. The dispoother words, will the extraordinary ar- sition to make new dynasties is no doubt rangement under which the control, or extinct, but then that indisposition tends leadership, or presidency of most Euro- to protect rather than to assail the caste pean States is entrusted to a minute which actually possesses sovereign powhereditary caste, comprising at most only er, the peoples when they elect turning three families – the Catholic House, the to the old race with an impulse which is, Protestant House, and the House of we confess, to us almost unintelligible. Othman – endure through the active Only one new family now occupies a lives of two more generations? It is the throne, and that — the family of Bernacustom of the hour to think that it will dotte — has been, so to speak, adopted not, as it is the custom of the hour to and absorbed by the “European family;": fancy that Christianity is dying ; but we and in all Europe, with its roomful of are by no means confident that the be- Pretenders, there is not a new man who lief is founded upon anything better than can be fairly said to be, even secretly, a an à priori assumption that the age, i.e., pretender to a throne ; not a General, not the general temper of Western mankind, a statesman, not a demagogue. Bisis hostile to hereditary claims. No one marck for King is as impossible as Casteknows or can know very much of the lar, Gambetta more impossible than the general temper of European peoples, for Comte de Chambord, Ricasoli as comthey have only to-day begun to have a pletely out of the running for that prize
as Marshal von Moltke. For all that ap- world, who are with few exceptions the pears, the caste may endure, if it does picked men of professions twenty or not perish by decay, and we do not re- thirty times more numerous than the member a time when the signs of decay caste ; but if we remember the Emwere less visible to ordinary eyes. By peror of Germany, his eldest son, tie all the laws of physiologists, the Royal Emperor of Brazil, Archduke Albrecht of caste, which intermarries much, which is Austria, the late King of Denmark, the bred unavoidably in luxury, and which is Duc d'Aumale, and King Oscar, it seems at least as dissolute as any aristocratic useless to assert that the caste is mengroup, ought to be losing its physical tally worn out. They will have strength, vitality, but it is not losing it at all. The if their people will let them be, to go on Sovereigns, actual or potential, of Europe being; and as yet there is no proof quite would make a formidable squadron of beyond question that their people do not dragoons. The Emperor of Germany is intend to let them be, that they are seriperhaps the finest man physically who ously prepared to supersede them by has reigned since Charlemagne. Any other Chiefs. On the contrary, the eviColonel in the Guards would accept his dence, though too slight as yet for co.le son as a most hopeful recruit. His clusions, points to the theory that they, nephew, the Red Prince, is as formidable these Hereditary Royalties, are the only a hussar as ever rode. The Emperor of chiefs large populations will endure; that Austria is as stately of presence as an the alternatives lie between them ani ideal King. The eldest Wittelbach is a mere officers, selected almost by chance, wild rider, who delights in furious mid- and sent back by popular jealausy very night galloping. The Prince of Wales, quickly into obscurity. In the whole whose pedigree stretches, if not to Odin, series of Republics now covering both far past Egbert, rides 'as straight to Americas outside Brazil, there cannot be hounds as a professional whip. The said to be a single figure occupying anyKing of Italy, the coronet of whose ances- thing like the position that, for instance, tor was closed before Charlemagne died, Wellington occupied in this country; not is a successful chamois-hunter, a good one who is an accepted force, a personcavalry officer, and a man for whom age whose influence will endure for life. danger has an actual charm. His eldest Of course institutions can be made to son is as strong as himself; and his take the place of men, but the masses younger son, Amadeo, a man of reckless now assuming power may not be more personal gallantry. The eldest Roma- willing than the influential classes who noff is almost gigantic, and endures un- preceded them to build those institucomplainingly fatigues which try the con- tions up, may, on the contrary, be much stitutions of his aide-de-camps. The less willing to take all the trouble and Bourbons seem more worn, but one of make all the sacrifices which impersonal them, the Duc d'Aumale, is the very type institutions involve. The popular notion of the cultivated, but over-stern General; that they will, may prove to be an asDon Carlos is six feet one ; another, Don sumption, resting upon nothing better Carlos's soldier-brother, is a Murat ; a than the fact that for some years past the third, the Comte d'Eu, is believed in artisans of cities have been very eager Brazil to be a General of unusual capa- for more comfort, and much inclined to city; and a fourth served with distinction think that they can secure it, by chanthroughout the Franco-German war. It ging certain political and social arrangeis very well to write about crétins, but ments which they think stand in their there is no evidence whatever that the way. The artisans of the cities cannot caste is crétin physically, and not much govern Europe, and it is by no means that it is wearing out in mind. It is proved yet that if their desire for more badly bred, no doubt, particularly in comfort were abated by circumstances, Catholic countries, and has a certain lia- as has been the case to some extent in bility to brain-disease, while it is men- Great Britain, they would remain permatally bothered by the clash between nently desirous of a change the first steps modern ideas and the ideas it is conven- towards which would intensify all the ient for a reigning caste to hold ; but if evils of their condition. the whole of it were shovelled into our May not, however, to exhaust the own Upper House, the Peers as a body speculative possibilities, a movement would be abler than they are. Few of break out within the Royal Caste itself, the Royal Families may be able to com- a sort of epidemic of Abdication, propare with the great statesmen of the duced either by weariness, or discontent,