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WHAT THE HESSIANS OF 1776 WERE says, after several unsuccessful attempts, at THOUGHT OF BY THE FATHER OF Their last “I succeeded in securing an uninjured Country. — The prince of Hesse-Cassel sent captive, which to my inexpressible delight the following letter, dated Feb. 8, 1777, to the proved to be one of the ruby-throated species, commander of the Hessian troops in America : north of Florida. It immediately suggested

the most splendid and diminutive that comes Baron Hohendorff — At Rome, on my re- itself to me that a mixture of two parts of loaf turn from Naples, I received your letter of the sugar with one of fine honey, in ten of water, 27th December of the past year. With inex- / would make about the nearest approach to the pressible delight I learned of the courage dis- j nectar of flowers. While my sister ran to played by my troops at Trenton, and you can prepare it, I gradually opened my hand to look imagine my joy when I read that of 1950 Hes at my prisoner, and saw, to my no little amusesians engaged in the fight, only 300 escaped. ment as well as suspicion, that it was actually According to this, exactly 1650 have been playing possum,' feigning to be dead most slain, and I cannot recommend to your atten- skilfully. It lay on my open palm motionless tion too much the necessity of sending an for some minutes, during which I watched it exact list to my attorneys in London. This in breathless curiosity. I saw it gradually care is necessary, because the list sent to the open its bright little eyes to peep whether the English minister shows a loss of only 1455. way was clear, and then close them slowly as In this way I should suffer a loss of 160,050 it caught my eye upon it. But when the manflorins ! According to the account rendered ufactured nectar came, and a drop was touched by the lord of the treasury I should receive upon the point of its bill, it came to life very but 483,450 florins instead of 643,500 florins. suddenly, and in a moment was on its legs, You will see at once that it is their intention drinking with eager gusto of the refreshing to make me suffer a loss by an error in calcu- draught from a silver teaspoon. When sated lation, and therefore you must take the utmost it refused to take any more, and sat perched pains to prove that your list is correct and with the coolest self-composure on my finger, theirs false.

and plumed itself quite as artistically as if on The English Government objects that one its favorite spray. "I was enchanted with the hundred are wounded only, for which it can- bold, innocent confidence with which it turned not be expected to pay the same price as for up its keen black eyes to survey us, as much killed.

as to say, “Well, good folks, who are you?' Remember that of the three hundred Lace- By the next day it would come from any part dæmonians who defended the pass of Ther- of either room, alight upon the side of a white mopylæ, not one returned. I should be happy china cup containing the mixture and drink if I could say the same of my brave Hessians. eagerly, with its long bill thrust into the very

Tell Major Miedorff that I am extremely base. "It would alight on my fingers, and seem displeased with his behavior, to conduct into to talk with us endearingly in its soft chirps.” camp the three hundred which fled the battie. Mr. Webber afterward succeeded in taming field at Trenton. During the whole campaign several of the same species. He gave them he has not lost ten of his whole command. their liberty occasionally, and they returned

regularly. At the time for migration they left As a commentary to this outrageous letter, for the winter ; but the next spring they sought which indirectly asks the major to see that their old quarters, and accepted the delicious his men are butchered, it is necessary to state nectar kindly provided for them, and by de. that the count [landgraf] of Hesse-Cassel grees brought their mates. received for every man furnished by him

Popular Science Monthly. thirty thalers (about $21.00) and for every man killed in battle twenty pounds sterling, a sum which one hundred years ago equalled The Municipal Council of Geneva has at at least $140.00. This money was not devoted last decided on the question of paying legacy to the care of the unfortunate ones left desti- duty to the canton on the Brunswick bequest. tute by the death of their protectors, but it The cantonal authorities demanded twelve per went into the private purse of their illustrious to no less than 2,471,401f. This was com

cent. on the succession, which would amount lord.

bated by a section of the council, who argued A similar state of affairs existed in Braun- that the law exempting public institutions schweig, Hanau, Anspach, Waldeck and from paying a tax on legacies barred the claim Zerbst. According to Schlotzer's statistics of the canton. The matter then resolved itself there were 29,166 men sold, of whom 11,843 into a question if a municipality could be were killed.

termed "a public institution.” In its sitting Transcript.

of Saturday the council resolved, by 16 votes to 14, to pay the sum demanded. One member

abstained from voting, and nine were absent. TAMING THE HUMMING BIRD. — The ruby A third debate on the subject was, however, throat has sometimes been tamed. Mr. Web- demanded by M. Turritini on behalf of the ber, in his “Wild Scenes and Song Birds,” Administrative Council of the town.

Fifth Series,

No. 1583. — October 10, 1874.

From Beginning,
? Vol. CXXIII.


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From The Cornhill Magazine. A little respite for a little while,

Knowing all fair things brief,

And ours most brief, seeing our very smile, I.

'Mid these our fates forlorn, Saidst thou, The night is ending, day is near? And unto grief returneth, hardly born.

Is only child of grief,
Nay now, my soul, not so;
We are sunk back into the darkness drear,

And scarcely soon shall know
Even remembrance of the sweet dead day;

We will not have desire for the sweet spring, Ay, and shall lose full soon

Nor mellowing midsummer The memory of the moon,

We have no right to her The moon of early night, that cheered our The autumn primrose and late-flowering sunless way.

Pale-leaved inodorous

Violet and rose shall be enough for us :

Enough for our last boon,

That haply where no bird belated grieves, Once, from the brows of Might,

We watch, through some November afternoon,
Leapt with a cry to light
Pallas the Forefighter;

The dying sunlight on the dying leaves.
Then straight to strive with her
She called the Lord of Sea
In royal rivalry

Ah, heard I then through the sad silence fallFor Athens, the Supreme of things,

ing The company of crownless kings.

Notes of a new Orpheän melody, A splendid strife the Queen began,

Not up to earth but down to darkness calling, In that her kingdom making man

Down to the fair Elysian company, Not less than equal her own line

Ah then how willing an Eurydice Inhabiting the hill divine.

The kindly ghosts should draw, with noiseless Ah Fate, how short a span

hand, Gavest thou then to god and godlike man !

My shadowy soul into the shadowy land; The impious fury of the stormblasts now

For on the earth is endless winter come, Sweeps unrebuked across Olympus' brow;

And all sweet sounds, and echoes sweet, are

dumb. The fair Forefighter in the strife

ERNEST MYERS. For light and grace and glorious life They sought and found not; she and hers

Had yielded to the troublous years; No more they walked

with men, heaven's high interpreters.


I KNEW a face, though now I know it not ; III.

'Tis gone, but not the love that linked it to Yet, o'er the gulf of wreck and pain, How softly strange there rose again, It used to smile on me, but now its smile Against the darkness dimly seen,

Ne'er lights my dreary soul, and my lone heart Another face, another queen,

the while The Maiden Mother, in whose eyes Lives on its image. Once those sparkling The smile of God reflected lies;

eyes Who saw around her gracious feet

Had e'er a loving glance for me — each look a The maddening waves of warfare meet,

prize! And stretching forth her fingers fair

But now the sunshine's gone that beamed in Upon the hushed and wondering air

them; Shed round her, for man's yearning sight, And gone is all the daylight from my eyes, A space of splendour in the night.

which seem Are her sweet feet not stayed ? As though afflicted with the shading blight Nay, she is also gone, the Mother-maid :

Which coldly shades the colours warmed by And with her all the gracious company.

beauty's light. That made it hope to live, and joy to die. Those lips, which breathed of bliss — twin The Lord is from the altar gone,

rubies they His golden lamp in dust o'erthrown, Are sealed and cold; no thrilling accents The pealing organ's ancient voice

softly stray Hath wandered to an empty noise, From them as once they did. She is no more ! And all the angel heads and purple wings are Beauty hath called her sweetest image to its flown.


And all that dimpled symmetry of grace,

Ovalled by Nature into such a perfect face
Wherefore in this twice-baffled barrenness, Too fair, alas, to bloom on mortals' eyes —
This unconsoled twice-desolate distress, Now blossoms in the rip’ning light of native
For our barc world and bleak

skies. We only dare to seck

Tinsley's Magazine.

my lot.

From Nature. had been dimly advocated previously, PROFESSOR HUXLEY'S ADDRESS AT THE took the solid form which can only be


given to scientific ideas by the definite TOMATA, AND ITS HISTORY." At this period of the meeting of the nomena of the physical world, are capable

that vital phenomena, like all other pheBritish Association I am quite sure it is of mechanical explanation, that they are hardly necessary for me to call to your reducible to law and order, and that the minds the nature of the business which

study of biology, in the long run, is an takes place at our sectional meetings. We there register the progress which application of the great sciences of physscience has made during the past year, we are indebted for first bringing that

ics and chemistry. The man to whom and we do our best to advance that idea into a plain and tangible shape, I progress by original communications and free discussion. But when the honour- am proud to say, was an Englishman, able task of delivering this evening's lec- clearly to explain the mechanism of the

William Harvey. Harvey was the first ture was imposed upon me, or rather as circulation of the blood, and by that remy friend the President has just said, markable discovery of his, and by the when I undertook to deliver it, it occurred clearness and precision with which he to me that the occasion of an evening reduced that process to its mechanical lecture might be turned to a different purpose, that we might with much pro-scientific theory of the larger part of the

elements, he laid the foundation of a priety and advantage turn our minds back to the past to consider what had

processes of living beings — those probeen done by the great men of old, who cesses, in fact, which we now call pro" had gone down into the grave with of development he, further, first laid the

cesses of sustentation—and by his studies their weapons of war," but who had

foundation of a scientific knowledge of fought bravely for the cause of truth

reproduction. But besides these great while they yet lived — to recognize their merits, and to show ourselves duly grate-another class of functions — those of the

powers of living beings, there remains ful for their services. I propose, therefore, to take a retrospect of the condition nervous system – with which Harvey of that branch of science with which it did not grapple. It was, indeed, left for is my business to be more or less familiar himself tells us, was mainly stimulated in

a contemporary of his, a man who, as he -- not to a very remote period, for I shall these inquiries by the brilliant researches go no further back than the seventeenth

of Harvey - Réné Descartes — to play century, and the observations which I shall have to offer you will be confined a part in relation to the phenomena of almost entirely to the biological science

the nervous system, which, in my judg. of the time between the middle of the ment, is equal in value to that which seventeenth and the middle of the eigh- tion. And when we consider who Des

Harvey played in regard to the circulateenth centuries. I propose to show what great ideas in biological science think it is a truly wonderful circumstance

cartes was, how brief the span of his life, I took their origin at that time, in what that this man, who died at fifty-four, manner the speculations then originated

should be one of the recognized leaders have been developed, and in what relation they stand to what is now understood of philosophy — that, as I am informed to be the body of scientific biological the first and most original mathematicians

by competent authority, he was one of truth. The middle of the sixteenth cen- who has ever lived, and that, at the same tury, or rather the early part of it, is one of the great epochs of biological science, time, the fertility of his intellect and the It was at that time that an idea, which grasp of his genius should have been so

great that he could take rank, as I beAddress by Prof. Huxley, F.R.S., at the British lieve he must, beside the immortal HarAssociation, Belfast. Aug. 24.

vey as a physiologist. And you must

recollect that Descartes was not merely, from these soft white masses – for such as some had been, a happy speculator. they are — there proceed cords which He was a working anatomist and physiol- are termed nerves, some of which nerves ogist, conversant with all the anatomical end in the muscles, while others end in and physiological lore of his time, and the organs of sensation. That bare and practised in all methods by which ana- bald statement of the fundamental comtomical and physiological discoveries position of the nervous system will be were then made ; and it is related of him enough for our present purpose. - and a most characteristic anecdote it The first proposition culled from the is, and one which should ever put to works of Descartes which I have to lay silence those shallow talkers who speak before you, is one which will sound very of Descartes as a merely hypothetical familiar. It is the view, which he was the and speculative philosopher — that a first, so far as I know, to state, not only friend once calling upon him in Holland definitely, but upon sufficient grounds, begged to be shown his library. Des- that the brain is the organ of sensation, cartes led him into a sort of shed, and, of thought, and of emotion using the drawing aside a curtain, displayed a dis- word “organ” in this sense, that certain secting-room full of bodies of animals in changes which take place in the matter course of dissection, and said, “There of the brain are the essential anteceis my library.” It would take us a very dents of those states of consciousness long time if I were to attempt to pursue which we term sensation, thought, and the method which would be requisite for emotion. Nowadays that is part of poputhe full establishment of all that I am lar and familiar knowledge. If your about to say; that is to say, if I were to friend disagrees with your opinion, runs quote the several passages of Descartes' amuck against any of your pet prejudices, works which bear out my ascription to you say, “ Ah ! poor fellow, he is a little him of the several propositions which I touched here ;” by which you mean that am going to bring before you. And I his brain is not doing its business propmust beg you, therefore, to be so good as erly, and, therefore, that he is not thinkto take it on my authority for the pres- ing properly. But in Descartes' time, ent, although for the present only, that and I may say for 150 years afterwards, there are to be found clearly expressed the best physiologists had not reached in Descartes' works the propositions that point. It remained down to the which I shall proceed to lay before you, time of Bichat a question whether the and each of which I shall compare as we passions were or were not located in the go on, as briefly as may be, with the exist- abdominal viscera. This, therefore, was ing state of physiological science, in a very great step. It is a statement order that you may see in what position which Descartes makes from the beginwith respect to physiology - ay, even to ning, and from which he never swerves. the advanced physiology of the present in the second place, Descartes lays down time — this man stood. And, happily, the proposition that all the movements the matters with which we shall treat are of animal bodies are effected by the such as to require no extensive knowl- change of form of a certain part of the edge of anatomy - no more, in fact, than matter of their bodies, to which he apsuch as, I presume, must be familiar to plies the general term of muscle. You almost every person.

must be aware of this in reading DesI think I need only premise that what cartes ; you must use the terms in the we call the nervous system in one of the sense in which he used them, or you will higher animals consists of a central ap- not understand him. This is a proposiparatus, composed of the brain, which is tion which is now placed beyond all doubt lodged in the skull, and of a cord pro- whatever. If I move my arm, that moveceeding from it, which is termed the ment is due to the change of this mass of spinal marrow, and which is lodged in fesh in front called the biceps muscle : the vertical column or spine, and that it is shortened and it becomes thicker,

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