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iron, and in the spring he set out the fore, the monks retained, on account of his plan of the foundations and dug out the lively genius and good reputation. And to ground. He was, in fact, the chief of the him, and to the providence of God, was the workmen, and he made a fine building of execution of the work committed. And he re
The central tower of the church, siding many days with the monks, and carefully however, began to crack, and Ædnothus surveying the burnt walls in their upper and had to report the failure to Aylwine, who some time conceal what he found necessary to
lower parts, within and without, did yet for agreed to find the money for the restora- be done, lest the truth should kill them in
The labourers approached the their present state of pusillanimity. tower by the roof, and, going stoutly to But he went on preparing all things that work, razed it to the very ground, dug out were needful for the work, either of himself the treacherous earth, made the founda- or by the agency of others. And when the tion sure, and again “rejoiced to see the monks began to be somewhat comforted, he daily progress of the work." What a ventured to confess that the pillars rent with contrast all this is to our present condi- the fire, and all that they supported, must be tion and practice! The nobleman “at- destroyed if the monks wished to have a safe tracted to the bishop by the sanctity of being convinced by reason, and wishing, above
and excellent building. At length they agreed, his deportment;" the memory of the all things, to live in security. vow after recovery; the “twelve breth- And now he addressed himself to the proren in one village who have cast behind curing of stone from beyond the sea. He their backs the lusts of the flesh ;” the constructed ingenious machines for loading fear of the “cold breath of the devil ;” a' and unloading ships, and for drawing cement bishop who could make a plan, and the and stones. He delivered moulds for shaping "man faithful in works ; " the clever- the stones to the sculptors who were assemness and alacrity of the labourers, and bled, and diligently prepared other things of
the same kind. their “rejoicing in the progress of their work,” are such a beatific vision that our retrospective view confirms the holy Os- thus continued the old Athenian method,
William of Sens, the master-workman, wald's prescient declaration, Verily, and "assigned to the individual workthis is another Eden, preordained for
men their appropriate task.” In the men destined for the highest heaven;" a remark that has not ached our ears
summer of the third year William had a
bad fall with the scaffolding, and being respecting the scene of any recent archi- "sorely bruised, gave up the work, and, tectural effort. Such was the system of artistic prac- France. And another succeeded him in
crossing the sea, returned to his home in tice that for six centuries served to make the charge of his works, William by England the finest scene of architectural display that the world ever saw. The, but in workmanship of many kinds acute
name, English by nation, small in body, workmen worked "after their manner ;
and honest.” We quote two more lines they were totally without extraneous ar- for the sake of the italics : tistic tutelage, and the people understood and appreciated the work with no
Now let us carefully examine what were the more consciousness or study than would works of our mason in this seventh year from be required for ordinary speech and con- the fire. versation. The masons were of course In this eighth year the master erected eight largely employed on ecclesiastical build- interior pillars. ings; not under the patronage of the clergy, however, but on the contrary Our readers will probably accept the rather patronizing them, as we find in a above as conclusive evidence that the very interesting episode of ecclesiastical master-workman was a fact in English and architectural history:
architectural history, and that he is not a
* crotchet.” William of Sens was no In the year of Grace one thousand one hun-'compiling, copyist. He was a man of dred and seventy-four, by the just but occult thoughtful independent mind, and was judgment of God, the Church of Christ at one of the earliest to adopt the pointed Canterbury was consumed by fire. [The arch. We hear nothing of his drawings, monks with due deliberation took good coun: but only of his moulds for shaping the sel how they might repair the church, but the masons, English and French, whom they con
stones which he himself delivered to the sulted, varied in their advice.] However, workmen. there had come a certain William of Sens, a
Proceeding a step further, to the reign man active and ready, and, as a workman, most of Henry III., the culminating period of skilful both in wood and stone. Him, there- early pointed art, we find the famous
Bishop, Robert Grosseteste, saying in a About twelve years before his death, the letter, that —
king, being at his palace of Westminster, went
into the monastery church, and so forth to St. In all kinds of workmanship the master of Edward's shrine within the same; where he the work and workmen has the full power, as pointed with his staff the length and breadth indeed it is his duty, to investigate and ex- l of his sepulture, and commanded a mason to aminc, with the utmost diligence, the proper- be called, namei Thirske, at that time mister. ties, the different qualities, and the suitability mason of the chapel of King Henry V., who, alike of his materials and of the implements by the commandment of the king and in his necessary for the work; and to make trial of presence, marked out the length and breadth the skill, diligence, and trustworthiness of of the said sepulture with an iron pickis which those that serve under him, so that he may he had brought with him. correct whatever is wrong or faulty. And this he should do, not only through others, but, Thirske, the master-mason, was then when it is needful, with his own hand.
evidently a working man. A document This “
master of the work and work was then prepared, " containing the will men” is the kind of man that built the and mind of the king in the devising of choir at Westminster.
his sepulture," and two messengers being In mediæval times, when travelling was sent to Jolin Essex, head marbeller in difficult and “good society” was rare," Powlys Chirchard,” he and Thomas the high-placed well-born churchmen Stevyns, coppersmith, of Gutter Lane, would require some gentle pleasant rec- went to the king at Westminster, "and reation to enjoy in concert with their bargained with him for his tomb to be neighbours and subordinates both cleri- made, and received of the king in part cal and lay. Building just served this payment xis. in grotes." The association purpose, and the amount of noble work for a king was doubtless very low, but, that these men left as records of their after all, both kings and people in those “piety” makes it clear that art lost noth- times did find their common interest and ing by the absence of the drawing-mas- delight in noble works of art and not in ter and his staff. In course of time a vile destruction. guild or craft arose called the free- Again, at Winchester, Walkelyn, the masons, who were especially employed bishop, began to rebuild the cathédral in on sacred buildings. These men A.D. 1079, and he built most nobly. His families of masons, and the secrets or the transepts are for impressiveness quite technicalities of their craft were, just as unsurpassed, but his name is little known in ancient Greece, transmitted by inheri- in comparison with that of William of tance; a true vernacular that never be- Wykeham, who was bishop some three came taught or formed itself into a centuries later, and who is held to be the science, but was a simple living art that architectural hero of the Winton church. constantly advanced. Hope tells us He was a man of business, clerk of the that
king's works, clever at accounts, princely Many ecclesiastics of the highest rank, in his munificence, and a friend of learnabbots, prelates, and bishops, conferred ad ing, great in his designs, but an abominditional iveight on the order of freemasons by able builder. The work at Winchester becoming its members, themselves superin- that he directed is but a desperate coltending the construction of their churches. lapse of art. He touched nothing that he The masons, when they sought employment, did not deface. The west front is, for had a chief surveyor who governed the whole its size, the poorest in the kingdom. troop, and appointed one man as warden over The interior of the nave is a distinguished nine others. They built temporary huts round the site of their work, regularly organized specimen of that mechanical and costly their different departments, and sent for fresh commonplace which quickly charms the supplies of men as they were required.
vulgar. If our readers will compare this
fashionable work with the grand and Thus the surveyors and the wardens simple “Norman” transepts, or with the were again the “master-workmen who noble nave of Romsey Abbey, they will assigned to each workman his appropri- begin perhaps to question whether New ate task.” In 1412 King Henry VI. be- College is a sufficient expiation for such came a mason, and spared no pains to be wholesale and irreparable vandalism. a master of the art. The good example of Wykeham, however, was not the "archithe king was followed very sensibly by tect " who designed the work, as is so many of the nobility, and we subsequent generally supposed, nor yet, of course, ly find that the king had perfect aptitude the master-mason. He was probably the and thorough knowledge of the craft: - intelligent, and unpoetical, and inartis
tic operarius or chief director of the him a pension of a hundred maravedis annually king's masons, “whose special duty it for the rest of his lifc; and the fact proves, Í was to make arrangements with the think, the king's sense of the value of a fine master of the works."
church, and also somewhat as to the degree of In art there is no patronage or servi-l importance which its designer may have attude. The interest and delight are the king. There can be no doubt that he had common to the king, the public, and the been acting there both as sculptor and archihandicraftsman. Like poetry and science, tect; and if from a modern point of coco he art must be free, and in its own sphere lost caste as an architect, he, no doubt, grined it supreme, or otherwise its spirit fades, as an artist. llere, as at Lugo, the master of and energy and life are lost. Rank, the works was appointed at a salary for his royalty, and riches may become the defer- lifetime, and held his ofîce precisely in the ential' sympathizing friends of art, but same way as do the surveyors of our own not its patrons or its fashionable guides. cathedrals at the present day. So when the evil influence of which
Mr. Street gets very much misled by Wykeham was the early representative his nomenclature. The king gave the became paramount, and ostentation was pension not to the “designer, but to the promoted above excellence, art retired, carver of the doorways. He would cerand the masons soon adopted tie me- tainly have been perplexed if some chanical and basty method of design now draughtsman bad been presented to him called the perpendicular and Tudor as the “ designer” of the work. The styles. In these there is abundance of carver was, of course, the designer; and idea and of able workmanship, but the Matthew wrote his name upon the lintels ideas are superficial, and the work, because he “ did the work.” Ferdinand though neat and scientific, has neither appreciated well the relative importance individuality nor true poetic feeling. All of himself and Matthew, and be paid a that the courtiers and the men of trade proper tribute to the mason's great su. required was prompt achievement and periority. He saw that heaven itself had vainglorious display, regardless of the recognized the “master” and that the dignity or degradation of the workmen. workman who conceived and wrought the Dudley and Empson, and their royal mas- "glory” of St. James was a creator, and ter, are the moral illustrations of the in mental rank, in permanence of power Tudor style. But we need not limit our inquiry to above the patronizing recognition of a
and influence, and in nobility of work, England. Let us now cross the sea to king. We do not hear that Phidias “atSpain, and learn what Mr. Street can tell tained to importance” when “lie was us about mediæval architects. In Chap- recognized” by Pericles. Titian is said ter XXI. of his interesting work on to have been "recognized” by Charles . Gothic Architecture in Spain," he says, V. in a becoming way. “ Almost all the architects or masters of the works referred to in all the books I
In A.D, 1175, Raymundo, a Lombardo have examined seem to have been lay- contracted to complete in seven years cer
tain works in the cathedral at Urgel, and was men, and just as much a distinct class as to be paid by a canon's portion for the rest of architects are at the present day.”. This his life. The mode of payment, the engageis, unfortunately, their only similarity; ment for life, and the absence of any reference they are “distinct,” but in a totally oppo- to a master of works, lead, I think, to the consite way. Raymond of Montforte, for clusion that he was, in truth, the architect, instance, when employed by the Chapter but [this “but” is very amusing] -- but that of Lugo, A.D. 1129, “ was retained solely he also superintended the execution of the works, for the work there.” His salary was an- and contracted for the labour. nual ; his engagement was for life. He
In A.D. 1203, one Pedro de Cumba is “mais called in the contract not "architect," gister et fabricator," and there can be no doubt,
therefore, that he not only designed but executed but “master of the works " -
the work, which, as we go on, we shall find to The title which, in course of time, was usually have been a not very uncommon custom. 10 given to the architect; though I am not in-sancta simplicitas !) clined to think that it makes it impossible that Jacobo de Favariis, one of the archihe should also have worked with his own tects employed at the rebuilding of the hancis. Indeed, the very next notice of an Cathedral of Gerona, architect is of one who certainly did act as sculptor on his own works. This was Mat- was appointed in A.D. 1320-22, at a salary of the is, master of the works at Santiago Ca- two hundred and fifty sueldos a quarter, and thedral. Ferdinand II., A.D., 1168, grantedl under an agreement to come from Narbonne six times a year. Here we seem to have a And thus we see why "architecture in distinct recognition of a class of men who the modern sense” is “certainly supewere not workmen, but really and only super- rior” to the mediæval work of which it is, intendents of buildings — in fact, architects in as our historian announces, but a “copythe modern sense of the word.
ing or imitative style." Mr. Street's The word architect, then, has an an- notions of superiority and his opinions cient sense to contrast with its modern about mediæval deans and chapters apmeaning, and, with Mr. Street's assist pear hardly to be justified by architectural ance we shall find that the old archi- evidence ; but on the other hand his testitects were persons of entirely different mony is so frank and candid, so valuable character and functions from their mod- and copious, that there is some difficulty ern namesakes.
in knowing how to select and when to About the same time Jayme Fabre appears make an end. We venture one or two to have been one of the greatest architects of quotations more:his day. It is impossible to read the account
In A.D. 1518, Domingo Urteaga contracted of the completion of the shrine of Sta. Eulalia for the erection of a church at Cocentaina in at Barcelona without feeling that Fabre super- Valencia. He bound himself to go with his intended a number of masons, and acted, in wife and family to Cocentaina. He was to be fact, as their foreman ; though this is no rea- every day at the work, having half an hour for son why he should not also have designed the breakfast and an hour for dinner in winter, work they executed.
and an hour and a half in summer. In the same year, at San Felice, Gerona, Pedro Zacoma, master of the works of the Clearly arrangements for a working steeple, was not to undertake any other works man, and without permission. He was to be paid by the day, with a yearly salary in addition. He
Though Urteaga was evidently only a foremust have been employed constantly at the man of the works, there is no reference to any church, and in such a building a man could superintendent or architect, and nothing is hardly have been constantly employed without said about any plans which are to be followed. absolutely working as a mason.
I conclude, therefore, that in this case the
foreman of works was really the architect. This is conclusive. We have seen Urteaga was to do all that a “master” ought that the old “ architect" and master- in the management of such a work, and was to builder was a workman, that he designed receive each day for himself five sueldos, and the work, that he personally superintend- tices, the former to have three sueldos each, ed it, and that he was constantly em- and the latter one and a half. ployed upon it, and now Mr. Streét adds that this could hardly have been the cas Of Guillermo Sagrera, who was both without his actually working as a mason. builder and architect of the Exchange at
In A.D. 1416, Guillermo Boffiy, master Palma, Mr. Street remarks that of the works of the cathedral at Gerona, proposed to build a single nave of the is no trace whatever of any architect or super
He presented the plans himself, and that there same width as the choir and its aisles. intendent over him. It is doubted by some The chapter very prudently sought the whether this mixture of the two offices of advice of practical and able men on this builder and architect was ever allowed in the bold, daring project, and a dozen archi- middle ages, but Sagrera's agreement is contects were asked for their opinions upon clusive as regards this particular case, and we oath. Of these
may be tolerab.y sure that such a practice must
have been a usual one, or it would hardly have All but two called themselves “ lapicida.” been adopted in the case of so important a One was “magister sive sculptor imaginum ; building. and two only call themselves masters of the The result that we arrive at after this résumé works. Their answers seem to prove that of the practice of Spanish architects is certhey were all men of considerable intelligence. tainly that it was utterly unlike the practice of
There cannot be a shadow of doubt that at our own day. the beginning of the fifteenth century most of the superintendents of buildings, in Cataluña at After this long excursion - and thanks any rate, were sculptors or masons also. Their to Mr. Street for his instructive guidance own description of themselves is conclusive on – let us return to England. In bis val. this point; at the same time their answers are uable contribution to "Gleanings from all given in the tone and style of architects ; Westminster Abbey,” Mr. J. H. Parker and it is quite certain that had there been a
says : superior class of men - architects only in the modern sense of the word — the dean and This point of the necessity of a gang of chapter would have applied first of all to them. skilled workmen accustomed to work together for the production of the great works of med. Jone hundred florins in gold, and he was iæval art has not been suficiently attended not to leave Florence. His order and his to. The fables of the freemasons have pro business aim were, not to make a work duced a natural reaction, and the degree of of art, but studiously to satisfy a yain truth which there is in their traditions has ambition. But the Athenians, when consequently been overlooked. that each of our great cathedrals had a gang they built the Parthenon, never dreamed of workmen attached to it in regular pay, that any good could be attained by rivalalmost as a part of the foundation, for the ling the Rameseum and the Pyramids in fabric fund could not be lawfully devoted to magnificence and height. They sought any other purpose ; and these workmen be- to exceed, not others, but themselves : came by long practice very skilful, more espe- “and, as the works arose inimitable in cially the masons or workers in, and the carvers form and grace, the makers vied to excel of, freestone, as distinct from the labourers, the handiwork' itself by the beauty of who merely laid the rubble-work for the foun- their art." dations and rough part of the fabric. From various indications it would seem that there
Giotto then made a superficial false was a royal gang of workmen in the king's pay design after the manner of a wall-decoby whom the great works ordered, and perhaps rator, and not of a chief builder or a masdesigned by the king himself (such being the ter-mason ; preparing carefully a model complete diffusion of architectural taste and of the tower and marking in the joints knowledge), were constructed. The wills of and colour of the marble-work. The panHenry VI. and Henry VII. seem to show that elling and mosaic-work are an elaborate these monarchs were at least, to some extent, and costly copy of the cheap facile architects themselves; they give the most painter's work, itself an imitation, that minute directions for the works to be done Giotto used to cover his inferior wall just as any architect might have done. St. George's, King's College, and Henry the Sev surfaces and enframe his fresco pictures. enth's Chapel, were all probably built by the It is “exquisite, but it is not architecroyal gang of masons.
ture. It is, in fact, an early exhibition
of the “imitative style.” The enrichWith this we close our English evi- ment which should be a developed grace dence from mediæval work and records. and an occasional efflorescence on a huge We have continuous proof that in the building like this tower, is, in fact, a west of Europe and throughout the mid- complete casing, and reveals, sufficiently dle ages the master-workman was the de- for Giotto's credit, though to Florentine signer of the buildings. Even so late as disgrace, that the tower was built as it the seventeenth century, when the Re- was ordered for the sake of the decoranaissance was developed nearly to the full, tion, instead of decoration being used we find that Wadham College Chapel was with modest reticence to glorify the designed and built by a small gang of tower. The masonry is but a scaffoldworking masons brought from Somerset-ing or core. The panelling is made like shire. But in Italy, three hundred years joiner's work, and, as is right in panelbefore, a draughtsman was employed to ling, but very wrong in towers, suggests make a fine design for foolish work, and extension and tenuity and lightness of then the decadence of architecture had material with corresponding sacrifice of begun. Giotto, the most inspired as solid power and stability. This, with the well as most extensive painter of his age, tall proportions of the panels, gives a was a wall-decorator, a master-workman, frail and insecure effect to the whole surfull of fancy, and with visions of human face. The marble-work appears to have sentiment and duty constantly before him. I no adequate support, but to be in danThese he soaked into the wet plaster, and ger, from the slightest settlement, of as fresco pictures they remain his nobler Making off. The small mosaic-work upon kind of workmanship. But in a con- the window-jambs and other parts is but ventional and decorative painter's way a record of much futile drudgery. The he also imitated wooden panelling and tracery in the topmost windows and the marbles and mosaic-work, and when the tall twisted columns are both bad and Florentines, smitten with vanity and frivolous, and the large high projecting pride of purse, resolved to make a tower, parapet and cornice are entirely dispronot simply as a thing of beauty, but “to portioned to the light feeble-looking exceed in magnificence, height, and ex- work on which they are constructed. cellence of workmanship, whatever of the The general effect is elegant" and delikind had been achieved by Greeks and cate, but for the dignity and power that a Romans,” Giotto was engaged as the buildling of this height and size should "capo maestro," at a yearly salary of manisest, Giotto's tower is far below the