« PreviousContinue »
Durham had their origin. To these succeed the lives of the Bishops of Lindisfarne; those of the Bishops of Chester le Street, to which place the corpse of St. Cuthbert was removed, and a new cathedral was there founded by Eardulph, as being nearer, the royal residence, then established at York.
The body of St. Cuthbert being again removed on account of a Danih invasion, and settled at Durham, the circumstances of the building and endowing that cathedral are related, with the lives of the Bishops, to the conqu-ft; the effects which that event had on the ecclefiaftical system of this realm, and the rights claimed by the Bimop of Durham in his double capacity of Prince and Baron, are considered and explained; and the lives of the Bishops, from Walcher, are continued to Bishop Egerton, with whose accellion, in the year 1771, this volume terminates. At the end of each Bishop's life, from Walcher downward, is a list of the officers of the fee. A list is likewise given for the year 1785, with anoiber of benefices and promotions in the gift of the Bishop of Durham, and the names of the incumbents in the same year.
On the whole, Mr. Hutchinson has acquitted himself of his task in a manner that does honour to his industry, and no dilo credit to his abilities : nor was that task an easy one; the vaft power of the clergy in former times making them parties in all important matters of state as well political as ecclesiastical. Hence the history of the Bishops of Durham is in some measure the national history of the times in which those Bishops lived.
The notes, with which this work is illustrated, are many them curious and interesting, and the portraits of the bishops with which it is decorated, are in general neatly engraved. There are also iwo different views of the Abbey of Lindisfarne ; that on the north, which is but an indifferent performance, has, we think, appeared before, in one of Mr. Hutchinson's publications. Divers seals, coats of arms, and pieces of antiquity, are neatly cut in wood.
In order to give our Readers a specimen of Mr. Hutchinson's style, we have transcribed part of the character of B ihop Anthony Beak:
' In taking a review of this prelate's character, it must be remembered that he enjoyed a plurality of cures, and was fecretary to the king, at the time he was advanced to the fee of Durham. The first inítance in which he shewed the boldness of a refolute judgment, was in his answer to the arch bishop's demand of excommunicating his convent. His fortitude, when beset by rufhans at Rome, who broke into his apartment, to revenge the insults committed by his fervants, and his answer to King Edward I. which firit occafioned his lovereign’s hatred, ihewed his unshaken magnanimity of soul. Had his other principles been as noble, his character would have been as illustrious as his life was magniscent. But his pride was prevalent in every action of his life ; it was the bias by which every part of his
conduct was influenced; and that pride affronted, brought forth ima placable aversion, as has been seen in his contests with the convent, in which it is evident he could not brook the indignity of contradi&tion ; so highly did he estimate his own confequence. He was pleased with military parade and martial discipline; but though he was desirous of a retinue of soldiers about him, he affected a feeming indifference and negligence towards them; and shewed no concern whilst the greatest nobles bent the knee to him, and oficers of the army waited standing as he fac*. He thought nothing too dear, that could contribute to his public fame for magnificence; as an instance of which, Graystanes tells us, one time, in London, he paid 40s. for forty fresh herrings (now about 8o1. fterling money) when they had been refused by the most opulent persons of the realm, then assembled in parliament. At another time he bought a piece of cloth, which was held up at so bigh a price, that, proverbially, it was said to be too dear for the Bishop of Durham, which he ordered to be cut into cloths for his fumpter-horses. He seized the king's palfrey as a deodand, it having killed its rider in the way to Scot, land, within the liberties of his palatinate. His breach of confidence in depriving the son of Vesey, and selling the barony of Alnwick, was derived from a wound his pride received in some contemptuous jest the bastard put upon him, which he never could forgive ; and, in gratifying his resentment, he was guilty of the basest perfidy to his deceased friend. He was so impatient of rest, that he never took more than one seep, saying, it was unbecoming a man to turn from one side to the other in bed. He was perpetually either riding from one manor to another, or hunting or hawking. Though his expences were very great, he was provident enough never to want money. He always role from his meals with an appetite: and his continence was so singular, that he never looked a woman full in the face; whence, in the translation of St. William of York, when the other bishops declined touching the saint's remains, through a consciousness of having forfeited their virginity, he alone boldly handled them, and aslisted the ceremony with due reverence.
• He died at Eltham, 3d March 1310, having fat 28 years, and was buried in the church at Durham, in the ealt transept, near the ferretory of St. Cuthbert, between the altars of St. Adrian and St. Michael the archangel, contrary to the custom of his predeceffors, who, out of respect to the body of St. Cuthbert, never suffered a corpse to come within the edifice. It is said they dared not bring the bishop's remains in at the church door, but a breach was made in the wall to receive them, near the place of interment. He died possessed of great riches, with several jewels, vessels of silver, horses, and costly vestments, which he bequeathed to the church. Grce.
Art. IX. The Carse of Stirling : an Elegy. 4to. 15. Edin
burgh printed; fold by Johnson, London. TH
HE Author of the poem before us has, it seems, long in
dulged himself with contemplating the beauties which the Carse * of Stirling (or in other words the view from Stirling Castle) presents to the attentive observer. Stirlingshire, befide being the theatre of many important events, and the residence of several Scottish monarchs, is a situation remarkable for the striking beauties of its surrounding scenery. These circumstances, our Author supposes, would have been a sufficient in. ducement for the Muses to have celebrated so distinguished a place. "They,' says he, however, continued to absent themselves, and the windings of the Forth, with all its uncommon scenery, have remained unfung. On bis return to Stirlingshire, after several years absence, he ftill found his favourite scene new and delightful; and, glancing over the pictures of his youthful painting, he observed, or fancied he observed, certain tints, which he conceived might please, and passions which he thought might interest.-He has perhaps deceived himself; but in whatever light he may appear as a poet, he Aatters himself, that, among other motives for publishing The Carse of Stirling, the following will at least screen him from public censure.
A love of pleasure and dissipation has now so completely diffused itself through all ranks, that agriculture and country improvements seem but secondary concerns with our gentlemen of landed property. Instead of promoting an honeft emulation by their bounty and patronage, the labours of an industrious peasantry are confidered in no other light than as the means of procuring luxuries at the tables of their pampered landlords. Instead of kindling a spirit of enterprize, by their presence and example, the metropolis of these kingdoms teems with men, who yearly doze away their time, and squander their incomes amidit a round of follies, which, while they enervate the mind, bury the importance of a landed gentleman in complete obscurity. To such the Author of this little piece means not to address himself; but, though he may despair of a change of manners among the diffipated and the unthinking part of his countrymen, the picture of rural life he has attempted to draw, may not perhaps be unwelcome to those, who, uncontaminated by example, point at higher pleasures than the steams of a ball-room, or the squeaking of an opera.'
The style of the poem is plaintive and simple : and the numbers, in general, are smooth and harmonious. As a specimen,
* Carse, as we are told in a note," signifies a low flat country, of a rich clayey soil.'
we have selected the following ftanzas, where the poet, after having described the beauties of the place, laments the propensity of its inhabitants for travelling fouthward :
• Lur'd by the sound of Pleasure's baleful strains,
The ancient seats of song and pastoral love.' Many parts of the performance remind us of Gray's manner, which our Author seems to have imitated with some success. The concluding stanza, where our Poet fupplicates the guardian angel of the land, is an instance:
• Yet let him + wander blameless by some stream,
And mild contentment claims him for her own.' 2- nu Art. X. The Structure and Physiology of Fishes explained, and com
pared vith those of Man and other Animals; illustrated with Figures. By Alexander Monro, M. D. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and of the Royal Society, and Professor of Phyfic, Anatomy, and Surgery, in the University of Edinburgh. Royal Folio. zl. 25. Boards. Edinburgh, Elliot; London, Robinsons. 1785. TOMPARATIVE anatomy, when pursued with a design of
improving and elucidating that necessary branch of medical knowledge, physiology, is a study which merits the peculiar attention of every rational physician ; and we are happy to find that it has so much engaged the thoughts of a gentleman, whose accuracy in observing, and acuteness in reasoning, render his works truly valuable and interesting. As we are sensible that Dr. Monro's character and reputation cannot be heightened by any commendation of ours, we shall briefly give an account of the observations of this ingenious anatomist, on a subject which, though fightly treated by former naturalifts, is, nevertheless, curious and important.
The circulation is the first object of our Author's enquiry. The heart of fishes is simple, consisting only of one ventricle and one auricle. From the ventricle one ariery is sent out, which carries the blood to the gills; and thence the blood paffes * Scotia.
+ The bard himself, L 3
to all the other parts of the body, without the intervention of a second ventricle as in man and animals with warm blood. This was known before, but Dr. Monro traces, with great accuracy, the whole course of the blood, and makes several curious and interesting observations, which had hitherto escaped the notice of the ichthyologist.
At the beginning of the branchial are three semilunar valves, the middle parts of which, analogous to the corpuscula morgagni, are much thicker than in man, and illustrate the use of these organs in him, as they evidently prevent the return of the blood into the heart when the artery is in action. Between these valves and the cavity of the ventricle, a cylindrical canal is interposed, the coats of which have the same muscular texture as the ventricle itself; whence, and the contraction of these muscles, which co-operates with that of the ventricle, our Author is led to perceive, more evidently than in the human body, the ́very great analogy between the structure of the arteries and that of the ventricle. The whole mass of the blood is conveyed by the branchial artery to the surface of the gills, which, in a skate, according to the Doctor's calculation, is upwards of 151 square feet : for on each fide are four double gills, or gills with
two sides each, and one single gill; that is, 18 sides or surfaces ''on which the branchial artery is spread out; on each of these ndes are fifty divisions or doublings of the membrane of the gills; each division has on each side of it, 160 subdivisions, folds, or doublings of its membrane, che length of each of which is oneeighth of an inch, and its breadth about one-fixteenth of an inch ; so that in the whole gill there are 144,000 subdivisions or folds, the two sides of each of which are together equal to the 64th part of a square inch, and in the whole gill 2250 square inches, or 15 square feet. After an injection, the Doctor has ften, with a microscope, that the whole of this membranous sura face bas been covered with a beautiful net-work of exceedingly minute veffelso
Our Author next traces the blood from the gills back to the heart. In the uppermost gill, which is fingle, there is but one confiderable vein. In each of the four double gills are two, an upper and an under one joined together by a large transverse Canal. From the trunks of these branchial veins the blood passes directly to all the other parts of the fish, by vessels analogous to the branches of our Aorta, and which the Doctor calls arteries. From the extremities of these several arteries the blood is returned to the heart, by veins which in general resemble our Vena portarum and Vence cave. Of these arteries and veins we cannot poflibly give our readers any adequate idea without the plates.
From reviewing the circulating system, the Doctor makes, among others, the following principal conclusions : 7