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St. Edmondsbury 3,500










Newcastle, Tyne, 3,600
Canterbury 3,500

Poor's rates at the end of the reign of Charles II. amounted to 665,302 7. at 1776 to 1,556,8044 Query, What do they amount to at prefent?

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In 1727

In 1741







104,754 167,595

















In 1749

In 1754


In 1760 In 1774 In 1781 422,760 Nothing, we are told, gave foreigners a higher idea of the power of England than the fudden force raifed by Elizabeth to oppose the Spanish Armada; yet, our author adds, it is not too much to expect that Lancashire alone, confidering its numerous manufactories, and extenfive commerce, is now able to make a more steady exertion, amidft modern warfare, than the whole kingdom was in the time of Elizabeth. The traders of Liverpool alone, fitted out at the commencement of the late war with France, between the 26th of Auguft 1778, and 17th April 1779, 120 privateers, armed each with ten to 30 guns, but moftly with 14 to 20. From an accurate lift containing the name and appointment of each, it appears that these privateers measured 30,787 tons, carrying 1,986 guns, and 8,754 men. The fleet fent against the Armada in 1588, measured 31,685 tons, and was navigated by 15,272 feamen. From the efforts of a fingle town, we may infer, that the private ships of war formed a greater force during the war with the colonies, than the nation, with all its unanimity and zeal, was able to equip under the potent government of Elizabeth.






We fhall only add, that the revenue of the poft-office, which perhaps gives a more accurate idea of the ftate of commercial


tranfactions in Britain than any other fact whatever, which, during the four last years of King William's reign, amounted on an average to 83,319, arofe by a gradual progreffion till in the year 1784, it amounted to 452,4041. An-


ART. V. Transactions of the American Philofophical Society at Phila. delphia. Vol. II. Continued from Page 144..


A new Method of placing a meridian Mark. By David Rittenhoufe, Efq.


HOUGH a fixed mark is not abfolutely neceffary where an obferver is poffeffed of a good tranfit inftrument, the pofition of which may be examined and accurately corrected by the paffage of a known fixed ftar, yet it is convenient, faves much trouble, and fometimes prevents mistakes. The mark which Mr. R. here recommends is an eafy one; but we fear that, from its being fixed on brick work, it may be apt to vary a little by the fhrinking of the building; and, the diftance of the mark from the tranfit inftrument being only 36 feet, a very small inclination either to the eaft or weft may be attended with great error in the inftrument. The advantages of it, however, are material; it is perfectly free from parallax, it is not affected by the undulation of the air, and it can eafily be illuminated in the night, should any accident happen that might render an adjustment of the tranfit inftrument neceffary.

In the appendix to this article, Mr. R. recommends the ufing fpiders filaments inftead of wires, or filk threads, in his tranfit telescope; the fineft wire, or filk, he finds, obfcures a fixed ftar, especially if it have a great declination, for feveral feconds. Obfervations on a Comet. By the Same.

Mr. R.'s firft obfervation on this comet was made January 21, 1784, when its longitude was 15° of Pifces, and latitude 16° 6' fouth. By fubfequent obfervations he found that it paffed the ecliptic on the 31ft in 25° of Pifces, and on the 17th it was in 29° of Pifces, with 13° 10' north latitude. From the best obfervations our Author could make (for the comet appeared very, faint, and was always involved in day-light, moon-light, or a thick atmosphere), he concludes that it paffed its perihelion about January 20, its diftance from the fun being nearly 0.7 of the earth's diftance from the fun. The place of its afcending node is in 25° of Taurus, and the inclination of its orbit to the ecliptic 53°.

Aftronomical Obfervations. By Chriftian Mayer.

Thefe obfervations were made for the purpose of determining the motion of the fixed ftars between themselves. Our aftronomical readers are, no doubt, acquainted with the obfervations REV. March, 1787.


of Halley, who, about the year 1719, by a careful comparison of Flamstead's obfervations with thofe of Ptolemy, respecting a few fixed ftars, viz. Sirius, Arcturus, Aldebaran, &c. firft difcovered that these stars had a proper motion of their own. Other aftronomers, pofterior to Halley, in inveftigating the proper motion of the fixed ftars, compared their own obfervations with thofe of the ancients. This method requires the labour of prolix and intricate calculations, and, after all, remains liable to doubts and uncertainty, on account of the inaccuracy of ancient obfervations, and the errors of inftruments. Mr. Mayer justly concludes, that, when the difference of right afcenfion and declination between any two ftars is very fmall (i. e. a few feconds), any variation arifing from the preceffion of the equinoxes, the obliquity of the ecliptic, the aberration of light, or from any other caufe depending on the mutable ftate of the air, muft equally affect them both: he has therefore, in the space of two years, made about two hundred obfervations on fome of the principal fixed ftars, and other fmall ones near them, which he calls comites, or attendants. The difference of right afcenfion and of declinations between thefe ftars and their attendants are accurately taken. Such of thefe differences as he has obferved (of which correfponding obfervations have been recorded by Flamstead in his hiftory of the heavens, or by other obfervers), are inferted in a table with Flamstead's and other obfervations in a collateral column. By which the variation of the difference of right afcenfion and declination now, and at other times, is readily feen. For inftance, by this table it appears that the difference of right afcenfion between Arcturus and his attendant was, on February 14, 1690, 5" of time, the attendant preceding; and their difference of declination 26' 30" of space, according to Flamstead: on May 20, 1765, their difference of right afcenfion 4", the attendant following, and their difference of declination 23′ 58′′.8, according to Mafkelyne: on May 18, 1776, difference of right afcenfion 6", attendant following, and difference of declination 23′ 37′′. 3, according to Mayer. Though this method is eafy, yet it requires the affiftance of other obfervations, in order to determine whether one or both stars move, and also to ascertain the quantity and direction of motion in each. Might not these circumftances be obtained by the obferved diftances between the ftars in queftion and others in their neighbourhood?

This paper was fent to the Society in Latin; the original is printed, with the English; but we are at a loss to know the reafon why the two laft paragraphs fhould have been omitted in the tranflation they contain a piece of very neceffary information, that ought always to accompany accounts of observations, namely, the fituation of the obfervatory where they were made,

which is in 49° 27′ 50′′ north latitude and o 34′ 6′′ caft longitude from Greenwich.

Obfervations of a Solar and Lunar Eclipfe. By M. M. De


An eclipfe of the fun at Newport in the State of Rhode Island, Oct. 27, 1780. Beginning

10h 58′ 52" A. M. True time. լի 40' 41"


Latitude of the place of obfervation 41° 30′ 20′′ N. An eclipfe of the moon at the fame place, Nov. 11, 1780. 10 24 39" True time. 13h 16′ 57′′



Account of the Tranfit of Venus over the Sun, June 3, 1769, observ ed at Newbury in Maffachusetts. By the Rev. Samuel Williams, A. M.

2h 30′ 14′′ Apparent time. 2 48 44

Latitude of the place of obfervation 42° 37′ N. Longitude- 4h 42′ 30′′ Weft from Greenwich. An Account of the Tranfit of Mercury over the Sun, Nov. 9, 1769, at Salem in Maffachusetts. By the Same. 2h 54′ 40′′ Apparent time. Ingrefs {External contact 2 56

No latitude and longitude of the place. Obfervation of the Eclipfe of the Sun, Nov. 6, 1771, at Bradford in Maffachusetts. By the Same. Beginning 1h 36′ 42′′ Apparent time.


3 47 2
Aftronomical Obfervations. By D. Rittenhouse.

The firft fet of thefe obfervations is on the geocentric place of the new planet (Herschel's) through two retrogradations, viz. from its being ftationary in 7° 21′ 18′′ on October 15 1782, to being stationary again 3° 15' 0" on March 10, 1783: and from its being ftationary in 11° 53′ 10′′ on October 15* 1783, to its being stationary again March 14, 1784, in 7° 46′ .The oppofition in 1782, was in 5° 2′ 30′′; that in 1783, in 9° 47′ 25′′.

External contact

Ingrefs Internal contact

Then follows an obfervation of the tranfit of Mercury over the fun, Nov. 12, 1782, at Philadelphia.

Internal contact

Egrefs {Internal contact

9 40 O
10 51 30
10 57 35

Greateft diftance of from fun's limb 31".

External contact 9h 34′ 50′′


Mean time.

We fear that there is a typographical error in one of these dates perhaps in the former.

Q 2


The next feries contains eighteen obfervations of the right afcenfion and declination of the new planet, which Mr. R. calls Pluto the fame number of the right afcenfion and declination of Geminorum; fourteen of the right afcenfion of the new planet, eight of the right afcenfion of ♪ Geminorum, two of the right afcenfion of y, one of ε, 12 of Č, and 4 of μ Geminorum, and four of the right afcenfion of Sirus.

Thefe are a valuable collection, as they afford data for determining the theory of the new planet, which, though already eftablished by feveral foreign aftronomers, may require a few corrections. The obfervations begin Jan. 29, 1784, and are continued to April 2, 1786.

* See the Appendix to the 68th volume of our Review, p. 630. and Appendix to volume 70. p. 519.

(To be continued in our next.)


ART. VI. A Treatise upon Gout, in which the primitive Caufe of that Disease, and likewise of Gravel, is clearly ascertained; and an eafy Method recommended by which both may be with Certainty prevented or radically cured. Small 8vo. 2s. 6d. Cadell. 1786. malady, in the whole catalogue of diseases, has had more attention paid to it than the gout; nor has any fubject been fo variously treated by medical writers, in all ages and countries; fcarce any two of them concurring in affigning to it the fame caufe, or prefcribing the fame method of cure.


We have here a new theory of the disease, established on probable grounds, and a method of cure recommended in confequence of it. The importance of the gout (for it is attended with both pain and danger, and great numbers are afflicted with it) demands attention; we fhall, therefore, endeavour to lay before our readers a general view of this Author's opinions.

After a confutation of former theories, our Author affirms calcareous earth in the fluids to be the predisponent caufe of Gout. What induced him to form this opinion, we learn from the following paragraph: the confent between gout and gravel, with the frequency of their concurring together, at first led us (he frequently fpeaks plurally) to imagine that they originated from the fame caufe. The remedies, which are of fervice in the one, proving beneficial in the other, gave ftrength to the fufpicion. Farther inveftigation convinced us, that they depend upon the fame circumftances, are capable of being prevented by the fame means, and of being cured by the fame remedies."

Having determined that a preternatural quantity of calcareous earth is the cause of these two difeafes, he proceeds to fhew in what manner, a quantity of calcareous matter, fufficient to produce them, can be conveyed into the circulation.


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