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In 1675


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In 1695
In 1704
In 1715
In 1721
In 1727
In 1741
In 1749
In 1754



St. Edmondsbury 3,500 Lynn 4,200 Oxford

3,200 Colcbefter


3,600 Leicester

3,000 Newcastle, Tyne, 3,600 Salop

3,000 Canterbury

3,500 Poor's rates at the end of the reign of Charles II. amounted to 665,302 1. at 1776 10 1,556,8041. Query, What do they amount to at present? The Navy of England contained,


In 1588

31,385 15,272
In 1660


69,681 30,951
In 1688 101,032

112,400, 45,000
228,215 17,000

In 1760


422,760 104,978 Nothing, we are told, gave foreigners a higher idea of the power of England than the sudden force raised by Elizabeth to oppose the Spanish Armada; yet, our author adds, it is not too much to expect that Lancashire alone, considering its numerous manufactories, and extensive commerce, is now able to make a more steady exertion, amidit modern warfare, than the whole kingdom was in the time of Elizabeth. The traders of Liverpool alone, fisted out at the commencement of the late war with France, between the 26th of Auguft 1778, and 17th April 1779, 120 privateers, armed each with ten to 30 guns, but mostly with 14 to 20. From an accurate lift containing the name and appointment of each, it appears that these privatcers measured 30,787 tons, carrying 1,986 guns, and 8,754 men. The feet fent against the Armada in 1588, measured 31,685 tons, and was navigated by 15,272 feamen. From the efforis of a single town, we may infer, that the private fhips of war formed a greater force during the war with the colonies, than the nation, with all its unanimity and zeal, was able to equip under the potent government of Elizabeth.

We all only add, that the revenue of the post-office, which perhaps gives a more accurate idea of the state of commercial


In 1774
In 1781

transactions in Britain than any other fact whatever, which, during the four last years of King William's reign, amounted on an average to 83,3191. arose by a gradual progression till in the year 1784, it amounted to 452,4041.


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Art. V. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society at Phila.

delphia. Vol. II. Continued from Page 144..

A Ś TRONOMICAL PAPERS. A new Method of placing a meridian Mark. By David Ritten.

house, Esq. THOUGH a fixed mark is not absolutely necessary where an

observer is poflefled of a good tranfic instrument, the position of which may be examined and accurately corrected by the paffage of a known fixed ftar, yet it is convenient, faves much trouble, and sometimes prevents mistakes. The mark which Mr. R. here recommends is an easy one; but we fear that, from its being fixed on brick work, it may be apt to vary a little by the shrinking of the building; and, che distance of the mark from the transit inftrument being only 36 feet, a very small inclination either to the east or west may be attended with great error in the instrument. The advantages of it, however, are material; it is perfe&ly free from parallax, it is not affected by the undulation of the air, and it can easily be illuminated in the night, lould any accident happen that might render an adjustment of the tranfic instrument necessary.

In the appendix to this article, Mr. R. recommends the using spiders filaments instead of wires, or folk threads, in his transit telescope ; the finest wire, or filk, he finds, obscures a fixed ftar, especially if it have a great declination, for several seconds.

Observations on a Comet. By the Same. Mr. R.'s first observation on this comet was made January 21, 1784, when its longitude was 15° of Pisces, and, latitude 16° 6' south. By subsequent observations he found that it paffed the ecliptic on the 31st in 259 of Pisces, and on the 17th it was in 29° of Pisces, with 13° 10 north latitude. From the best observations our Author could make (for the comet appeared very faint, and was always involved in day-light, moon-light, or a thick atmosphere), he concludes that is passed its perihelion about January 20, its distance from the sun being nearly 0.7 of the earth's distance from the sun. The place of its ascending node is in 250 of Taurus, and the inclination of its orbit to the ecliptic 53°

Aftronomical Observations. By Christian Mayer. There observations were made for the purpose of determining the motion of the fixed stars between themselves. Our astronomical readers are, no doubt, acquainted with the observations Rev. March, 1787.



of Halley, who, about the year 1719, by a careful comparison of Flamstead's observations with those of Ptolemy, respecting a few fixed stars, viz. Sirius, Arcturus, Aldebaran, &c. first dir.covered that these stars had a proper motion of their own. Other astronomers, posterior to Halley, in investigating the proper motion of the fixed stars, compared their own observations with those of the ancients. This method requires the labour of prolix and intricate calculations, and, after all, remains liable to doubts and uncertainty, on account of the inaccuracy of ancient obfervations, and the errors of inftruments. Mr. Mayer juftly concludes, that, when the difference of right ascenfion and declination between any two stars is very small (i. e. a few seconds), any variation arising from the precession of the equi. noxes, the obliquity of the ecliptic, the aberration of light, or from any other cause depending on the mutable ftate of the air, must equally affect them both: he has therefore, in the fpace of two years, made about two hundred observations on some of the principal fixed stars, and other small ones near them, which he calls comites, or attendants. The difference of right ascension and of declinations between these stars and their attendants are accurately taken. Such of these differences as he has observed (of which corresponding observations have been recorded by Flamstead in his history of the heavens, or by other observers), are inserted in a table with Flamstead's and other observations in a collateral column. By which the variation of the difference of right ascension and declination now, and at other times, is readily feen. For instance, by this table it appears that the difference of right ascenfion between Arcturus and his attendant was, on February 14, 1690, s" of time, the attendant preceding; and their difference of declination 26' 30" of space, according to Flamstead : on May 20, 1765, their difference of right afcenfion 4", the attendant following, and their difference of declination 23' 58".8, according to Maskelyne : on May 18, 1776, difference of right ascension 6', attendant following, and difference of declination 23' 37":3, according to Mayer. Though this method is eafy, yet it requires the affiftance of other observations, in order to determine whether one or both stars move, and also to ascertain the quantity and direction of motion in each. Might not these circumstances be obtained by the observed distances between the stars in question and others in their neighbourhood ?

This paper was sent to the Society in Latin ; the original is printed, with the English ; but we are at a loss to know the reason why the two last paragraphs should have been omitted in the translation: they contain a piece of very neceffary information, that ought always to accompany accounts of observations, namely, the ficuation of the observatory where they were made,

2 48 44

which is in 49° 27' 50" north latitude and on 34' 6" east longitude from Greenwich. Observations of a Solar and Lunar Eclipse. By M. M. De

Grauchain. An eclipse of the sun at Newport in the State of Rhode Illand, O&t. 27, 1780. Beginning

10" 58' 52"' A. M. True time. End

zb 40' 41" Latitude of the place of observation 41° 30' 20" N. An eclipse of the moon at the same place, Nov. 11, 1780.

Beginning 10h 24' 39" True time.

136 16' 57" Account of the Transit of Venus over the Sun, June 3, 1769, obseru

ed at Newbury in Massachusetts. By the Rev. Samuel Wil. liams, A. M.

External contact Ingress Internal contact

21 30' 14" Apparent time. Latitude of the place of observation 41° 37' N. Longitude — 45 42' 30" Weft from Greenwich. An Account of the Transit of Mercury over the Sun, Nov. 9, 1769, at Salem in Massachusetts

. By the Same. Ingrers { Internal contact

26 54' 40" Apparent time.

2 56 No latitude and longitude of the place. Observation of the Eclipse of the Sun, Nov. 6, 1771, at Bradford

in Masaihusetts. By the Same. Beginning 1h 36' 42" Apparent time. End

3 47 Astronomical Observations. By D. Rittenhouse. The first set of these observations is on the geocentric place of the new planet (Herschel's) through two retrogradations, viz. from its being stationary in 9° 21' 18" soon O&tober 15 *, 1782, to being stationary again 3° 15' 0" s on March 10, 1783: and from its being stationary in 1° 53' 10" on October 15*, 1783, to its being stationary again March 14, 1784, in 7° 46' o's. The opposition in 1782, was in 5° 2' 30"; that in 3783, in 9° 47'25“

Then follows an observation of the transic of Mercury over the sun, Nov. 12, 1782, at Philadelphia. Ingress { Enternal contaa

9h 34 50
9 40

Mean time,
Egress {External contadt

10 51 30

10 57 35 Greatest diftance of % from sun's limb 31".

• We fear that there is a typographical error in one of these dates T perhaps in the former.



The next series contains eighteen observations of the right ascension and declination of the new planet, which Mr. R. calls Pluto : the same number of the right ascension and declination of Ở Geminorum ; fourteen of the right ascension of the new planet, eight of the right afcenfion of Geminorum, two of the right ascension of y, one of t, 12 of 5, and 4 of Geminorum, and four of the sight ascension of Sirus.

There are a valuable collection, as they afford data for de. termining the theory of the new planet, which, though already established by several foreign * afronomers, may require a few corrections. The observations begin Jan. 29, 1784, and are continued to April 2, 1786.

* See the Appendix to the 68th volume of our Review, p. 630. and Appendix to volume 70. p. 519.


(To be continued in our next.) R

Art. VI. A Treatise upon Gout, in which the primitive Cause of

that Disease, and likewise of Gravel, is clearly ascertained ; and an easy Method recommended by which both may be with Certainty prevented or radically cured. 'Small 8vo. 2s.6d. Cadell. 1786. O malady, in the whole catalogue of diseases, has had more

attention paid to it than the gout; nor has any subject been so variously treated by medical writers, in all ages and countries ; Scarce any two of them concurring in affigning to it the same cause, or prescribing the same method of cure.

We have here a new theory of the disease, established on probable grounds, and a method of cure recommended in consequence of it. The importance of the gout (for it is attended with both pain and danger, and great numbers are afflicted with it) demands attention ; we shall, therefore, endeavour to lay before our readers a general view of this Author's opinions.

After a confutation of former theories, our Autbor affirms calcareous earth in the Auids to be the predisponent cause of Gout. What induced him to form this opinion, we learn from the following paragraph : 'the consent between gout and gravel, with the frequency of their concurring together, at first led us (he frequently speaks plurally) to imagine that they originated from the same cause. The remedies, which are of service in the one, proving beneficial in the other, gave strength to the fufpicion. Farther investigation convinced us, that they depend upon the same circumstances, are capable of being prevented by the same means, and of being cured by the same remedies.'

Having determined that a preternatural quantity of calcareous earth is the cause of these two diseases, he proceeds to thew in what manner, a quantity of calcareous matter, sufficient to produce them, can be conveyed into the circulation.


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