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The principal, or rather the only caufes of calcareous earth being · contained in the fluids, are ACIDS. This is an affertion which may at first appear extraordinary; but the more it is confidered, the better it will be confirmed. That they are the fource of a calcareous habit is certain, the manner in which they operate fo as to produce it is doubtful. Perhaps the ftomach and inteftines are never free from a mixture of calcareous earth; it may be taken in by accident, with a variety of fubftances which we eat and drink, or it may be formed by the process of digeftion; but this I do not take upon me to affert pofitively, having never made experiments to obtain the proof. Calcareous earth is a folid fubftance, and on that account little adapted for being abforbed by the lacteals: therefore it may exist in the prima via, without getting into the blood veffels. But if it meets with an acid, it will unite with it fo as to form a falt which will be diffolved by the aqueous fluids in the alimentary canal, and carried with them into the blood-veffels. In the fluids of the body, there is always contained a quantity of volatile alkali, which is certainly produced by the operations of the animal economy; acids have a stronger attraction to calcareous earth, than to volatile alkali. If fuch earth pure and uncombined with fixed air, is applied to a compound of volatile alkali with an acid, it will unite with the acid and diflodge the alkali. But if fixed air is admitted, a very different effect will take place; the volatile alkali will take poffeffion of the acid, and the calcareous earth will unite with the gas. This is a peculiar compound elective attraction, which is learnt from experience, but could not have been foreseen. The volatile alkali in the body is combined with fixed air; it will therefore be the means of precipitating the earth from its compounds with acids. This is the manner, perhaps, in which acids bring on the calcareous habit.'
The chemift must confefs, that there is ingenuity in this theory, but the rational and scientific phyfician cannot admit of the probable, the may be, and the perhaps.
The prevention, and method of cure are contained under the following heads:
ft, Abstinence from the ufe of acids.
2dly, The prevention of acidity in the ftomach and intestines. 3dly, The refraining from water and other liquors, in which are contained any of the compounds of calcareous earth and acids.'
After particularly confidering each of these heads, our Author fpeaks of the effects of alkalis, which he ftyles the most fashionable remedies, in overcoming and deftroying acidity; and highly recommends the use of them: concluding, that- By thefe means it is certain, that a cure may in every inftance be effected; but we are not fanguine in expecting that many cures will take place. Although a greater latitude with refpect to regimen is allowed, than was ever permitted in gout, and no part of the fyftem can be attended with inconvenience, yet there are very few who will have refolution to perfevere in it with an exactness that fhall entitle them to fuccefs. The remedies are as certain as mercury
in the venereal difeafe, or as bark in an intermittent: but like thefe, if improperly employed, they will fail in their effects.'
Were the Author's method of cure confirmed by experience, we should be more ready to acknowledge its excellency; for though his theory is ingenious and may be a true one; yet, in the practice of medicine, many errors are daily committed, b mania having a bigotted attachment to a favourite fyftem, unfupported by demonftrative or experimental evidence: we wished, therefore, that a few cafes, confirming the practice he recommends, had been laid before us. R-m
ART. VII. Advice to the Clergy of every Denomination and Degree with the Evulgation of the Refolutions of a late Congre's held in Germany, for the Purpofe of abolishing Chriftianity throughout Europe. 12mo. 3s. fewed. Baldwin. 1786.
N imitation of that excellent fatirift, Dr. Swift, the Author of the prefent performance gives ferious advice to the clergy; he takes up his young pupil at a very early period, conducts him gradually to the fummit of ecclefiaftical dignity, and then leaves him in poffeffion of Lambeth palace. He fets out with inftructing parents how they ought to perform the part of education which neceffarily falls to their fhare: he advifes them to be very attentive to the genius and difpofition of their children, and to chufe the moft ftupid for the church; for in any other profeffion his want of understanding might prevent his fortune, in this it will be of no difadvantage. The embryo divine having obtained his ne plus ultra, as to the English language, under the tuition of a fpectacled dame, is placed on the foundation at a public school, where the ftudy of Latin and Greek is to ingrofs the whole of his attention. The Author, now fuppofing his pupil, who is about 8 or 10 years of age, to be capable of receiving advice himself, addreffes him very affectionately, and endeavours to console him under his prefent afflictions of being a fag, and unmercifully flogged by the tyrant of the school. Then follow mifcellaneous inftructions for the fchool-boy, in the feveral ftages of his progrefs to the highest clafs.
The third Chapter is intitled, Advice to a Student in Divinity. We find here much fevere fatire; after making fome remarks on the dignity and confequence of a Student at one of our univerfities, the Author points out to his pupil the most proper method of profecuting his ftudies. He conceives the cultivation of what is called fcience to be a mere waste of time, fince, in the opinion of many of the learned fages, a competent knowledge of Greek and Latin, with the mechanism of ancient verfification, is the utmoft extent of human erudition. As to attending lectures of any kind, it is a bore. He then recommends the fort of company which
the ftudent ought to prefer, and gives fome good directions for the enjoyment of life in every refpect, and the attainment of fuch qualifications as muft reflect dignity on the clerical character.
The next Chapter contains Advice to a young Divine. After giving fome general inftructions on the nature and defign of divinity, our Author proceeds to delineate the outlines of his pupil's conduct on his first appointment to a curacy. Drefs makes a confiderable article in this chapter, where our Author enters into the difcuffion of all the minutia that are to be observed on this head. He then confiders other particulars which are of no lefs confequence, and gives full inftructions for the young curate's behaviour as a companion for the fquire, a toaft-mafter at a christening, and other characters in which there is a probability of fhining, or promoting his intereft toward obtaining the higher ranks of clerical dignity. In this part of the work the Author's fatire is fometimes mifemployed in perfonal attacks; true fatire always directs its weapons to the vices either of mankind in general, or of a certain clafs of men among whom particular vices or foibles are most apparent. In the conclufion of this chapter, the Author relates the fuppofed tranfactions of a Congress of deputies from the feveral ftates of Europe, met for the purpose of abandoning Chriftianity, and establishing paganifm in its ftead. Here we are reminded of Swift's ironies; but Swift is not excelled by his imitator.
In confequence of a proper attention to the admonitions contained in the preceding chapters, the clerical monitor fuppofes his pupil a canon of Windfor, or a prebendary of Durham, Canterbury, Winchefter, or fome other opulent cathedral; his objects and wishes are not however yet fatisfied; much inftruction is neceffary, in order, not only to fill his prefent ftation properly, but to direct him in the road to a bishopric.
Give me leave,' fays the Author in the beginning of his 6th Chapter, to congratulate your Lordship on having, at once, ftept over every commoner in the kingdom, and on being honourably feated among the Peers in the Upper Houfe.' He then recommends to his Lordfhip the urgent neceffity of attempting the great work, viz. to abolish Chriftianity. Proper fubjects for fermons are pointed out, and excellent directions are given for compofing them. The line of political conduct which every bishop ought to purfue, is next marked out; by a fteady obfervation of which, his Lordfhip is tranflated to the fee of Canterbury. Our Author having thus feated his pupil on the highest pinnacle of ecclefiaftical eminence, puts a final period to his admonitions, with recommending fuch meafures as may tend to convert the king to paganism.
Such is the outline of this performance, which undoubtedly contains many original thoughts: the fatire is fevere, and, in
general, expreffed with humour; but how far the clergy, confidered as a body of men (for individuals must be thrown out of the question), may deferve fo much ridicule, is a point which we will not conteft with our waggifh Author. For, were we to contradict him, he would only laugh at us; and if we seriously fided with him, he would, probably, cry out " a bite!". To the public, therefore, we leave this fingular genius, who comes to them in rather a queftionable shape:'-let them try what they can make of him. R— m
ART. VIII. Difcourfes on Prophecy: read in the Chapel of Lincoln'sInn, at the Lecture founded by the Right Reverend William Warburton, late Lord Bishop of Gloucefter. By Eaft Apthorp, D.D. Rector of St. Mary le Bow. 2 Vols. 8vo. 10s. Boards. Rivingtons. 1786.
UR readers will find an account of the inftitution of this lecture, and of the elegant introductory difcourfes of Bishop Hurd, who first preached on this occafion, in the Reviews for April and May 1772. To Bishop Hurd fucceeded Dr. Hallifax, now Bishop of Gloucester, of whofe fermons an account was given in the Review for July 1776 +. The third lecturer was Dr. Bagot, now Bishop of Norwich, whose difcourses we noticed, and cenfured, in our Review for June 1781.
We find ourselves under a difficulty with refpect to the prefent publication. We are Chriftians, and would not willingly caft a flight on any well-meant endeavour to afcertain the divine original of our holy religion; but thefe difcourfes, both as to compofition and matter, are fo contrary to our taste and judgment, that we cannot fpeak of them with approbation. Their language is tumid, their ftyle declamatory, and their reasoning loofe and inconclufive. They abound with bold, unfounded af fertions. The application and interpretation of the prophecies, which they purposely explain, or to which they incidentally refer, are for the most part fanciful and arbitrary; and the doctrines which they hold up as effential articles of Chriftianity, and the immediate fubject of prophecy, are, in our opinion, without foundation in fcripture, inconfiftent with the natural and moral perfections of the Deity, and repugnant to common fenfe. We refer, in particular, to the doctrines of the Trinity, and of a vicarious facrifice, by way of fatisfaction to divine juftice. And we cannot but exprefs our concern, upon this occafion, that this lecture fhould be fo foon perverted, from its original defign of proving the truth of Revelation and Chriftianity in general, to a
* Vol. xlvi. p. 393, 484. 1 Vol. xiv. p. 413.
+ Vol. Iv. p. 33.
defence of particular doctrines, concerning which Chriftians themselves are not agreed whether they are parts of revelation at all, and which fome of the ableft advocates for revelation in general, and the Chriftian religion in particular, have rejected as unfcriptural and abfurd.
The first difcourfe is entitled Hiftory of Prophecy. The text is, If. xxix. 11, 12. This chapter Dr. Apthorp afferts, after St. Jerom, to have for its remote object, the fortunes of the Jewish nation under the Roman government.' His proofs, if they may be fo called, are a fimilarity of expreffion, ver. 3. to our Saviour's prediction, Luke xix. 43, 44. and the ufe of the fingular number ver. 21. This indeed,' fays he, is applicable to their treatment of All the prophets: but the emphatic ufe of the fingular so often repeated, feems to point out One eminently, if not exclufively.'
Having afferted, p. 11. that the Jewish prophets were trained and educated to a fitnefs and predifpofition for the divine light, by a long previous culture of the memory, the imagination, the heart, and judgment,' he goes on
The fchools of the prophets were the most amiable and perfect models of liberal education, fimplicity of manners, a d fublime devotion. The principal of thofe fchools were in the capital city, which is therefore elegantly ftyled The Valley of Vifion †, and from thence colleges were tranfplanted into more fequeftered and rural fituations. The literature taught in thofe feminaries was fixed and permanent, not subject to those revolutions of barbarifm and refinement, which have conftantly prevailed in other nations. The Hebrew poetry, for instance, came to its perfection at once by the genius of Mofes and it continued fupremely elegant, even beyond the times of the Captivity. Their language has all the characters of originality, pure and energetic, with few polyfyllables, or epithets; not copious, and of confequence, highly figurative, and, as fuch, best adapted to the purposes of prophecy. All their fcience, unborrowed and indigenous, was deeply tinctured, and indeed interwoven, and of a piece with their religion. The literature chiefly ftudied in the prophetic fchools, was the law of God; the arts of facred poetry and mufic; the fciences, whether curious or neceffary, which were fubfervient to the fplendour and magnificence of the public worship; the fcope and myftic intention of the Mofaic ritual, and of the Temple fervice; fuch Prophecies as had been in preceding times committed either to memory or writing; and the moral and religious means, by a strict and holy life, of obtaining or augmenting the gift of infpiration. The prophets were alfo the hiftorians of the national annals; and the noble and fimple narrative in our Bibles is extracted from the records of infpired men; who, as fuch, are styled the Former prophets 1. The refult of these useful and exalted Locke, Newton, Clarke, Benfon, Lardner, &c.
+ Ifaiah, xxii. 1.
See Chron. xxix. 29, 30. 2 Chron. ix. 29. N.B. There is no fuch appellation as, Former Prophets, in either of thefe paffages. REV.