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• The principal, or rather the only causes of calcareous earth being contained in the Auids, are ACIDS. This is an assertion which may at first appear extraordinary ; but the more it is considered, the better it will be confirmed. That they are the source of a calcareous habit is certain , the manner in which they operate so as to produce it is doubtful. Perhaps the stomach and intestines are never free from a mixture of calcareous earth ; it may be taken in by accident, with a variety of substances which we eat and drink, or it may be formed by the process of digestion ; but this I do noc take upod me to affert positively, having never made experiments to obtain the proof. Calcareous earth is a solid substance, and on that account litile adapted for being absorbed by the lacteals: therefore it may exist in the primæ viæ, without getting into the blood vessels. But if it meets with an acid, it will unite with it so as to form a falt which will be dissolved by the aqueous fluids in the alimentary canal, and carried with them into the blood-veifels. in the fluids of the body, there is always contained a quantity of volatile alkali, which is certainly produced by the operations of the animal economy; acids have a Itronger attraction to calcareous earth, than to volatile alkali. If such earth pure and uncombined with fixed air, is applied to a compound of volatile alkali with an acid, it will unite with the acid and dislodge the alkali. But if fixed air is admitted, a very different effect will t.ke place; the volatile alkali will take poslefion of the acid, and the calcareous earth will unite with the gas. This is a peculiar compound elective attraction, which is learnt froni experience, but could not have been foreleen. The volatile alkali in ihe body is combined with fixed air ; it will therefore be the means of precipitating the earth from its compounds with acids. This is the manner, perhaps, in which acids bring on the calcareous habit.'
The chemist must contess, thaz there is ingenuity in this theory, but the rational and scientific physician cannot adoric of the probable, the may be, and the perhaps.
The prevention, and method of cure are contained under the following heads :
14, Abstinence from the use of acids. • zdly, The prevention of acidity in the stomach and intestines.
3dly, The refraining from water and other liquors, in which are contained any of the compounds of calcareous earth and acids.'
After particularly considering each of these heads, our Author speaks of the effects of alkalis, which he ftyles the most fashionable remedies, in overcoming and destroying acidity; and highly recommends the use of them : concluding, tham' By thele means it is certain, that a cure may in every instance be eff-cted; but we are not sanguine in expecting that many cures will take place. Although a greater latitude with relpect to regimen is allowed, than was ever permitted in gout, and no part of the system can be attended with inconvenience, yet there are very few who will have resolution to persevere in it with an exactness that shall entitle them to success. The remedies are as certain as mercury
in the venereal disease, or as bark in an intermittent: but like
Were the Author's method of cure confirmed by experience,
Art. VII. Advice to the Clergy of every Denomination and De
gree: with the Evulgation of the Resolutions of a late Congres
of the present performance gives serious advice to the clergy ;
The third Chapter is intitled, Advice to a Student in Divinity. We find here much severe satire ; after making some remarks on the dignity and consequence of a Student at one of our universities, the Author points out to his pupil the most proper method of profecuting his studies. He conceives the cultivation of what is called science to be a mere waste of time, fince, in the opinion of many of the learned fages, a competent knowledge of Greek and Latin, with the mechanism of ancient versification, is the utmost extent of human erudition. As to attending lectures of any kind, it is a bore. He then recommends the fort of company which
the student ought to prefer, and gives some good directions for the enjoyment of life in every respect, and the attainment of such qualifications as must reflect dignity on the clerical character.
The next Chapter contains Advice to a young Divine. After giving some general inftructions on the nature and design of divinity, our Author proceeds to delineate the outlines of his
pupil's conduct on his first appointment to a curacy. Dress makes a considerable article in this chapter, where our Author enters into the discullion of all the minutiæ that are to be observed on this head. He then considers olher particulars which are of no less consequence, and gives full instructions for the young curate's behaviour as a companion for the squire, a toast-mafter at a christening, and other characters in which there is a probability of thining, or promoting his interest toward obtaining the higher ranks of clerical dignity. In this part of the work the Author's satire is sometimes misemployed in personal attacks; true satire always directs its weapons to the vices either of mankind in general, or of a certain class of men among whom paro ticular vices or foibles are most apparent. In the conclusion of this chapter, the Author relates the supposed transactions of a Congress of deputies from the several states of Europe, met for the purpose of abandoning Christianity, and establishing paganism in its stead, Here we are reminded of Swift's ironies; but Swift is not excelled by his imitator.
In consequence of a proper attention to the admonitions contained in the preceding chapters, the clerical monitor supposes his pupil a canon of Windsor, or a prebendary of Durham, Canterbury, Winchester, or some other opulent cathedral; bis objects and wishes are not however yet satisfied ; much instruction is necessary, in order, not only to fill his present station properly, but to direct him in the road to a bishopric.
Give me leave,' says the Author in the beginning of his 6th Chapter,
to congratulate your Lordship on having, at once, stept over every commoner in the kingdom, and on being honoura ably feated among the Peers in the Upper House.' He then recommends to his Lord fhip the urgent neceflity of attempting the great work, viz. to abolish Christianity. Proper subjects for fermons are pointed out, and excellent directions are given for composing them. The line of political conduct which every bishop ought to pursue, is next marked out; by a steady observation of which, his Lordship is translated to the see of Canterbury. Our Author having thus seated his pupil on the highest pinnacle of ecclefiaftical eminence, puts a final period to his admonitions, with recommending such measures as may tend to convert the king to paganism.
Such is the outline of this performance, which undoubtedly contains many original thoughts: the satire is severe, and, in
general, expressed with humour ; but how far the clergy, como fidered as a body of men (for individuals must be thrown out of the question), may deserve so much ridicule, is a point which we will not contest with our waggith Author. For, were we to contradict him, he would only laugh at us; and if we seriously sided with him, he would, probably, cry out “ a bite !". To the public, therefore, we leave this fingular genius, who comes to them in rather a ' questionable shape:'- let them try what they can make of him.
Art. VIII. Discourses on Prophecy : read in the Chapel of Lincoln's.
Inn, at the Lecture founded by the Right Reverend William War.
lecture, and of the elegant introductory discourses of Bishop Hurd, who first preached on this occasion, in the Reviews for April and May 1772 * To Bishop Hurd succeeded Dr. Hallifax, now Bishop of Gloucester, of whose sermons an account was given in the Review for July 1776 t. The third lecturer was Dr. Bagot, now Bishop of Norwich, whose discourses we noticed, and censured, in our Review for June 1781 1.
We find ourselves under a difficulty with respect to the prefent publication. We are Christians, and would not willingly cast a light on any well-meant endeavour to ascertain the divine original of our holy religion ; but these discourses, both as to composition and matter, are so contrary to our taste and judgment, that we cannot speak of them with approbation. Their language is tumid, their ftyle declamatory, and their reasoning loose and inconclusive. They abound with bold, unfounded als sertions. The application and interpretation of the prophecies, which they purposely explain, or to which they incidentally refer, are for the most part fanciful and arbitrary; and the doctrines which they hold up as essential articles of Christianity, and the immediate subject of prophecy, are, in our opinion, without foundation in fcripture, inconsistent with the natural and moral perfections of the Deity, and repugnant to common sense. We refer, in particular, to the doctrines of the Trinity, and of a vicarious facrifice, by way of satisfaction to divine justice. And we cannot bui express our concern, upon this occasion, that this lecture should be so soon perverted, from its original design of proving the truth of Revelation and Chriftianity in general, to a
* Vol. xlvi. p. 39, 484. I Vol. Ixiv. P: 413.
+ Vol. ly. p. 33.
defence of particular doctrines, concerning which Chriftians themselves are not agreed whether they are parts of revelation at all, and which some of the ableft advocates for revelation in general, and the Christian religion in particular *, have rejected as unscriptural and absurd.
The first discourse is entitled History of Prophecy. The text is, Il. xxix. 11, 12. This chapter Dr. Apthorp aflerts, after St, Jerom, to have for its remote object, the fortunes of the Jewish nation under the Roman government.' His proofs, if they may be so called, are a fimilarity of expression, ver. 3. to our Saviour's prediction, Luke xix. 43, 44. and the use of the fingular number ver. 21. • This indeed,' says he, is applicable to their treatment of All the prophets : but the emphatic use of the fingular so often repeated, seems to point out One eminently, if pot exclusively.'
Having afferted, p. 11. that the Jewish prophets were trained and educated to a fitness and predisposition for the divine light, by a long previous culture of the memory, the imagination, the heart, and judgment,' he goes on
• The schools of the prophets were the most amiable and perfe& models of liberal education, simplicity of manners, a d sublime devotion. The principal of those schools were in the capital city, which is therefore elegantly styled The Valley of Vision t, and from thence colleges were transplanted into more sequestered and rural fituations. The literature taught in those seminaries was fixed and permanent, not subject to those revolutions of barbarism and refine. ment, which have constantly prevailed in other nations. The Hebrew poetry, for instance, came to its perfection at once by the genius of Moses: and it continued supremely elegant, even beyond the times of the Captivity. Their language has all the characters of originality, pure and energetic, with few polysyllables, or epithers; not copious, and of confequence, highly figurative, and, as such, best adapted to the purposes of prophecy. All their science, unborrowed and indigenous, was deeply tinctured, and indeed interwoven, and of a piece with their religion. The literature chiefly studied in the prophetic schools, was the law of God; the arts of sacred poetry and music; the sciences, whether curious or necesary, which were subservient to the splendour and magnificence of the public worship; the scope and mystic intention of the Mosaic ritual, and of the Temple service; luch Prophecies as had been in preceding times committed either to memory or writing ; and the moral and religious means, by a strict and holy life, of obtaining or augmenting the gift of inspiration. The prophets were also the historians of the national aonals; and the noble and simple narrative in our Bibles is ex. tracted from the records of inspired men; who, as such, are styled the Former prophets I.
The result of these useful and exalted • Locke, Newton, Clarke, Benson, Lardner, &c.
+ Isaiah, xxii, 1. I See i Chron. xxix, 29, 30. 2 Chron. ix. 29. N.B. There is no such appellation as, Former Prophets, in either of these passages. Rev.