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had caught fire from the appendice which came down from one fide of the montgolfier, it furely would have finged or burnt that part of the balloon, and which was not the least affected; befides, the fire could not poffibly reach the appendice, for they were feen to lower the pan of fire long before the accident. What then is the most plain and probable caufe? Why, I humbly conceive from the beft evidence of natural and probable circumftances, it was owing to the balloon being filled too full, and when it came to a certain height in the atmosphere, it became fo extremely dilated, that it required immediate vent, and they could not give it that vent, for De Rozier was plainly feen upon one knee in the gallery, pulling at the rope which led to the Soupape, with all his ftrength, a few minutes only before the accident. I believe then, that either the foupape was fo firmly fastened, or that the rope was improperly fixed to it, that he could not open it, and that, from the violence of his pulling, he preffed in the foupape upon the filk, which caufed a laceration of the balloon round the Soupape; upon this, the atmospheric air came in contact with the inflammable air (after a certain quantity had expended itself from the balloon), and then blew up.
I have the following reafons for the fupport of this hypothefis. Firft, upon its being obferved to fome of the workmen, who faftened the fuupape, that the accident might be owing to its opening; they replied, no; for that they had fastened it remarkably tight. Secondly,
It was obferved to De Rozier, by M. Mouron, of Calais, that he thought it dangerous to have the rope, that run through the appendice, which faftened to the foupape, to go on one fide of the balloon, telling him that he might find it difficult to open it in that manner, and that M. Blanchard, and other aeronauts, always fixed it in the middle of the balloon, in a perpendicular direction; but De Rozier could not do this, because the montgolfier was in the way; for he was determined to have that unneceflary appendage, merely for fhow; but from this he had no command of his balloon; he was not within 28 feet of it; he was neither provided with a fpear nor anchor, or any inftrument whatever; therefore, the whole was quite unmanageable, and he could only go whither the wind would carry him. Nor did it feem his purpofe on this occafion to try any further experiment, than that of rifking his own life; for had he fucceeded, fcience would not have benefited from the experiment.'
Having thus given our Readers this Writer's opinions on the unfortunate exit of De Rozier, we fhall leave them to form their own judgments on the validity of his hypothefis.
The eulogium on M. de Rozier, by his friend the Marquis de Maifonfort, is fenfible and affecting, and, as far as we can judge, without having feen the original, it is well tranflated.
Our Author, who does not fpare himself, has given a very fair account of his own work, in the few words following. After having inferted a frivolous anecdote of the French King, he adds, I cannot deny, but that this little abfurdity might have been omitted without any injury to a defcription of Fontainebleau, yet not fo well with mine; for I am refolved it fhall be nothing
but a difh of haché poché, of various feafonings, cooked without art or regularity; and if this haché poché, by fuch an unskilful hand, can be relifhed by only a few men of peculiar gout, I fhall be well content with having made the experiment.' A refolution like this muft not be paffed over by us unnoticed, as we cannot approve of the Public being held fo cheap by any writer: but whims and eccentricities are fometimes diverting, if not carried too far.
This "gentleman" deals pretty largely in expreffions that are uncommon, and almost unintelligible; and his language is, in a few inftances, both indelicate and vulgar.
Taken altogether, however, this publication will be acceptable to those readers who love to while away an hour or two with light reading, which, though it yields them but little INSTRUC TION, may afford what they ufually prefer,-ENTERTAINMENT being always more eagerly fought after than RATIONAL IMPROVEMENT: as our old friend Puff, the bookfeller, used to remark; who, convinced of this truth, once published, with good fuccefs, a little volume with the following title:
"A book to help the young and gay
ART. VIII. A Treatife on the Afthma. To which are added, Cafes
Large volume on a fubject fo important, promifed many interefting particulars relative to a difeafe, fo troublesome to the patient and embarraffing to the phyfician; on which acCount we gave peculiar attention to it, but were forry to find ourselves much difappointed. The performance contains little more theory than what has been given by Floyer, whose treatise on this difeafe is in confiderable reputation. A remedy is recommended, which we acknowledge to be new; and though we cannot by reasoning determine its efficacy in the asthma, yet experience feems to confirm, that, in many cafes, it has been of fingular ufe, and the adminiftration of it attended with fuccefs.
Dr. Withers, after defcribing the difeafe, explains some of the principal fymptoms, and gives his readers a tedious account of the occafional, predifpofing, and proximate causes.
The method of cure comes next under our Author's confideration, and he divides it into two diftinct parts: ift, during the prefence of the fit; 2d, during the interval, with a view to prevent relapses. In this part of the work, where Dr. Withers has paid great attention to Floyer, we obferve many proofs of
our Author's great industry and labour as well as accuracy; yet we must confefs, that ingenuity, invention, and reasoning are in general feldom to be met with. The peculiar tenets of the Cullenian fyftem are ftrictly adhered to, and great deference feems to be paid to the authority (we acknowledge it to be refpectable) of the univerfity of Edinburgh. The ipfe dixit of the founder of a fect avails but little with men who require demonftration. Facts, and conclufions made from them by fair argumentation, are what alone have any weight in this enlightened age, in which, fcience, rejecting the weak props of authority, requires no other fupports than fuch as nature herself affords.
As Dr. Withers delivers himself in a ftyle that is not only correct, but, in many inftances, elegant, and exhibits undoubted proofs of an accurate and extenfive acquaintance with the medi cal fcience, we fincerely lament that he has not afforded us an opportunity of commending his reafoning on a fubject to which he feems to have paid confiderable attention.
The remaining part of this performance, which is at leaft two thirds of the whole, contains a number of cafes, chiefly intended to confirm the good effects of the flowers of zinc in afthmatic complaints. We fhall give our Readers the firft in the Author's own words:
Robert Smith, aged 51, admitted a patient at the York County Hospital, February 3, 1777, has been fubject for many years paft, to an asthma, particularly in the winter feafon, which has greatly weakened and impaired his conftitution. Along with a cough, he is attacked in the night with a difficulty of breathing, which comes on fuddenly, and continues with great violence for feveral hours. He complains too of want of fleep, conftant thirft, head-ach, and forenefs in his breaft. His body is regular, pulfe low, tongue clean, appetite bad, expectoration difficult.
'Miftura mucilaginofa. Dofis unciæ duæ ter die.
Hauftus Anodyn. cum Tinct. Thebaic. gutt. xv. h. s.
• Pilul. Ruf. duæ vel tres pro re nata, quando alvus aftricta fit. C The 6th. The fymptoms are nearly the fame as before, his body is open with the pills; but he ftill continues to have restJefs nights, in confequence of his cough and difficulty of breathing.
. The 13th. The fymptoms continue. Head-ach troublefome.
Several of the formulæ mentioned by Dr. W. are thofe of the York hofpital, of which this is one: R. Rad. Althæ. unc. ifs. Gumm. Arab. drachm. ii. Aq. font. lib. i. Coque ad colaturæ unc. vi. et adde Nitri pur. drachmam, Syrupi balfamic. Syrup. limon. utriufque drachmas quinque. Aceti distillati unciam vel q. s. ad gratam aciditatem.
Repet. Hauft. Anodyn, addendo Tinct. Thebaic. gutt. v. The 17th. He thinks himself a little better to-day, but com plains more of forenefs and uneafinefs in his breast.
Applicetur Emplaft. Veficator. inter fcapulas.
20th. The blister aniwered well, and he is fomewhat better. The 23d. His cough, ftuffing, and forenefs in his breaft, are rather worfe, attended with a very fcanty expectoration. He finds a little relief from the opening pills and the anodyne draught, but complains to-day of great languor and weakness. Omittatur Mistura mucilaginofa.
• Sumat Miflur. ad Afthmatic. unciam unam ter die.
Repetatur Hauft. inodyn. & pilul. laxantes.
The 27th. Early this morning he was feized on a fudden with greater difficulty of breathing and more violent ftricture over his breast than usual, fo that he was fcarce able to speak. He wheezes and coughs much at times, but gets up little or no phlegm. His weakness and languor are increased, and he has a pain in his head.
• Omittatur Miflura ad Ahmatic.
Sumat flor. vel calc. Zinci gran. xii. bis die in Julep. commun.‡
• Repetantur Hauft. Anodyn. & pilul. laxant.
March 3d. He was not fick with the powder. His breathing is more free, his cough is eafier, expectoration more copious, and he finds himself stronger.
The 8th. He continues much better in his cough and difficulty of breathing, and feels no ftricture or foreness acrofs his breaft, but complains of head-ach and fickness at times, and fays that he has been accuftomed to be bled every spring for feveral years paft.
• Fiat Vena fectio ad uncias quatuor.
The 13th. He ftill breathes better, coughs but little, refts well, and is ftronger. Pulfe regular and not quick. The bleeding relieved his head-ach and fickness.
Sumat florum Zini gran. viginti omni dofi.
The 17th. He is not fick with the increased dofe of his powder he has no return of his difficulty of breathing, and his cough has almoft left him, although the weather is very unfettled, fometimes foft and wet, and fometimes frofty, with high winds.
The 20th. He is difmiffed free from complaint.'
This cafe our Author concludes to be a very evident and ftriking proof of the fuccefs of the flowers of zinc.' But we differ from him as to the juftnefs of his conclufion. The parti
*R. Acet. fcillitic. unc. ii. Oxymel fcillit. unc. iii. M.
cular fpecies of afthma under which this patient laboured appears evidently to have been the convulfive, a fpecies which every one knows has its periodical remiffion, if not complete intermiffion, without the affiftance either of medicine or regimen. The ftate and conftitution of the atmosphere, both with refpect to its weight and other circumftances, have great influence upon this disease: the winds alfo and heat produce great changes in afthmatic people. We have known the paroxyfm withstand all the efforts of the moft skilful phyficians, while the cold and dry north-eaft winds have prevailed, and immediately remit when the mild and moift fouth winds have fucceeded. The continuation of the opiate and laxative pills along with the adminiftration of the zinc, muft furely be allowed to have had fome effect: the opium, by diminishing the fenfibility of the nervous system, is a very powerful remedy in mitigating the violence of fpafmodic affections; the fame effect is alío produced by the laxative medicine, which, evacuating the acrimony of the circulating fluids, renders them lefs liable to irritate the nerves. To this reasoning we shall add, that daily experience abundantly evinces the powerful effects of opiates and purges alternately administered in all the most violent convulfive difeafes; and we have feen afthmas in particular confiderably relieved by their use.
We shall conclude this article with recommending all practitioners to guard against being too precipitate in determining the effects of a new remedy: it is an evil that hath done much harm in the practice of phyfic; witness hemlock, arfenic, and many more. Poft hoc ergo propter hoc is a falfe argument, and ought not to be relied on; although in many instances it has given that reputation and credit to a physician or a remedy which nature herself had the best right.
ART. IX. Hiftoria fuccincta Hofpitalis S. Elizebethe, extra Muros Imperialis Monafterii S. Maximi, Ordinis S. Benedicti, prope Treviros. A Short Account of the Hofpital of St. Elizabeth, &c. Large 8vo. 6s. Cadell. 1786.
HE Writer of this tract ftyles himself, Humillimus Pauperum Advocatus, the most humble advocate for the Poor." The abbey or monaftery of which he treats is very ancient, rich, and magnificent. About the year 1240, the Abbot Henry à Broich, with the confent of the whole body, founded an hofpital, and endowed it for the fole fervice of the poor, the fick, and infirm for ever; a grant which was frequently confirmed by Popes and Emperors. Large additions were allo made to its poffeffions, fo that it acquired a very flourishing ftate, and was capable of answering very beneficial purpofes. To fuch purposes the charitable inftitution was for a time applied, or when