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had caught fire from the appendice which came down from one side of the montgolfier, it surely would have finged or burnt that part of the balloon, and which was not the least affected; besides, the fire could not possibly reach the appendice, for they were seen to lower the pan of fire long before the accident. What then is the most plain and probable cause? Why, I humbly conceive from the best evidence of natural and probable circumstances, it was owing to the balloon being filled too full, and when it came to a certain height in the atmosphere, it became fo extremely dilated, that it required immediate vent, and they could not give it that vent, for De Rozier was plainly seen upon one knee in the gallery, pulling at the rope which led to the soupape, with all his strength, a few minutes only before the accident. I believe then, that either the soupape was so firmly fastened, or that the rope was improperly fixed to it, that he could not open it, and that, from the violence of his pulling, he pressed in the soupape upon the filk, which caused a laceration of the balloon round the soupape ; upon this, the atmospheric air came in contact with the inflammable air (after a certain quantity had expended itself from the balloon), and then blew up.

• I have the following reasons for the support of this hypothesis. First, upon its being observed to some of the workmen, who faltened the suupape, that the accident might be owing to its opening; they replied, no; for that they had faftened it remarkably tight. Secondly,

• I was observed to De Rozier, by M. Mouron, of Calais, that he thought it dangerous to have the rope, that run through the appendice, which fastened to the soupape, to go on one side of the balloon, telling him that he might find it difficult to open it in that manner, and that M. Blanchard, and other aeronauts, always fixed it in the middle of the balloon, in a perpendicular direction ; but De Rozier could not do this, because the montgolfier was in the way; for ne was determined to have that unnecessary appendage, merely for show; but from this he had no command of his balloon; he was not within 28 feet of it; he was neither provided with a spear nor anchor, or any instrument whatever; therefore, the whole was quite unmanageable, and he could only go whither the wind would carry him. Nor did it seem his purpose on this occasion to try any further experiment, than that of risking his own life ; for had he fucceeded, science would not have beneñted from the experiment.'

Having thus given our Readers this Writer's opinions on the unfortunate exit of De Rozier, we shall leave them to form cheir own judgments on the validity of his hypothesis.

The eulogium on M. de Rozier, by his friend the Marquis de Maisonfort, is sensible and affecting, and, as far as we can judge, without having seen the original, it is well translated.

Our Author, who does not spare himself, has given a very fair account of his own work, in the few words following. After having inserted a frivolous anecdote of the French King, he adds, I cannot deny, but that this little absurdity might have been omitted without any injury to a description of Fontainebleau, yet not so well with mine; for I am resolved it thall be nothing



but a dish of haché poché, of various seasonings, cooked without art or regularity, and if this haché poché, by such an unskilful hand, can be relished by only a few men of peculiar gout, I shall be well content with having made the experiment.' A resolution like this muft not be passed over by us unnoticed, as we cannot approve of the Public being held fo cheap by any writer : but whims and eccentricities are sometimes diverting, if not carried too far.

This “ gentleman" deals pretty largely in expressions that are uncommon, and almost unintelligible; and his language is, in a few instances, both indelicate and vulgar.

Taken altogether, however, this publication will be acceptable to those readers who love to while away an hour or two with light reading, which, though it yields them but little INSTRUCTION, may afford what they usually prefer,-ENTERTAINMENT being always more eagerly sought after than RATIONAL IMPROVEMENT: as our old friend Puff, the bookseller, used to remark; who, convinced of this truth, once published, with good fuccess, a little volume with the following title :

“ A book to help the young and gay
" To pass the tedious hours away.”

G. E. G

Art. VIII. A Treatise on the Afhma. To which are added, Cares

and Observations, in which the Asthma is complicated with other Diseases. By Thomas Withers, M. D. Physician to the York County Hospital. 8vo. 59. Boards. Robinsons. 1786.

Large volume on a subject lo important, promised many

interesting particulars relative to a disease, so troublesome to the patient and embarraffing to the physician; on which account we gave peculiar attention to it, but were forry to find ourselves much disappointed. The performance contains little more theory than what has been given by Floyer, whose treatise on this disease is in considerable reputation. A remedy is recommended, which we acknowledge to be new; and though we cannot by reasoning determine its efficacy in the hma, yet experience seems to confirm, that, in many cases, it has been of singular use, and the adminiftration of it attended with succers.

Dr. Withers, after describing the disease, explains some of the principal symptoms, and gives his readers a tedious account of the occasional, predisposing, and proximate causes.

The method of cure comes next under our Author's confia deration, and he divides it into two diftinct parts : ist, during ibe presence of the fit; 2d, during the interval, with a view to prevent relapses. In this part of the work, where Dr. Withers has paid great attention to Floyer, we observe many proofs of



Withers's Treatise on the AAhma.

333 our Author's great industry and labour as well as accuracy; yet we must confess, that ingenuity, invention, and reasoning are in general seldom to be met with. The peculiar tenets of the Cullenian system are strictly adhered to, and great deference seems to be paid to the authority (we acknowledge it to be respectable) of the university of Edinburgh. The ipse dixit of ihe founder of a rect avails but little with men who require demonstration. Facts, and conclusions made from them by fair argumentation, are what alone have any weight in this enlightened age, in which, science, rejecting the weak props of authority, requires no other supports than such as nature herself affords.

As Dr. Withers delivers himself in a style that is not only correct, but, in many instances, elegant, and exhibits undoubted proofs of an accurate and extensive acquaintance with the media cal science, we fincerely lament that he has not afforded us an opportunity of commending his reasoning on a subje& to which he seems to have paid considerable attention.

The remaining part of this performance, which is at leaft two thirds of the whole, contains a number of cases, chiefly intended to confirm the good effects of the flowers of zinc in asthmatic complaints. We shall give our Readers the firft in the Author's own words:

• Robert Smith, aged 51, admitted a patient at the York County Hospital, February 3, 1777, has been fubject for many years past, to an afthma, particularly in the winter season, which has greatly weakened and impaired his conftitution. Along with a cough, he is attacked in the night with a difficulty of breathing, which comes on suddenly, and continues with great violence for several hours. He complains too of want of sleep, constant thirst, head-ach, and foreness in his breaft. His body is regular, pulse low, tongue clean, appetite bad, expectoration difficult.

Misura mucilaginofa *. Dofis unciæ duæ ter die. Hausus Anodyn. cum Tinct. Thebaic. gutt. xv. h. s. Pilul. Ruf. duæ vel tres pro re nata, quando alvus afiri&ta fit.

«The oth. The symptoms are nearly the same as before, his body is open with the pills; but he ftill continues to have relt. less nigbts, in consequence of his cough and difficulty of breathing

• The 13th. The symptoms continue. Head-ach troublesome.

Several of the formulæ mentioned by Dr. W. are those of the York hospital, of which this is one : R. Rad. Althæ. unc. iss. Gumm. Arab. drachm. ii. Aq. font. lib. i. Coque ad celacuræ unc. vi, et adde Nitri pur. drachmam, Syrupi balsamic. Syrup. limon. utriusque drachmas quinque. Aceti distillati unciam vel q. s. ad gratam aciditatem.


Repet. Hauft. Anodyn, addendo Tinel. Thebaic. gutt. V. · The 17th. He thinks himself a little better to-day, but com: plains more of foreness and uneasiness in his breast.

Applicetur Emplaft. Veficator. inter fcapulas. • 20th. The blister answered well, and he is somewhat better.

• The 23d. His cough, stuffing, and soreness in his breast, are rather worse, attended with a very scanty expectoration. He finds a little relief from the opening pills and the anodyne draught, but complains to-day of great languor and weakness.

Omittatur Mistura mucilaginosa.
Sumat Misiur. ad Ajlhm. tic. * unciam unam ter die.
! Repetatur + Hauft. rinodyn. & pilul. laxantes.

• The 27th. Early this morning he was seized on a sudden with greater difficulty of breathing and more violent ftri&ture over his breast than usual, so that he was scarce able to speak. He wheezes and coughs much at times, but gets up little or no phlegm. His weakness and languor are increased, and he has a pain in his head,

Omittatur Mistura ad Alhmatic. Sumat flor. vel calc. Zinci gran. xii. bis die in Julep. commun. Repetantur Hauf. Anodyn. & pilul. laxant.

March 3d. He was not fick with the powder. His breathing is more free, his cough is easier, expectoration more copious, and he finds himself stronger.

' The 8th. He continues much better in his cough and difficulty of breathing, and feels no stricture or soreness across his breast, but complains of head-ach and sickness at times, and says that he has been accustomed to be bled every spring for feveral years paft.

Fiat Vene fectio ad uncias quatuor.

· The 13th. He still breathes better, coughs but little, rests well, and is stronger. Pulse regular and not quick. The bleeding relieved his head-ach and ficknels.

Sumnat florum Zinii gran. viginti omni dosi. · The 17th. He is not sick with the increased dose of his powder : he has no return of his difficulty of breathing, and his cough has almost left him, although the weather is very unsettled, sometimes soft and wet, and sometimes frofty, with high winds.

• The 20th. He is dismified free from complaint.'

This case our Author concludes to be a very evident and Atriking proof of the fuccess of the flowers of zinc.' But we differ from him as to the justness of his conclusion. The parti

unc. ii.

* R. Acet. scillitic. unc. ii. Oxymel fcillit. unc. iii. M.
+ We are sorry to see this specimen of our Author's Latinity,
I The preparation is not described.

cular there

cular species of asthma under which this patient laboured ap-
pears evidently to have been the convulsive, a species which
every one knows has its periodical remiffion, if not complete in-
termiffion, without the affiftance either of medicine or regimen.
The state and constitution of the atmosphere, both with respect
to its weight and other circumstances, have great influence upon
this diseale: the winds also and heat produce great changes in
afthmatic people. We have known the paroxysm withstand all
the efforts of the moft skilful phyficians, while the cold and dry
north-eaft winds have prevailed, and immediately remit when
the mild and moist south winds have succeeded. The continua-
tion of the opiate and laxative pills along with the administra-
tion of the zinc, muft surely be allowed to have had some effect:
the opium, by diminishing the sensibility of the nervous system, is
a very powerful remedy in mitigating the violence of spasmodic
affections; the same effect is also produced by the laxative me-
dicine, which, evacuating the acrimony of the circulating fluids,
renders them less liable co irritate the nerves. To this reason-
ing we shall add, that daily experience abundantly evinces the
powerful effects of opiates and purges alternately administered
in all the most violent convulsive diseases ; and we have seen
afthmas in particular considerably relieved by their use.

We shall conclude this article with recommending all practi-
tioners to guard against being too precipitate in determining the
effects of a new remedy: it is an evil that hath done much harm
in the practice of physic; witneis hemlock, arsenic, and many more.
Poft hoc ergo propter hoc is a false argument, and ought not to be
relied on; although in many instances it has given chat reputa-
tion and credit to a physician or a remedy,which nature herself
had the best righe xy.


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ART. IX. Historia fuccineta Hospitalis S. Elizebethe, extra Muros

Imperialis Monafterii S. Maximi, Ordinis S. Benedicti, prope Tre-
viros. A Short Account of the Hospital of St. Elizabeth, &c.
Large 8vo. 6s. Cadell. 1786.
THE Writer of this tract ftyles himself, Humillimus Pau-

perum Advocatus, the most humble advocate for the Poor.'
The abbey or monastery of which he treats is very ancient, rich,
and magnificent. About the year 1240, the Abbor Henry à
Broich, with the consent of the whole body, founded an hospi-
tal, and endowed it for the sole service of the poor, the fick,
and inform for ever; a grant which was frequently confirmed by
Popes and Emperors. Large addicions were also made to its
poffefficns, so that it acquised a very Apuriling state, and was
capable of answering very beneficial purposes. To such pur-
poses the charitable inftitution was for time applied, or when

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