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VIII. Proposals for the Recovery of Perfons apparently drowned. See Rev. vol. Ivii. p. 2.
IX. On the Structure of the Placenta. This paper was read at the Royal Society; but as the facts it contains had, before that time, been given to the Public, it was not published in the Tranfactions,
X. Obfervations on the Gillaroo Trout. This fish is remarkable for having its ftomach fimilar to the gizzard of fowls, and is commonly called the Gizzard trout. See Rev. vol. li. p. 376.
XI. On Digestion. In 1772, Mr. Hunter publifhed, in the 62d volume of the Philofophical Tranfactions, a paper, On the Digeftion of the Stomach after Death. It is here republished, with a very long critique on the principal experimenters who have had the prefumption to enter the fame field of enquiry. Mr. Hunter has, accordingly, beftowed fome fevere ftrictures on Reaumur, Spallanzani, Vallifneri, Sennebier, and others. The contemptuous manner in which Mr. Hunter fpeaks of his fellow-labourers in this phyfiological enquiry, is in our opinion fomewhat reprehenfible. Mentioning, for inftance, the opinion that digeftion was performed by mechanical or chemical powers, he fays, we have no very high idea of experiments made by gentlemen and priests †, who for want of anatomical knowledge, have not been able to purfue their reafoning even beyond the fimple experiment itself,' p. 148. Mr. Hunter ought to recol-' lect, that we are indebted to gentlemen and priefs, as he calls them, for the moft brilliant difcoveries of the prefent age; witnefs those of a Watfon, a Cavendish, a Kirwan, a Priestley, a Lavoifier, &c. And though Spallanzani and Sennebier are, unfortunately for them, in Mr. Hunter's opinion, priests, and not his equals in anatomical knowledge, yet they are not apparently more deficient in anatomy, than Mr, H. has proved himself to be in another science (chemistry), which is not a lefs neceffary quali fication for pursuing inquiries on digeftion, than anatomy. His ignorance of chemistry is frequently betrayed in this differtation. He maintains, for instance, that the fæces of animals fed on vegetable food, will probably during fermentation afford fixed air; and of animals fed on animal food, inflammable air. Had Mr. Hunter been tolerably informed, he would have known that putrid matter, whether animal or vegetable, affords phlogisticated and hepatic, as well as fixed air.
In the following paragraph Mr. Hunter difcovers his utter ignorance of a well afcertained fact, namely, the compofition of
Of this paper our Readers will find a long account in the 50th volume of our Review, p 280, et feq.
From this paff ge, we may infer, that Mr. H. does not chufe to rank with gentlemen, &c.-as an experimentalift at least,
bone. 'Although bones,' fays he, are in part compofed of animal fubftance, and are fo far digeftible, yet they require ftronger powers of digeftion than common meat, from the animal fubftance being guarded by the earth. Thus the animal part of a bone is lefs readily foluble in an alkali than flesh, or even the animal part when deprived of its earth by an acid: nor will a bone fubmit to putrefaction fo readily as meat, being guarded by the calcareous earth.' It is clear that Mr. H. does not know that bone is compofed, not of calcareous earth and animal matter, but of phosphorated lime (an earthy falt) and animal
It is not a little extraordinary, that in the space of 13 years, subsequent obfervers have not been able to add their evidence to Mr. Hunter's teftimony, that the ftomach has been digefted after death by its own juice.
The error of Dr. Ingenhoufz and of Count de Milly, who have faid that there is, during bathing in water, an aerial tranfpiration, is corrected in this paper. It is here fhewn by Mr. Hunter (agreeably to Dr. Pearson's reasoning and experiments) that the air, obferved on the skin of perfons in a cold bath, comes from the water, and not from the body of the bather.
XII. On a Secretion in the Crop of breeding Pigeons, for the Nourishment of their Young. The young pigeon, like the young quadruped, till capable of digefting ordinary food, is fed with a fubftance prepared for that purpose by the parent animal, not by the female alone, as in quadrupeds, but by the male alfo, who perhaps furnishes this nutriment in greater abundance. It is a milky fubftance, fecreted from the coats of the crop both of the male and female pigeon; in confiftence and appearance it resembles white granulated curd. By examining feveral pigeons, Mr. Hunter finds that, during incubation, the coats of the crop continually increase in thickness and confiftence, like the udder of female quadrupeds during geftation. In the natural state, the crop is thin and membranous, but, at the time the young ones are about to be hatched, the whole becomes thickened, except that part which lies on the trachea, and takes a glandular appearance, having its internal furface irregularly wrinkled. From this furface the liquor is fecreted, and moft probably foon coagulates to a curd, which alone is the food of the young pigeon for two or three days; after that time it is mixed with other ordinary food previously macerated in the crop of the old ones: the fecretion ftops at the end of the eighth or ninth day, when the young pigeon, becoming ftronger, and having been gradually accuftomed to common food, as peas, barley, horfe-beans, &c. has no farther occafion for the fecreted nutriment, fince its own di- gestive faculties have acquired fuch perfection as to bear raw ordinary food. This differtation is accompanied with two plates,
reprefenting the pigeon's crop in its natural and in its enlarged fate. It is a curious fact that the parent pigeon has a power of difcharging the curd alone, and afterwards a mixture of the curd and common food in fuch proportion as is requifite for the young ones.
XIII. On the Colour of the Pigment in the Eye in different Animals. In the eyes of all animals, the choroid coat is lined with a fubftance, called the pigmentum. This, it is well known, is of different colours in different animals: why it fhould be fo is unknown. Mr. Hunter here delivers a great number of obfervations, or rather relations of cafes, in which he has examined the colour of the pigment, and adds feveral curious remarks fhewing how the colour varies in different animals, and alfo in different fpecies of the fame animal. He has found that the pigment is generally of the colour of the eye-lafhes, and that animals whofe eye lafhes are white can fee more diftinctly with a fmall degree of light than those whofe eye-lafhes are black. Of this a curious cafe is related; but for particulars we refer to the book.
The 14th, and laft, tract in this collection is a Defcription of the Nerves which fupply the Organ of smelling. This being merely a recital of anatomical facts, any abridgment of it would be unentertaining, and indeed unintelligible, without the plates.
As an anatomift, much merit is due to Mr. Hunter; and the prefent volume clearly evinces his great knowledge of that fcience. But we are forry to fee an author fo eminent in one branch of fcience betray his deficiency in thofe other branches, which are neceffary for explaining many parts of phyfiology. Befide the chemical errors we have already noticed, we must obferve, that our Author's method of determining the fpecific gravity of different animal fubftances, as given in p. 83, is a fufficient proof how little he is acquainted with the modern improvements in natural philofophy.
We cannot conclude this article without remarking, that the plates, which illuftrate the prefent performance, deferve confiderable praife, both with respect to the defign and execution. Pn and Rm
ART. VIII. Poems and Efays. By a Lady lately deceafed. 8vo. 2 Vols. 7s. 6d. fewed. Bath, printed, and fold by Dilly in London. 1786.
TN the Preface to this collection, we are told that the pieces of which it is compofed were written to relieve the tedious hours of many years pain and hickness. The ingenious and amiable Authorefs feems to have poffeffed no fmall thare of patience and pidus refignation, and to have reforted for fupport
# 1.*. Miss Bowdier, of Bath. 11
and confolation to the comforts which naturally prefent themfelves to a mind habitually converfant with the benefits fuggefted by Chriftian hope.
The first poem is an ode to Hope, which begins thus:
Friend to the wretch whofe bofom knows no joy!
Celestial HOPE! thou gift divine
Sweet balm of Grief! O ftill be mine.
For from the date of Reafon's birth
That wond'rous power was given,
To foften every grief on earth,
To raise the foul from thoughtless mirth
And wing its flight to heaven:
Nor pain, nor pleasure, can its force destroy,
In every varied fcene it points to future joy.'
The effays, which are chiefly on moral and fentimental fubjects, are written in a pleafing ftyle, and in good language: we fhall prefent our Readers with the following extract from the Effay on Gratitude as a fpecimen :
Of all the fentiments of the heart, there is hardly any which appears to be more natural and more univerfal than gratitude. One might, indeed, be almoft inclined to fuppofe it the effect of inftinct, rather than of reafon, fince we fee fuch ftrong appearances of it even in brutes. Wherever nature is not perverted, gratitude feems to follow kindness, as the effect follows the caufe in any other instance. But among the refinements of polifhed life, the voice of nature is often fuppreffed; and under the shelter of artificial manners, the felfifh paions are indulged to excefs.
Politeness, the expreffion of a delicate mind and a benevolent heart, is taught as an art to disguise the want of these qualities; and appearances take place of realities, till the realities themselves are neglected, and almost forgotten. Perhaps if the bufy and the gay had leifure to look into their own hearts, they might find that they poffefs more good qualities than they fufpect themselves of; but fashion is the general guide, and even follies and vices, if they are fashionable, become objects of vanity, and are affected by thofe who have no title to them. Yet ftill, in the midst of all the variastions of fashion and prejudice, the eteem due to gratitude is in fome degree preferved, and want of it is a fault which no one would ever confefs.
A difpofition to pride, to anger, to ambition, to indolence, and many other blameable qualities, may have been acknowledged by many; but none ever confeffed a difpofition to ingratitude, and perhaps none ever was confcious of it: and yet, amongst all the complaints made against the world by those who, by being out of humour with themselves, fancy they have reafon to be fo with every body else, there is hardly any one more univerfal than that of the ingratitude they have met with. Nor indeed is the complaint confined to fuch perfons alone; for it must be owned that even the benevolent heart will fometimes find but too much reafon for it, and must feel in fome inftances what it would wish to conceal from all the world. But fuch inftances fhould not induce us to pronounce a general cenfure; and perhaps a more enlarged view of mankind might fhew us, that the effects afcribed to ingratitude are often owing to fome other caufe; and that those who make the greatest complaints are in fact those who have the least reason for them, and have themselves given occafion to that ingratitude of which they complain, by expecting fuch returns as they had no right to claim.'
If these Effays are not to be numbered among the most entertaining, they have a right to be ranked among the moft INSTRUCTIVE; and they will, doubtlefs, be highly acceptable to serious, reflecting, and rational readers.
*Thefe volumes, like feveral other of the late Bath publi cations, are printed for the benefit of the General Hofpital there. K-m
ART. IX. Remarks on the Bishop of Exeter's, and also on Dr. Heberden's Interpretation of the Prophecy of Haggai. 8vo. 1s. Fielding. 1786.
HE fermon which is here criticized was preached by the Right Rev. Author before the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and contained the Bishop's interpretation of Haggai, chap. ii. ver. 9. The glory of this latter houfe fhall be greater than of the former, faith the Lord of Hofts-that is, according to his Lordship of Exeter, The difpenfation of religion, which was to take place in the kingdom of the Meffiah, was in every respect vaftly to exceed the glory and excellence of that which was eftablifhed by Mofes.' Our Author's objections to the Bishop's opinion are briefly thefe: That to fuppofe the Prophet alluded to a metaphorical temple only, is inconfiftent with verfe 3, of chap. ii. Who is left among you that faw this houfe in her first glory?-a queftion evidently abfurd if it be thought to refer to the promulgation of the Mofaic law-with ver. 4, in which all the people are commanded to work for the completion of the Temple-with ver. 7, in which the words, this Temple, cannot poffibly be applicable to a future difpenfation of religion; and laftly, with the latter part of verfe 9, where the expreffion, in this place I will give peace, has a clear reference to a material Temple. The re