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VIII. Proposals for the Recovery of Persons apparently drowned. See Rev. vol. Ivii. p. 2.
IX. On the Structure of the Placenta. This paper was read at the Royal Society; but as the facts it contains had, before that time, been given to the Public, it was not published in the Transactions,
X. Observations on the Gillaroo Trout. This filh is remarkable for having its ftomach similar to the gizzard of fowls, and is commonly called the Gizzard trout. See Rev. vol. li. p. 376.
XI. On Digestion. In 1772, Mr. Hunter published, in the 620 volume of the Philosophical Transactions, a paper, On the Digestion of the Stomach after Death *. It is here republished, with a very long critique on the principal experimenters who have had the presumption to enter the same field of enquiry. Mr. Hunter has, accordingly, bestowed some severe strictures on Reaumur, Spallanzani, Vallisneri, Sennebier, and others. The contemptuous manner in which Mr. Hunter speaks of his fellow.labourers in this physiological enquiry, is in our opinion somewhat reprehensible. Mentioning, for instance, the opinion that digestion was performed by mechanical or chemical powers, he says, we have no very high idea of experiments made by gentlemen and priests t, who for want of anatomical knowledge, have not been able to pursue their reasoning even beyond the , fimple experiment itself, p. 148. Mr. Hunter ought to recollect, that we are indebted to gentlemen and priests, as he calls them, for the most brilliant discoveries of the present age; wit. ness those of a Watson, a Cavendish, a Kirwan, a Priestley, a Lavoisier, &c. And though Spallanzani and Sennebier are, unfortunately for them, in Mr. Hunter's opinion, priests, and not his equals in anatomical knowledge, yet they are not apparently more deficient in anatomy, than Mr. H. has proved himself to be in another science (chemistry), which is not a less necessary qualification for pursuing inquiries on digeftion, than anatomy. His ignorance of chemistry is frequently betrayed in this dissertation. He maintains, for instance, that the faces of animals fed on vegetable food, will probably during fermentation afford fixed air ; and of animals fed on animal food, inflammable air. Had Mr. Hunter been tolerably informed, he would have known that putrid master, whether animal or vegetable, affords phlogisticated and hepatic, as well as fixed air.
In che following paragraph Mr. Hunter discovers his utter ignorance of a well ascertained fact, namely, the composition of
Of this paper our Readers will find a long account in the goth yolume of our Review, p 280, åt feq.
+ From this paliige, we may infer, that Mr. H. does not chufe to rank with gentlemen, &c.—as an experimentalift at least.
Although bones,' says he, are in part composed of animal substance, and are so far digeftible, yet they require stronger powers of digeftion than common meat, from the animal substance being guarded by the earth. Thus the animal part of a bone is less readily soluble in an alkali than Aelh, or even the animal part when deprived of its earth by an acid: nor will a bone submit to putrefaction so readily as meat, being guarded by the calcareous earth. It is clear that Mr. H. does not know that bone is composed, not of calcareous earth and ani- mal matter, but of phosphorated lime (an earthy (alt) and animal matter.
It is not a little extraordinary, that in the space of 13 years, subsequent observers have not been able to add their evidence to Mr. Hunter's testimony, that the stomach has been digefted after death by its own juice.
The error of Dr. Ingenhousz and of Count de Milly, who have said that there is, during bathing in water, an aerial transpiration, is corrected in this paper. It is here shewn by Mr. Hunter (agreeably to Dr. Pearson's reasoning and experiments) that the air, observed on the skin of persons in a cold bath, comes from the water, and not from the body of the bather.
XII. On a Secretion in the Crop of breeding Pigeons, for the Nourishment of their Young. The young pigeon, like the young quadruped, till capable of digesting ordinary food, is fed with a substance prepared for that purpose by the parent animal, not by the female alone, as in quadrupeds, but by the male also, who perhaps furnishes this nutriment in greater abundance. It is a milky substance, secreted from the coats of the crop both of the male and female pigeon ; in confiftence and appearance it resembles white granulated curd. By examining several pigeons, Mr. Hunter finds that, during incubation, the coats of the crop continually increase in thickness and consistence, like the udder of female quadrupeds during gestation. In the natural state, the crop is thin and membranous, but, at the time the young ones are about to be hatched, the whole becomes thickened, except that part which lies on the trachea, and takes a glandular appearance, having its internal surface irregularly wrinkled. From this surface the liquor is secreted, and most probably soon coagulates to a curd, which alone is the food of the young pigeon for two or three days; after that time it is mixed with other ordi. nary food previously macerated in the crop of the old ones : the secretion ftops at the end of the eighth or ninth day, when the young pigeon, becoming stronger, and having been gradually accustomed to common food, as peas, barley, horse-beans, &c. has no farther occasion for the secreted nutriment, since its own di· gestive faculties have acquired fuch perfection as to bear raw ordinary food. This dissertation is accompanied with two plates,
representing the pigeon's crop in its natural and in its enlarged fate. It is a curious fact that the parent pigeon has a power of discharging the curd alone, and afterwards a mixture of the curd and common food in such proportion as is requisite for the young ones.
xul. On the Colour of the Pigment in the Eye in different Animals. In the eyes of all animals, the choroid coat is lined with a fubftance, called the pigmentum. This, it is well known, is of different colours in different animals : why it should be fo is unknown. Mr. Hunter here delivers a great number of observations, or rather relations of cases, in which he has examined the colour of the pigment, and adds several curious remarks fhewing how the colour varies in different animals, and also in different spocies of the same animal. He has found that the pigment is generally of the colour of the eye-lashes, and that animals whose eye. Jashes are white can see more diftinctly with a small degree of light than those whose eye-lathes are black. Of this a curious Cale is related; but for particulars we refer to the book.
The 14th, and last, tract in this collection is a Defcription of the Nerves which supply the Organ of smelling. This being merely a recital of anatomii al lads, any abridgment of it would be unentertaining, and indeed unintelligible, without the plates.
As an anatomist, much merit is due to Mr. Hunter; and the present volume clearly evinces his great knowledge of that science. But we are sorry to see an author so eminent in one branch of science betray his deficiency in those other branches, which are neceffary for explaining many parts of physiology. Beside the chemical errors we have already noticed, we must observe, that our Author's method of determining the specific gravity of different animal fubitances, as given in p. 83, is a fufficient proof how little he is acquainted with the modern improvements in natural philosophy.
We cannot conclude this article without remarking, that the plates, which illustrate the present performance, deferve confiderable praise, both with respect to the design and execution.
P- n and an ART. VIII. Poems and Efays. By a Lady * lately deceased. 8vo.
2 Vols. 7s.6d. Sewed. Bath, printed ; and fold by Dilly in Lon
don. 1780. IN the Preface to this collection, we are told that the pieces
of which it is''com pored were written to relieve the tedious hours of many years' pain and fickness. The ingenious and amiable Authorels feems to have poflefled no fmall thase of patience and pious refignation, and to have resorted for fupport
* Milis Bowdier, of Bath.
and confolation to the comforts which naturally present them-
• Friend to the wretch whose bosom knows no joy!
Celestial Hope! thou gift divine
Sweet balm of Grief! O still be mine.
Thou only canst their force abate,
Though oft thy joys are false and vain,
And point the way to fell despair,
For from the date of Reason's birth
That wond'rous power was given,
And wing its flight to heaven :
Nor pain, nor pleasure, can its force destroy, In every varied scene it points to future joy.' The essays, which are chiefly on moral and sentimental subjects, are written in a pleasing style, and in good language: we Thall present our Readers with the following extract from the Elay on Gratitude as a specimen:
Of all the sentiments of the heart, there is hardly any which appears to be more natural and more universal than gratitude. One might, indeed, be almost inclined to suppose it the effect of instinct, rather than of reason, since we see such strong appearances of it even in brutes. Wherever nature is not perverted, gratitude seems to follow kindness, as the effect follows the cause in any other instance. But ainong the refinements of polihed life, the voice of nature is often fupprefied; and under the shelter of artificial manners, the selfith pations are indulged to excess.
Politeness, the expression of a delicate mind and a benevolent heart, is taught as an art to disguise the want of these qualities; and appearances take place of realities, till the realities themselves are neglected, and almost forgotten. Perhaps if the busy and the gay had leisure to look into their own hearts, they might find that they posless more good qualities than they suspect themselves of; but fashion is the general guide, and even follies and vices, if they are fashionable, become objects of vanity, and are affected by those who have no title to them. Yet still, in the midst of all the variations of fahion and prejudice, the esteem due to gratitude is in some degree preserved, and want of it is a fault which no one would ever confefs.
• A disposition to pride, to anger, to ambition, to indolence, and many other blameable qualities, may have been acknowledged by many; but none ever confessed a disposition to ingratitude, and perhaps none ever was conscious of it: and yet, amongst all the complaints made against the world by those who, by being out of humour with themselves, fancy they have reason to be fo with every body else, there is hardly any one more universal than that of the ingratitude they have met with. Nor indeed is the complaint confined to such persons alone ; for it must be owned that even the benevolent heart will sometimes find but too much reason for it, and must feel in some instances what it would wish to conceal from all the world. But such instances should not induce us to pronounce a general cenfure; and perhaps a more enlarged view of mankind might Thew us, that the effects ascribed to ingratitude are often owing to some other cause; and that those who make the greatest complaints are in fact those who have the least reason for them, and have themselves given occasion to that ingratitude of which they complain, by expecting such returns as they had no right to claim.'
If these Essays are not to be numbered among the most enter. taining, they have a right to be ranked among the moft INSTRUC
Tive; and they will, doubtless, be highly acceptable to serious, reflecting, and rational readers.
These volumes, like several other of the late Bath publications, are printed for the benefit of the General Hospital there,
a- m Art. IX. Remarks on the Bishop of Exeter's, and also on Dr. Heber
der's Interpretation of the Prophecy of Haggai. 8vo. 15. Fielding. 1786.
Right Rev. Author before the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and contained the Bishop's interpretation of Haggai, chap. ii. ver. 9. The glory of this latter house mall be greater than of the former, saith the Lord of Hofts-that is, according to his Lordship of Exeter, 'The dispensation of religion, which was to take place in the kingdom of the Mefliah, was in every respect vaftly to exceed the glory and excellence of that which was established by Moses. Our Author's objections to the Bishop's opinion are briefly these : That to suppose the Prophet alluded to a metaphorical temple only, is inconsistent with verse 3, of chap. ii. Who is left among you that faw this house in her first glory?-a question evidently absurd if it be thought to refer to the promulgation of the Mofaic law-with ver. 4, in which all the people are commanded to work for the completion of the Temple--with ver, 7, in which the words, this Temple, cannot posibly be applicable to a future dispensation of religion; and lastly, with the latter part of verse 9, where the expreffion, in this place I will give peace, has a clear reference to a material Temple. The re