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ART. XVI. The Occonomy of Charity; or, an Address to Ladies

concerning Sunday Schools; the Establishment of Schools of Industry under Female Inspection; and the Distribution of voluntary Benefactions. To which is added, an Appendix, containing an Account of the Sunday Schools in Old Brentford. By Mrs. Trim

12 mo. 25. 6d. Longman, &c. 1787. RS. Trimmer has here given us another specimen and

proof of her zeal for promoting the happiness of mankind. In the Servant's Friend, and the Two Farmers (which have been noticed in our Review), she has shewn, in an easy familiar way, the important benefits arising from an early religious education, not only to the individuals themselves, but to society at large : and in this performance, persons of fortune, particularly Jadies, are informed how they may make their benevolence most extensively useful, viz. in promoting Sunday schools. “There is nothing,' says our ingenious Author, wanting to complete their charity, but for ladies of rank to appear interested in the establishment of them; and for others, in middling ftations, to give a personal attendance at the girls schools; which I am confident would conduce, beyond any circumstances whatever, to their benefit and perpetuity.'

In recommending schools of industry, the observes, If there was a school for spinning Aux, girls of five years of age might be employed at it; and the yarn might easily be manufactured into white or ftriped linen and checks, and by the time each Jitele spinstress had worn out the clothes given her by the parish or private benefactors, the might earn sufficient to entitle her to linen, and other necessaries.

Another school for carding and spinning wool, would furnish materials for linsey. woolsey, serge ituffs, baize yarn, and worsted for knitting. At a third school, girls might be taught needlework of the usefu} kind : and, at a fourth, they might learn to knie stockings. These schools, if properly conducted, would reflect benefics on each other; they might easily be set on foot by voluntary benefactions; and, in a thort time, would fupport themfelves, and yield a furplus; and would require no farther aid than inipection to see that the produce was properly applied.

At the end of this book are two plates of the horizontal spinning wheel, invented by the late Mr. Barton of Carlisle, at which 12 little girls can spin at once. Our Authorefs says, this machine is so easily managed, that the least child can, with the smallest touch, disengage, or set a-going, any one of its whels, without interfering with another. The original expence is sl. It seldom wants repair. Mrs. Trimmer, we would add, is so renlible of the utility of this wheel, that the has pro. cured one for Brentford.

In the Appendix, there is an account of the Sunday Schools in Old Brentford, and the rules by which they are regulated ; which seem well adapted to the purpose, and we are glad to find that they succeed so happily.

As the perusal of this treatise has given us peculiar pleasure, we therefore recommend it as worthy the attention of the Public; and we think the Writer juftly entitled to the warmest approbation, for her uncommon exertion, in executing the plans here laid down.-May her utmost wishes be crowned with fuccess! and may there be found, in every parish, a Mrs. T'rimmer, to promote that reformation, and that industry, which under her auspices has taken place in the neighbourhood of her refidence.

This work is, by permission, addressed to her. Majesty; who, we observe with pleasure, is a particular patroness of the Sunday school plan.


For M A Y, 1787.

TRADE and COMMERCE. Art. 17. An Answer to a Pamphlet published by the Earl of Dun

donald, in titled, “ Thoughts on the Manufacture and Trade of Salt, and of the Coal Trade of Great Britain, &c.” With a particular Examination of his Mode of refining British Salt; together with Remarks on the Writings of Dr. Anderson and other, on the fame Subject. By Robert Roe. 8vo. Is. 68. Robinsons,

WHIS irascible Hibernian, highly offended at seeing his countryT!

men accused of the odious practice of smuggling felt, here cakes up che cudgel in their favour, which he brandishes with a malterly dexterity indeed! Proving, by the cleareft demonstration, that, although they have salt about five hundred per cent. cheaper than it is in England, they are so strictly conscientious, that they neither smuggle a single ource of it thither themselves, nor permit any one to do so for them.-- brave, trusty Irish! when you can find another nation in the world who do the like-you may shake hands with them as your friends and equals.

The above, we presume, will be sufficient for this pamphlet - we cannot help regretting however, that such abilities as this Author evidently possesses, should be lost to the Public, by that want of can. dour which is unfortunately too prevalent among political combatants: he who contends for victory only, never produces facts that can be relied on.

A-non Art. 18. Inffrutions for Merchants, Ship Owners, Ship Mafters, &c.

Extracted and digeited from the Navigation, the Manifest, Newfoundland, and Wine Acts of Parliament, passed last Year, and from the Smuggling Act, passed 1784. By a Merchant. 410. 15. Law, &c.

Where laws point to a number of objects which must be attended to in every stage of a business, and where they are accumulated, the


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latter referring to the former; it would be impossible, in many cafes, to proceed duly according to law, without forining some kind of it gular digest for private directions. The compiler of these Instructions declares, that they were first drawn up for bis own use, and that he has now published them for the abistance of others: they may therefore be more practically useful than if prepared merely to make a book on the subjects specified: but, in such cases, it cannot be expected that we should undertake an examination of the several authorities, in order to decide on the merits of the performance.

N. COMMERCIAL TREATY with FRANCE. Art. 19. New Information and Lights, on the late Treaty of Commerce

with France. Addressed to the Right Hon. William Pitt. By Robert Pigott, Esq. 4to. IS. Ridgway.

Mr. Pigoit attacks the Treaty with ridiculous objections; and these he conveys to his Right Hon. Correspondent in such imperfect language as can only serve to reflect disgrace on the Press. N Art. 20. A Commercio Political Elay, on the Nature of the Balance of

Foreign Trade, as it respects a Commercial Intesc urse between Great Britain and France, and between Great Britain and other Nations. 8ve.

Stockdale. The Writer of this Essay is not to be classed with the common herd of paniphletteers who ifide forth on temporary occasions: he undertakes to examine the frinci le of the late commercial treary, and in this line of inquiry overlooks many paltry calculations of present balances of profit and loss on the immediate articles of traffic. For, he observes, • the commercial balance has for its object the increase of gold and silver; but the political balance has for its object the increase of real physical wealth, and consequently the increase of general prosperity, and of national power.' He inftances many nations, as weil as our own American colonies, that have evidently thriven with a positive balance of trade againit them; paying that balance from the produce of the earth. Whoever portefies things, poflefies the price of things, and much more furely than if he poliefied gold and silver; for an ox, or a bushel of wheat, is of the fame value now that it was five hundred years ago; but an ounce of gold is of twenty times less value now, than at the former period. Agriculture ought certainly to be considered not only as a manufacture, but as the most profitable of all manufactures; for the products of agriculture are the result of the labour of man, as much as the products of the loom or of the forge, with this great ad. vantage in favour of the former, that labour forms a smaller part of the aggregate of their value; therefore the net profit is the greater. From this consideration, I think it would be very ad. vantageous to this kingdom if one half of our idle shopkeepers would turn cultivators, that is, would become manufacturers; and thar, instead of throwing ourselves into feverish heats about the uncomputable balance of foreign trade, we should give our chief attention to cultivate that branch of commerce, where the annual balance is fure to be in our favour, to the amount of many millions.' Nature, he adds, could yieid us many millions more, were we but to labour for it with half the afliduity that we labour for foreign balances, But, if the increase of foreign commerce is a thing desirable, it appears to me that the commercial treaty has a tendency to occasion such an increase. I hope we are not so selbfh as to defire all the advantages of it to be on our side; and I cannot presume to think the French ministry fo unwile, as not to have the interest of France in view, in fraining the different articles of the treaty, as well as the English ministry had the interest of Great Britain. How! Can the treaty be both beneficial to us, and to the French? And why not? even on the suppofition of the annual balance of trade between the two nations, being perfectly equal, the commercial intercourse between them may nevertheless be greatly beneficial to both.'

Is. 6d.


' I have seen,' says he, at Marseilles, a cargo of Dutch cheeses that would have nearly purchased a cargo of French wine, the pound of cheese being nearly an equivalent for a bottle of wine; and I own I was sorry that England had precluded herself from making the same exchange. How many places are there in France where a pound of the best English cheese would purchase two bottles of good Burgundy; and should the poffeffors of those two different commodities with an interchange, is there much policy in obitructe ing them?''

The author of A View of the Treaty of Commerce with France *, thinking he had discovered an insuperable reason against any commercial connection between the two kingdoms, the validity of that objection is thus confidered:

- This author lays it down as a principle, that the staple manu. factures of wine, brandy, vinegar, oil, &c. give France a physical superiority to the prejudice of England; and, never doubting of the justness of his principle, is thereby led into numberless errors throughout his performance. As much stress has been laid upon this principle, though a false one, and as it is apt, when ignorantly adopted, to fill the minds of well-mean ng people with apprehenfions, a more particular examination of it may therefore not be unprofi:able. The example I have before given, of a pound of cheese having a marketable value equal to two bottles of wine, at once Thews the futility of it; but the more narrowly it is viewed, the more unfound it will appear. If we reckon what will best feed and maintain man (and that will be the ultimate ftandard of all commercial balances), an acre of wheat, or an acre of potatoes, will be of more value than an acre of oranges, or olives, or fugar. The late war afforded an instance of an acre of onions from New York, selling in the West Indies for what would purchase two acres of sugar. In how many places of England, may not an acre of dairy yield as much, in butter, as an acre of olive trees would yield in oil? In many parts of England one may see, in the months of Decernier, January, and February, young lambs feeding in the meadows with their dams, while one half of the neighbouring continent of Europe is buried under snow; and, in the months of June, July, and August, our cattle ftill find food in the fields, while the southern climates of Europe are, from the excess of heat,

• See Rev. Feb. laft, p. 169.

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yielding almost as little fuftenance for cattle, as if they were covered with water. It may, therefore, justly be presumed, that the bene. fits arising from our mild winters, and perpetual paftorage, when contrasted with those which the hot fummers confer upon France, give the physical superiority to the side of Great Britain.

Our author is as little satisfied with the reasons why our conneâion with Portugal should stand in the way of a like intercourse with France. If the Portuguese think the Methuen treaty advantageous to them, why may they not still continue it? If they think it disadvantageoas, they will, doubtless, rejoice at the cessation of it. The reasoning of some of our orators and writers, who have objected to the commercial treaty on this ground, is most curious, and most extraordinary. After enumerating, with all the painful accuracy of haberdashers or shopkeepers, the balances of trade for a long course of years, between Portugal and England, they conclude, from a comparison of the debtor and creditor columns, that it has been most gainful to England; and, at the same time, that the Portuguese will be highly offended if any alteration is made in it!'

On the whole, this sensible writer concludes, that with a due cultivation of our domestic advantages, we have no occasion to distract our minds about the balance of trade: the custom-house balance of profit, and the political balance of profit, being widely different.

N. Art. 21. Alarming Progress of French Politics: an Appeal to the

People of Great Britain. 8vo. is. Jameson. 1787. If the French have been as alert in canvalling the dangers of a neighbourly correspondence with us, as we have been on our part, the regulations of it cannot be censured as having been settled without sufficient consideration; for no transaction could have excited more attention, both of good and bad heads, than the commercial treaty! It should seem as if objections were now drawn off down to the very lees, and nothing left but foul-mouthed abuse; at least nothing but fcurrility is offered to the Public in this worthless publi. cation,

DO Art. 22. Speech of the Right Hon. Henry Flood, in the House of

Commons, Feb. 15, 1787, on the Commercial Treaty with France. 8vo. Debrett.

Mr. Flood is strenuous against the treaty; and his speech is argumentative and eloquent. Gentlemen on the other side of the question have also seasoned powerfully: the event will be thew which party is most in the right; and the experiment muf be tried.

POLITIC A L. Art. 23. Anticipation of the Speeches istended to have been spoken

in the House of Commons, May 4, on the Motion of Alderman Newnham, relative to the Affairs of the Prince of Wales, 8vo. 25. Kearsley, 1787

Mr. Tickell * has the merit of the first thought, and of the title, here repeated, and applied to an interesting and popular subject.

* See the account of this gentleman's “Anticipation," Rev.


vol. lix. p. 390.

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