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lication, to give an account of experiments on femi-metals, and
For the unusual length of this article, perhaps some apology
supplied with the distinguishing Marks of Construction, and tranf-
PERFECT knowledge of the Eastern languages is a mate
ter of great importance to the merchant as well as the linguist. The encouragement which Mr. Hastings gives to every attempt toward illustrating the antiquity and customs of the Eastern nations, and to the study of their languages, has, in a great measure, been the means of producing the learned performance before us. It is an edition of a work held in much eftimation among the teachers of the Persian language, and which is put into the hands of every beginner, being more immediately useful to strangers, as it relates to the common forms of business and correspondence. Dr. Balfour has collated several manuscripts, in order to render the copy as perfect as possible; and this will appear to have been a work of no small labour and difficulty, when it is considered that the Persian manuscripts are extremely inaccurate, the distinguishing points of letters being often superfluous or misplaced, and the letters themselves contracted and deformed, not to mention the great obscurity that is occasioned by words being wrongly divided, or written witbout any distinction or spaces between them, and even whole books without the division of sentences. Dr. B. having given a correct edition, where the words are properly marked and divided, has certainly presented the learners of this language, and the curious in Eastern literature, with a most valuable performance: in order to make this work more generally useful, the Doctor has given an English tranflation of the original on the opposite page, and annexed a copious vocabulary, or dictionary, of Arabic words, with the derivatives under their proper roots.
As the Infra-i herkern contains forms of oriental correspondence and busineis, we thall present our Readers with the following short specimen of an Eastern love-letter:
• O moon of the heaven of goodness! O cypress of the garden of affection ; O light of the eye of lovers ; O joy of the affectionate heart! out of your benignity and kindness you promised to enlighten the cell of my melancholy with the ray of your exhilarating prelence. Verily, since that time, the eye of hope is upon the high road of expectation. Since the days you said, I will come, mine eye is upon the road: why do you burn me with the caustic of expectation? why don't you come? If agreeable to your promise, you fould give, by a joyful figlit of you, illuminating brightness to the longing eye of your friends; no wonder at the excess of your kindness.
" Comè, come, for I love you with an hundred souls.
“ Come, for I am torn from myself and united with thee.” The Adlwer to the above.
• O amicted lover and forsaken expectant! I have understood that you long to see me, and still preserve your attachment to me. But you ought not to depend on the promise of beauties; you ought not to set your heart on their assurances.
Amongst beauties nobody ever met with fidelity;
“ Nor with any thing but schemes to torment." Nevertheless, if the lover be fincere, and content with beholding, what objection is there?
“ When lovers are fincere in their affection,
" What harm though beauties attach themselves to them ?” Want of firmness will not do; patience is requisite. The moon of my beauty may soon shine from the window, and the tree of my ftature may cast its shadow on the terrace.
“ Patience is bitter, but it bears fweet fruits." Among the forms of business is the following certificate of the sale of a flave girl.
• Khojeh Abdulla, son of Khojeh Mahom med, being of age, and in full poffeffion of all his faculties, affirms and declares to this ef. fect: “ I have sold to Meer Darvailh Mahommed, son of Mahommed Morad, a llave girl named Gulbehar, of a copper complexion, and middle size, with grey eyes, high nose, joined eye-brows, and both ears pierced, supposed about twenty years of age, for the sum of twenty current rupees, the half of which is ten, which sum I have received.” Thele few lines were drawn out in court, by way of certificate, on the eleventh of the month Zeekkadeh.'
This work is a curiosity, on account of its being the first printed book in the Taleek character. Considerable merit is due to Mr. Wilkins, without whose alistance the Inha-i herkern could never have appeared in its present form; as is evident from the following passage in the Preface:
• The only printed Perfian character that has hitherto been in vse, except in exhibiting fair copies of dictionaries and grammars, has been subservient to no public purpose; and is but ill calculated for becoming the channel of authority, or the medium of business, over an extentive empire, where it is almost unknown, and scarcely underfood; whereas the types which Mr. Wilkins has invented, being a perfect imitation of the Taleck, the character in which all Perdan books are written, and consequently familiar and universally read, are not only well calculated for promulgating the ediêts of govern.
ment, but for every transaction in business where the Persian cha.
• By this invention (which is perfectly new and peculiar to Mr. Wilkins, and at the same time the labour of his own hand, from the metal in its crudest state, through all the different stages of engraving and founding) the Persian language may now receive all the allistance of the Press. The most valuable books may be brought into print; the language may be more easily and perfectly acquired; and the improvements of the learned and industrious conveniently communicated to the Public, and preserved to posterity.'
We congratulate the cultivators of Eastern literature on the acquisition of so great an affiftance in facilitating the study of it ; and we hope that by this means not only the languages, but the learning and philosophy of the East, will be more generally known among Europeans.
States; or, on the Importance of the American Revolution to the
of a commercial intercourte between two nations, will always be proportional to the necessities of the one, and the productions of the other. The Authors of the present publication, by comparing the wanis of the Americans with the productions of France, and the contrary; and by considering the relative situations and circumstances of the two countries, prove, that a well-regulated commerce must be highly beneficial to each.
The first Chapter is employed in defining several terms, and in explaining the general principles of a foreign trade [commerce exterieur). The Authors Thew that a direct trade (i. c. a trade carried on between two nations immediately) is preferable to that which is carried on by the intervention of a third; it enables the merchant to afford his goods at a cheaper rate; and the cheapness of goods is the very basis of a foreign trade. They point out the circumstances which enable a nation to sell its productions cheap, and also the circumstances which oblige two nations to enter into a commercial intercourse. They consider the mutual interest of the two nations, and the nature of things, to be the only means of establishing a sure trade. Treaties, regulations, laws, and force, are of no effect; all of them muft give way to the nature of things.
The authors next enter into an examination of what is meant by a balance of commerce. Here we are presented with some cuAPP, Rey. Vol. LXXVI.
rious conclusions. It is proved that the balance of commerce is an infignificant word; that the balance pad in gold is not a proof that the trade is disadvantageous to the nation paying, nor advantageous to the nation receiving fuch balance; that the ta. bles or calculations of the balance of commerce are not to be depended on ;-that the only method of estimating the increase of trade is by the increase of population;-that it is impoffible to determine the quantity of money in a country;--and that the calculations made for this purpose are faulty, as being built on uncertain data; ~ibat the precious metals are not true riches;that, confidered as the means of change, it would be better to fubftitute, in home trade, paper-money instead of coin, and to employ coin for thole purposes in which paper is useless, namely in foreign trade.
The Authors then apply the general principles, before laid down, to the present itate of France and the United Siates ; they describe the fituation and the productions of the country, and the difpofitions and employment of its inhabitants. It may be objected, that it would be better for France to improve her home trade and cultivation, than to extend her foreign trade; the extension of a foreign trade is esteemed the fitreft, if pot the only effectual means, of improving her cultivation, her manufactories, &c. Some very just seflections are added, on the inferiority of the French manufactures to those of England; the causes of this inferiority are pointed out, and a foreign trade is thewn to be the only means for rendering them more fiourishing
In the next Chapter, a view is taken of the United States; from which it plainly appears, that they are under an absolute necessity of carrying on a foreign trade. The Authors consider, fepara ely the wants of the Americans, viz. the wants of neceffaries, of conveniences, and of luxury; these are only to be supplied by a foreign trade; manufactories are as yet almost vaknown to the Americans; they are a new people, and have no time to exact or establish any manufactories until their country is well cultivated ; their greatest present interest is, to apply themselves to agriculture, and by no means to establish manus factories. After enumerating the advantages of such a pradice, the Authors shew that France alone is, of all other countries in Europe, the best adapted to supply che wants of America. This is demonstrated by taking a view of the reciprocal importations and exportations carried on between France and the United States. The Authors prove, that it would be disadvantageous to the Americans to cultivare the vine in order to make wines ; and that the French wines are preferable to all others. In a Gunilar manter, brandy, oil, olives, &c. &c. are separately conlidered ; together with the produce of industry, such as cloth, linen, lilk, hats, leather, glass, hardware, paper, &c. &c.
The articles which America can send to France, are, tobacco, fish oil, fprmaceti, corn, mafis, and other timber for thip-building, furs, rice, indigo, lintseed, pitch, turpentine, &c. &c. These are leparately treated, and reasons are given why America can furnish such commodities better than any other country.
The work concludes with a collection of original papers relative to France and the United States; among which is a proclamation for the establishment of regular packet boats between Havre and New-York; one of these fails every six weeks from Havre, or oftener, if the complement of passengers is full in a Thorter time.
Meffis. Claviere and De Warville are spirited writers; but they are sometimes too violent. The ardor of liberty is liable to break out into the fame of licenciousness, unless reftrained by the superior judgment of a calm and unbiaffed reasoner.
The Authors are juftly entitled to the united thanks of the French and the Americans ; for they have plainly shewn the mutual advantages that may accrue from a commercial intercourse between the two nations; and they have, at the same time, given a just view of a foreign trade in general, and the benefits thence arising.
in V. T. ex Arabijimo ac Perfimo depromptis ; quibus recognitis atque
Author of a Portuguese and English Dictionary *, in iwo volumes 4to, published in London, in the year 1773. His present delign is to facilitate the ftudy of the Arabic language, by such a comparison of Oriental and European words, as may develope the elements and significations of both; and, by illustrating their mutual agreement, fupply the itudent in Eastern literature with the most effectual altance and encouragement. Mr. Vieyra inlifts particularly on the great utility of inis plan to every one who wishes to collect an ample store of words in the Oriental languages; as the neceffary exercise of the judgment in such etymological researches will not only afford intervals of relief to the memory, but render the impresions which are made on it
* See Rev. vol. L. P. 319.
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