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I. “That'expressed by Accusative with Infinitive.

Gr. $S 200 a, and 204-208. § 1. Subject of the Infinitive. The Subject of an Infinitive Mood should always be expressed in Latin, as, ait se vicisse, constat eum vicisse, etc.

Note. Occasionally me, te, se, are omitted after Verbs in the First, Second, and Third Person respectively, as, Tullius pollicetur venturum, Tullius promises to come!; but it will be well for beginners not to imitate this usage.

§ 2. Ambiguity in Oblique Statement. In the employment of Accusative with Infinitive ambiguity ($ 105) may arise if the Infinitive be Transitive and have an Object in the Accusative Case, as it may be difficult to see which of the two Accusatives is Subject and which Object of the Infinitive. Thus, Ciceronem Terentiam amavisse credimus' may mean either We believe that Cicero loved Terentia,' or "We believe that Terentia loved Cicero. To prevent the chance of a mistake, and to avoid loading the sentence with Accusatives, it is often better to use a Passive construction, and write ‘Terentiam a Cicerone amatam esse credimus,' or

Ciceronem a Terentia amatum esse credimus,' according to the sense intended?.

1 Inter se conjurant nihil nisi communi consilio acturos. Caes. B. G. iii. 8.

? The Passive need not always be used. The context will determine the meaning of many passages clearly enough, whilst in others the sense forbids more than one interpretation, e.g. 'Aves nidos fecisse scimus' must mean 'We know that the birds have built their nests.'

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§ 3. Translation of Coordinate Sentences. Two Finite Verbs coupled by 'and' need not always be translated literally into Latin. It is often better to express the former of the two Verbs by a Participle or quum Clause, and to omit the translation of 'and,' e.g.

(a) If the former of the two Verbs is Passive or can be translated by a Deponent, the Perfect Participle may be used.

Others had been vanquished and were retiring from the battle. Alii victi proelio excedebant.

They then set out at a rapid pace and arrived at the river. Inde rapido cursu profecti ad flumen pervenere.

(6) If the former of the two Verbs has an Object, a neat translation can be made by an Ablative Absolute.

They shouldered their knapsacks and began to ascend the mountain. Sarcinis sublatis montem ascendere coeperunt.

(c) If both Verbs have the same Object, the former of the two may be represented by a Perfect Passive Participle in agreement with the Object.

He routed and pursued the enemy (or, He routed the enemy and pursued them). Hostes fusos persequitur, (lit. He pursues the having-been-routed enemy.)'

(d) Aquum Clause may often be substituted for a Participle. Thus in the above examples, instead of profecti, sarcinis sublatis, and fusos, we might have written quum profecti essent, quum sarcinas sustulissent, quum fudisset, respectively.

EXERCISE 1. Caesar, having formed this plan", pitched his camp and awaited the enemy. The Gauls, elated by previous engagements, neither took time for deliberation?, nor restrained themselves within their fortifications, but raised a shout and began to ascend the hill. Caesar having been informed by spies that the Gallic cavalry were now less than five hundred paces4 distant, and perceiving5 that our men had seen the enemye, ordered the soldiers to

3 Gr. § 373.

: 1 Gr. $ 302. ; * Abl. .

2 Use ad with Gerund. . 5 § 21.

march-out-of the camp and engage in battle. Then having broken-through the line of the Gauls at the first charge, he routs and pursues them to the river. The water in this part was of very great depth, and many of them, encumbered by the weight of their arms, sank and perished.


The same (continued). § 4. Omission of est, sunt, esse. The omission of esse generally, and of est, sunt, in Principal (rarely in Subordinate) Clauses, is common in all Latin writers with Tenses which in their full form are compounded of a Participle and the Verb sum.

Quare ad haec opera Caesar addendum putavit, (sor addendum esse). Wherefore Caesar thought that additions should be made to these works.

Exitu anni comitia habita (for habita sunt). At the end of the year the elections were held.

Note. This omission of the Auxiliary is especially frequent in a narrative where a number of details have to be summed up, e.g. Liv. ii. 18, Multi exulum caede sua foedavere templum, multi vivi capti, Herdonius interfectus. Ita Capitolium. recuperatum. De captivis, ut quisque liber aut servus esset, suae fortunae a quoque sumptum supplicium est. Tusculanis gratiae actae, Capitolium purgatum atque lustratum.

$ 5. 'Would' and 'Should' signs of Futurity in Oratio Obliqua. In Oratio Obliqua, when the governing Verb is a Historic Tense, the word 'would' (and occasionally

should') is to be rendered by the Future Infinitive in Latin. Note the following examples.

(a) ACTIVE VOICE.. I thought that I should obtain what I wanted, and that my brother would pay the money. Putavi me quod vellem impetraturum esse, fratremque meum pecuniam soluturum.

I thought I should have obtained what I wanted, and that my brother would have paid the money. Putavi me quod vellem impe.. traturum fuisse, fratremque meum pecuniam soluturum.

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