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path, he was thrown from the chariot, and falling to the earth was killed?

V.

. That' expressed by Quod. § 13. Quod Clauses.

(a) Instead of an Accusative with Infinitive to translate clauses beginning with the English that,' we sometimes employ a clause introduced by quod = the fact that, followed by an Indicative Mood.

(6) These quod Clauses are not found after Verbs of declaring or perceiving, but, (1) with Impersonals and Verbal phrases compounded of est, erat, &c., and Nouns or Adjectives, (2) after Verbs denoting some pleasant or painful feeling, as, gaudeo, I am glad, doleo, I am grieved.

(c) A quod Clause is used to call attention to the actual occurrence of some fact about which an opinion is expressed, whereas the Accusative with Infinitive makes mention of a fact without always denoting that the fact actually occurs. Thus, 'utile est multos esse in urbe custodes' might mean 'it is useful that there should be many guards in the city,' where it is not necessarily implied that there are any guards in the city. But, 'utile est quod multi sunt in urbe custodes,' means “the fact that there are many guards in the city is a useful thing.'

§ 14. Quod Clauses explanatory of hoc, id, illud. The Pronouns hoc, id, illud (when not the Objects of Verbs of declaring or perceiving) are often defined by quod Clauses, as, Cic. Milo 21: Si quid possumus, ex eo possumus quod respublica nos conjunxit, “If we are enabled at all, we are enabled by the fact that the common weal has united us.

The following are additional examples of the use of quod :

It happens most fortunately for Lucius that, &c. Hoc Lucio percommode cadit, quod, &c.

Delapsus.

? Use 'vita excedere,' to depart from life.

3 $ 7.

In this one point we are completely superior to wild beasts, namely that we can express our perceptions by speech. Hoc uno praestamus vel maxime feris, quod exprimere dicendo sensa possumus.

They were greatly assisted by the fact that the Liger had been swollen by the snow. Multum eos adjuvabat quod Liger ex nivibus creverat, (lit., The fact that the L. had been swollen greatly assisted them).

EXERCISE 5. The tranquillity of life which I enjoy has arisen from the fact that the same things are a pleasure? to me now which used-to-delight me when a boys. For neither do I seek offices-of-state nor wish to surpass the-rest-of-theworld in wealth or4 honours; but living in the country5 the woods and valleys delight me, nor do I desire more. It also happens most fortunately for me that I am of a healthy constitution, so that I require neither physician nor physic. I am greatly pleased that this should be the case, and further 6 I am anxious that my children should perceive from my example that a contented mind is to be preferred to riches and pleasure of-every-kind. And since I have lived thus-far without anxieties and cares, I hope to grow old and die in like ease and tranquillity,

VI.
"That’expressed by Ut.

Gr. 88 200, a, and 204-208. § 15. Ut Clauses with Impersonals.

(a) The English 'that' meaning the fact that,' or 'the result that,' may occasionally be translated by ut with the Subjunctive.

(6) These ut Clauses are not constructed with Verbs of declaring or perceiving, nor with Verbs denoting a

. 1 $ 72, a, 1.

: 5 Gr. $ 106.

4 § 142,

? 67.
. 6 § 8, Note.

3 § 12. Pres. Inf.

pleasant or painful feeling?, but with Impersonals, especially such as denote that something happens or is going on, e. g. fit, futurum est, reliquum est, accidit, &c. . It happened that I was in the city at that time. Accidit ut illo tempore in urbe essem

(c) A list containing a few of the Impersonals which sometimes take ut is given in Lat. Gr. $ 200, a, and may here be repeated

Restat, abest, accidit,
Evenit, contingit, fit,
Licet, sequitur, and est,

Placet, refert, interest. Note 1. Accidit is said to be used more especially of bad fortune, contingit of good fortune, and evenit of either good or bad fortune. Hence the memorial line

Contingunt bona, accidunt mala, eveniunt utraque. Perhaps, however, it would be more correct to say that whilst accidit is seldom used of good fortune, or contingit of bad fortune, both Verbs may be used indiscriminately to denote events that are neither good nor bad.

Note 2. Several of the Verbs in the above list are also constructed with the Accusative and Infinitive.

(d) The following English expressions involving the use of ut in Latin may be studied with advantage

Lucius had the good fortune to obtain the consulship. Lucio contigit ut consulatum adipisceretur.

It is possible for a man to be ignorant and yet speak eloquently. Fieri potest ut ignarus aliquis sit, et tamen diserte dicat.

It is necessary for you to do this. Necesse est hoc facias (for ut hoc facias. Ut is usually omitted after necesse est ?).

They are very far from wishing this. Multum abest ut haec velint, lit., It is very far (from being the case) that they wish this.

I am on the point of setting out. In eo est ut proficiscar.

$ 16. Ut Clauses explanatory of hoc, id, illud. The Pronouns hoc, id, illud, are sometimes defined by an ut Clause. Si vero illud quoque accedet ut dives sit reus, causa difficillima i § 13, 6.

2 Gr. $ 383.

erit. If to this it be also added that the prisoner at the bar is a rich man, the case will be very difficult.

§ 17. This, that, he, -self, his, &c.

(a) The Pronoun is means that,' in the sense of 'that of which something has been said,' or 'that of which something is just going to be said by way of definition.'

Hic always means this near me,' or 'this of mine.'
Iste always means 'that near you,' or 'that of yours.'
Ille always means 'that yonder,' or 'that other.'

All the above are properly Demonstratives, but they may often be used to translate the Personal Pronouns, he, him, she, her, they, them.

(6) Hic and is are both often used in reference to some Noun immediately preceding, and in this respect the usage of both Pronouns is similar ;

Inde Lepidus arcessitus. Hunc (or eum) dictator benigne excepit. Then Lepidus was summoned. The dictator welcomed him cordially.

But hic is never or scarcely ever used in reference to a Noun which has not been previously mentioned and requires further definition before it can be understood. Hence 'he who,''they who,' are is qui, ii qui, not hic qui, hi qui.

Note. Here may be noticed a usage in which hic or is is placed in agreement with a Substantive but refers to some previously mentioned circumstance, and is equivalent to de hac re or de ea re. Cf. Livy ii. 22 : Volsci comparaverant auxilia quae mitterent Latinis ...... Hac ira (in indignation at this circumstance) consules in Volscum agrum legiones duxere. So,eo timore, by the fear which this inspired. Liv.ii.59.

(c) Hic, ille, referring to two preceding Nouns, are generally translated latter, former, respectively.

Cicero Virgiliusque discesserunt, hic in Macedoniam, ille in Asiam. Cicero and Virgil have departed, the latter into Macedonia, the for mer into Asia.

(d) Hic and iste are often used of the parties in a lawsuit. Hic, in the mouth of an advocate, means 'my client' and often the plaintiff ;' iste means the other party,' 'our opponent,' and often 'the defendant.'

(e) The employment of hic, is, and ille, is particularly useful for avoiding a repetition of Proper Names.

Caesar told Brutus that he intended to put Lepidus to death. Brutus, however, informed Lepidus of the design. Caesar Bruto dixit se in animo habere Lepidum interficere. Is tamen rem illi patefecit.

(f) Ille is always the Pronoun used to introduce a new subject of discourse.

(8) Se and Suus are Reflexive (i.e. bending back) Pronouns, because they belong in construction usually to the Predicate of a sentence but bend or refer back to its Subject. Hence,

(1) If the English his, her, their, be in agreement with a Noun which is the Subject or part of the Subject of a sentence, they must be translated by ejus, or eorum.

Scaevola and his son are here. Scaevola filiusque ejus hic sunt.

But if they are in agreement with any other Noun, but at the same time have reference to the Subject, we must use suus.

Scaevola is here with his son. Scaevola cum filio suo hic est.

(2) When the Principal Verb of a Latin sentence is in the Third Person, se and suus will, in accordance with the rule above given, generally refer to its Subject.

Adventu hostium milites sese armarunt. The soldiers at the approach of the enemy armed themselves.

Pater Lentuli villam suam incendit. The father of Lentulus burnt his (i.e. his own) country house. If ejus were used instead of suam, the reference would be to Lentulus' country house.

(3) Often however in Latin the grammatical Subject of the sentence (i.e. the Nominative Case) is different from its logical Subject (i.e. the person or thing which is really the principal subject of discourse), and in such cases se and suus are sometimes found in dependence on or in agreement with the grammatical subject, but referring to the logical subject.

Scipionem impellit ostentatio sui. Self ostentation actuates Scipio.

Hannibalem sui cives e civitate ejecerunt. His own citizens expelled Hannibal from the state.

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