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(c). In the middle of Athens there was a hill of considerable height, which they called the Acropolis. This hill Pericles beautified with splendid? buildings and enriched with statues of exquisite workmanship. The Parthenon ora temple of Athene?, the noblest * and most famous of all these buildings, extended in length 5 227 feet, in breadth 101, in height 65. In the interior, opposite the entrance, they say that the noted statue of Athene stood, the work of Phidias, an illustrious ? sculptor, made of 6 gold and ivory, and almost equalling in height the temple itself. Phidias, the designer of this splendid? work, was thrown into prison by his own countrymen and died of disease in the year 432 B.C. 8 His unhappy end is a proofy to us that prosperity is never secure, and that envy and ingratitude 10 too often succeed in achieving their purpose.

II (a).
He said that he should advise him 12.
She says that she shall go to her house at Athens 13.
Did she say that she would come with speed 14 ?

The anxious mother replied that she would have come with the utmost speed.

No wise man believes that he shall be put to death without orders from 15 the general.

I thought I should be praised by the eloquent Hortensius 16.
They said that he would have been condemned in his absence 17.
They think he will learn without any difficulty.

1 § 117 (a). 2 $ 134, note. 3 Gr. $ 156, a. 4 $ 36. 5 g 60, C, note 1. 6 § 131, 6, 2. 7 $ 117, g. 8 Gr. $ 165, 6, 4. 9 $ 67. 10 $ 100. 11 $ 107.

iz Great ambiguity may be caused in English by the indiscriminate use of he and him, when more than one person is spoken of. Thus, supposing that only two persons, who may be named A and B, are the subject of conversation, we shall find that such a simple sentence as 'A said that he would be killed by his father' may mean at least four different things, viz.

(1) that A would be killed by A's father, A said

2) that A would be killed by B's father, 3 (3) that B would be killed by A's father,

that B would be killed by B's father, and the Latin versions would respectively be,

((1) se ab suo patre A dixit (2) se ab ejus patre

interfectum iri. 3) eum ab suo patre

(4) eum ab ipsius patre) The substitution of should' for 'would' in the above examples would cause still further complications, as 'should’ may='ought to,' besides implying futurity. It will be well for beginners to give the various possible translations in dealing with these disconnected sentences where there is no context to help in fixing the meaning. 13 % 59, c. 14 8 69.

16 & 72, d. 17 & 103.

eginnersces wherns $ 73.

Most people thought that he would learn much' more quickly.

We believed that they would have learnt these things from each other?

There are some who thinks that the city will be besieged.

There were some who thought that the Falernian grapes would soon grow-mellow.

Does anybody 4 think that the women and children will be greatlyalarmed ?

You did not suppose, did you ”, that the river would have been a hindrance to our troops ?

Somebody 6 declared in the hearing of the soldiers that Veii would be taken in the following summer.

We were informed by certain priests that Veii would have been taken in the previous year.

They do not venture to deny, do they, that next spring the snow will melt and the rivers overflow?

Did anybody say that the Gauls would besiege the city and that the women would grow pale with fear ?

(c).

About three years afterwards Sulla crossed-over into Greece, where Aristion, who was declaring that he would never obey the authority of Rome, had seized Athens and was preparing to resist the consular forces. This city Pericles had strengthened with walls sixty feet in height, built entirely of hewn stone; and so well fortified did it appear to be that Aristion thought it could not be taken, and said that Sulla would lose all his troops and be driven from Greece. The city was besieged in vain for-a-long-time, and was at length taken by a stratagem. A terrible slaughter ensued 10; Aristion was slain with his guards and attendants; the slaves were sold by auction; to very few was liberty granted. Thus Athens was recovered: and Rome's 8 iron heel 11 stamped out the last sparks of Grecian independence 12.

III (a). This at least is manifest, that faith should be kept by all men, whether (sive) rich or (sive) poor.

1 $ 128. 2 & 116. 3 & 141, b. 4 § 19, note 1. 5 Gr. $ 60. 6 § 141, 7 $ 56. 8 & 127, B, 1, d. 8 60, a, 2, and c, note 1. 10 $ 4. 11 & 127, B, 1, b.

12 A good deal must be left to taste and common sense in doing such sentences as these. Literal translation would make nonsense. Read the remarks in § 127 B, 2.

It is a most unusual thing, I imagine, that women should attack trained soldiers.

Moreover it is not to be doubted that courage is inborn in some, cowardice in others.

This indeed is unendurable, that men of the lowest class should obtain such honours by criminal intrigues,

We are accustomed to remark this peculiarity' in the Lacedaemonians, that they preferred simplicity of life to pleasures.

It is fitting that a father should first be good himself and then teach his children to be good.

It is reasonable that youth 3 should pay-deference to old age.
It is universally agreed that virtue should be preferred to wealth.

(6).

Xerxes, after he had been defeated by the Greeks in a naval battle, fled with a few followers and returned home to Persia. Mardonius, however, his lieutenant-general, remained in Greece for the purpose of carrying on the war, and in the following year led into the field 300,000 soldiers and engaged in battle with the Greeks. On-the-day-before this battle + the Greeks, thinking 5 that the ground was not favourable to them for fighting, determined to retreat in-the-direction-of Plataea. But Amompharetus, one of the officers of the Lacedaemonians, declared that he would not move from his post; that it was the dụty of Lacedaemonians either to conquer or die, not to retreat from an enemy; nor could any threats (or) any entreaties tụrn him from his purpose. But on the following day, we are told, the rest of the army having set out towards Plataea, he abandoned his resolve and followed the forces of his countrymen.

IV (a).
They say he is not? so foolish as to irritate this savage 8 lion.
All prudent slaves ' hope that the sheep will grow-fat.
Did anyone say that the sheep would not have grown fat?
We foolishly 10 hoped that the city would have been taken.
It is also to be noticed that old age 11 is often very talkative.

The wise general promised to send a cohort of cavalry to the assistance of the citizens 2.

Nobody believed that Cicero and his friends would have been deceived by this impudent 8 slave.

1 § 117, C. 5 § 21.

10 & 103.

2 $ 127, B, 4, e. 3 $ 100, b.

4 Gr. $ 372, note. 6 $ 36, footnote. 7 $ 130, C. 8 117, g. $ $ 117, ja g 100, b. 12 Say, as an assistance (867) to he citizens.

Somebody threatened to draw his sword and attack the general whilst haranguing his soldiers.

(6). The Gauls are not so foolish, are they, as to hope to resist the Romans?

Somebody asserted in the hearing of Claudius that the tribes on? the sea-coast, when elated with victory, had threatened to attack the Province.

Sulla was wise enough to perceive that Pompeius, though quite a. young man, was capable of holding the highest command.

We hope that our pear-trees will blossom in the spring and that the fruit will ripen in the autumn.

Itt is scandalous”, is it not, that women of noble birth should be assailed by false accusations of this kind ?

They did not think that any dangers would have terrified that firm, undaunted soul.

Envy and hatred often ruin' the reputations 3 of the noblest.
His poverty and calamities raised compassion' in the hearts 3 of all.

(c After the death of Ptolemaeus, Philippus, king of Macedon, hoping 8 to gain-possession of the kingdom, engaged-in a naval battle with the Rhodians, with doubtful success. In the following year, having assembled an army at the Chersonnesus, he made-war upon Attalus, and laid-siege-to Pergamus, which he hoped to take without difficulty. But having endeavoured in vain to storm the city, he was foolish enough to turn his anger against the gods, whose temples he burnt and (whose) altars he overthrew and destroyed, even the stones being pulled-up from their foundations, lest any 10 traces should survive. This impiety plainly showed that he cared-nothing-for divine-things, nor believed that human affairs were in any way regulated by the gods. No doubt, folly and madness were constituent elements of his character.

V (a). To this was added the fact that the rising in 11 Gaul was not yet quelled.

Tullia and I were annoyed that such a patriot as Brutus 12 should have been condemned.

1 $ 56, a. note. 12 & 142, d.

2 $ 73 $ 100, a.

6 § 117, 8,

3 $ 107.
8 $ 21.

4 § 8.
9 $ 59, a.

5 $ 117, a.

10 $ 109, e.

11 § 73

I am glad that the ships have returned safely into port.

Another lamentable? circumstance is that the women have not been protected from injury at the hands of the multitude 3.

We were enabled to learn these particulars * from the circumstance that Lentulus was one of the conspirators.

The fact that Portia has married Brutus is most pleasant both to citizens and to foreigners.

(6). When Cicereius and Scipio were-candidates-for the praetorship in the year 174 B.C. 5, the former, who was held in great favour amongst the people, went-down to the Campus 6 attended by a vast crowd of citizens, whilst? very-few accompanied the latter. Cicereius, however, who was very much grieved that no honour was paid to a man of such 8 noble birth, called-together the multitude and spoke thus, ‘Nothing to-day, Quirites, has filled me with heavier sorrow than the circumstance that you have preferred me, who am only of moderate rank and position in the state, to the son of the great Africanus.' These and similar sentiments 4 having been uttered by him, the minds of the people changed”, and upon his declaring that he did not u wish to be made praetor, the honour was conferred upon Scipio. Seldom in history has generosity dictated so unselfish a course as this.

VI (a). It happened that the Athenians wished to send settlers at the beginning "1 of summer to the Chersonnesus.

It follows that virtue is in itself desirable. We too, whether by accident or the favour of heaven 12, shall have the good fortune to avoid these dangers.

The sailors, we are told, had the misfortune to be overwhelmed to a man by the violence of the waves.

It is impossible for such men as Caesar and Pompeius 13 to suffer these terrible calamities 1+ with cheerful temper.

When we were on the point of embarking a terrible storm arose.

How does it happen that some are seeking their fatherland, others leaving it 15?

It remains for you to bury the dead-body and depart home 16.

1 § 103. 2 § 117, a. 3 $ 73. 4 $ 127, B, 4, e. 5 Gr. § 165, b, 4. 6 The place where the elections were held. 7 $ 99, a. 8 § 142, c. 9 § 106. 10 $ 130, C. 1 $ 56, a. 14 § 127, B, 1, e.^ 13 142, d. 14 § 117, 8.

16 Gr. $ 102, footnote.

15 Š 85, a.

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