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In the above examples Scipionem and Hannibalem are the logical subjects of their respective sentences. The information principally meant to be conveyed is that Scipio was actuated by self-ostentation, and that Hannibal was banished by his own countrymen.

(4) Where -self, one's own, &c., require to be expressed in connexion with some Noun in the sentence which is not either grammatical or logical subject, se and suus may be employed, provided no ambiguity is created.

Alexander urbem a suis destitutam intrat. Alexander enters a city deserted by its inhabitants.

(5) For se and suus in Oratio Obliqua, see § 31, b, c.

EXERCISE 6. Alexander, having taken Sidon and deposed Strato, wished to choose some worthier person as king. It happened that there was in the city a certain man, Abdolonymus by name, sprung from royal blood, and of well-known honesty and integrity. He was, however, so poor, we are told”, that he was obliged to earn his food by daily labour in the fields. This man Alexander determined to make king. When informed by messengers that this had been decreed by Alexander“, he at first thought it was a dream, but when at length he perceived that it was true, he spoke as follows, 'Since Alexander so commands, it is necessary for me to undertake this duty, nor do I refuse so great an honour; but I am very far from desiring to abandon my present way of living and make-trial-of new and unknown dangers.'

Oblique Question.

Gr. SS 200, b, and 204-208. $ 18. Rule for Oblique Question. Whenever a Clause introduced by an Interrogative word forms the Subject or .17, 6. 289. § 12. $ 17, e. 5 § 15, d., :

Object of a Verb, the Verb in such Clause must be put in the Subjunctive.

Thus, cur fles, why do you weep? becomes 'cur fleas' when it forms the Subject of a Verb, as, cur fleas incertum est, it is uncertain why you weep, or the Object of a Verb, as, cur fleas nescio, I know not why you weep.

Note. This Rule is subject to exceptions in the case of whole speeches reported in Oratio Obliqua. See § 30, Note.

§ 19. Interrogative Words. The principal Interrogative Words are, Qualis, quantus, uter, quis, quot, quotus, unde, ubi, quando, Cur, quoties, quare, quam, quomodo, num, -ně, ut, an, utrum?.

Note 1. To the above list should be added the Interrogative-Indefinite Pronouns ecquis, numquis, which are to be used in all Direct Questions which contain the word any, and in all Oblique Questions where whether is followed by any.

Did anyone see them ? Ecquis (or numquis) eos vidit ?

Do you think anyone saw them ? Ecquem (or numquem) eos vidisse putes ?

We wish to know whether anyone saw them. Scire volumus numquis eos viderit.

Note 2. The addition of the Particle -nam to quis and ubi is frequent, as quonam modo? in what manner ? &c.

Note 3. As a rule beginners find it very difficult to recognise readily an Oblique Question in English. It may be of use to them to remember that (with the exception of the Adverb 'how?' and Interrogative expressions formed with how, as, 'how many ?' 'how often?' &c.), nearly all Interrogative words begin with the letters wh-, e.g. who? when? where? what? why? &c.

$ 20. 'And connecting groups of Nouns or Clauses. A group of Nouns having and prefixed to the last is

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1 Line 1. Of what sort ? How great ? Which' (of two) ? Who ? How many ? Which (in numerical order) ? Whence? Where? When ?

Line 2. Why? How often ? Wherefore ? How? How? Whether ? Whether ? How ? Or whether? Whether of the two ?

usually translated into Latin with all the Conjunctions omitted or all retained.

Mountains, rivers, and woods. Montes, fluvii, silvae, or montes et fluvii et silvae; but not montes, fluvii et silvae?

The same rule holds good when Co-ordinate Sentences are grouped together with an 'and' prefixed to the last of them. Perhaps it is more usual to omit the 'et' in each case than to insert it.

The enemy took to flight, the cavalry fell in with them as they fled, and a great slaughter ensued. Hostes terga verterunt; fugientibus equites occurrere; magna caedes sacta.

$ 21. English Present Participle in -ing. The English Present Active Participle is of very wide, the Latin Present Active Participle is (so far at all events as regards its Nominative Case), of very limited signification.

The English Present Participle Active may have at least three different significations, viz. (a) whilst, (6) after, (c) since or because.

(a) 'Walking one day in the forest I was attacked by a wolf. Here 'walking' means whilst walking,' and the Participle is used in a Present sense, i.e. Present in regard to the time denoted by the principal Verb.

(6) 'Drawing his sword he slew three of the enemy.' Here drawing' means 'having drawn,' and the Participle is used in a Past Sense.

(c) Thinking that night would soon come on, they abandoned the pursuit. Here thinking' means 'as, or since, they thought,' and the Participle is used in a Causal sense.

The Latin Present Participle Active (amans, monens, &c.), is almost wholly confined to the first of the above three significations, viz. whilst. Hence, 'gladium educens tres ex hostibus interfecit' would be quite inadmissible as a translation of Example (6), for it would mean 'He killed three of his enemies whilst in the act of drawing his sword.' For a similar reason we could not use "existimantes' for 'thinking,' in Example (c).

1 We find, however, -que sometimes added to the last word of the group, e.g. pueri senes mulieresque. Caes. B. G. 1. 29.

The following methods may be adopted for translating the English Present Participle when it is used either in a Past sense or in a Causal sense.

1. Use quum with Subjunctive. In this way we may translate examples (6) and (c), given above, as follows :

(6) Quum gladium eduxisset, tres ex hostibus interfecit.

(c) Quum noctem cito adventuram existimarent, hostem sequi destiterunt.

2. Use a Perfect Passive? or Deponent Participle.
(6) Stricto gladio, tres ex hostibus interfecit.
(c) Noctem cito adventuram rati, hostem sequi destiterunt.


The soldiers having refused to advance any further, the general summoned the officers to a council and asked what they wanted and why they were unwilling to follow him”. 'I know-not,' said he, 'what I have done that I should displease you, nor can I tell you how-great grief you are bringing-upon me. Remember how-often you have endured with me dangers, watchings and fasting, and under my leadership have conquered the fiercest enemies. Whilst he was speaking: a messenger suddenly entered. The general, fearing' thats some new danger? was-at-hand, enquired of him who he was, whence he had come, and whether he brought any8 news?. Upon his declaring that the enemy were approaching the assembly broke up, and the troops promised to obey their general and march forth to battle.

i The Perfect Passive Participle used in a Reflexive or ‘Middle' sense will be found particularly useful in translating the English Present Participle ; e.g. conversus, turning; projectus, or provolutus, throwing himself; armatus, arming himself, &c. 2 § 31, b.

3 Gr. 8 364. 4 § 21. 5 $ 119. ? Gr. § 366. 8 § 19, Note 1.

6 § 141.


n Grae.

( Romanusne

Scus sis.

The same (continued).

Gr. $8 292-294, and 295, 296. $ 22. Utrum ... an. Double Questions, i.e. such as have an 'or’in them, as, ' Are you a Roman or a Greek ?' have utrum, -ne, or (more rarely) num prefixed to the first member of the sentence, and an to the second.

( Utrum Romanus ) Are you a Roman or a Greek? | Num Romanus an Graecus es?

( Romanusne ) I wish to know whether you Scire ( utrum Romanus and are a Roman or a Greek.

3 num Romanus

volo Utrum, -ne, num, are sometimes omitted in these double questions.

Shall I speak or be silent ? Eloquar an sileam ? And sometimes -ne is used for an. Not knowing whether you were white or black. Albus aterne fueris ignorans.

For or not' use an non in Oratio Recta, necne in Oratio Obliqua.

Can he do this or not? Utrum haec facere an non potest?

I wished to know whether he could do this or not. Scire volui utrum haec necne facere posset.

Note 1. The omission of utrum, -ne, or num, is particularly frequent after Verbs denoting doubt and uncertainty. An must then be translated whether.

It is uncertain whether he will do this without compulsion. Incertum est an sine vi hoc faciat. (Supply utrum vi coactus to complete the sense.)

Sometimes the Governing Verb is altogether omitted, and then an simply marks a question, usually an indignant question.

Why, he asked, had they come to him? Was it for the sake of spying ? Quid ad se venissent ? An speculandi causa ?

Note 2. The phrase "haud scio an,' followed by a Subjunctive, may be translated 'I almost think.' The utrum

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