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into Thrace, for I am fain to use all possible despatch, as I am sent forward with this force on special business from the main army. Mardonius and his host are close behind me, and may be looked for shortly. When he comes, receive him as ye have received me, and show him every kindness. Be sure ye will never regret it, if ye so do.' With these words he departed and led his troops at their best speed through Thessalia and Macedonia. He himself succeeded in reaching Byzantium, but a great part of his army perished upon the road, some being cut to pieces by the Thracians, others falling victims to hunger and excessive toil.

XXXII (a). Meantime Clodius knew that Milo had to take a journey to Lanuvium on the 20th of January'. On the previous day, therefore, he suddenly set out from Rome to waylay Milo in front of his own estate.

But Milo remained that day in the Senate House until the assembly broke up?. He then came home, changed his shoes and coat, and waited a little time whilst his wife was getting ready.

This man Alco went over to Hannibal by night without the knowledge of the Saguntines, under the impression that he could move him to some extent by entreaties. His tears, however, produced no effect, and harsh conditions were imposed as might have been expected from an exasperated conqueror. Instead, therefore, of pleading further he turned deserter and remained with the enemy.

Brutus had dismissed from his mind all fear of war“, seeing the enemy had surrendered and hostages had been received ; consequently neither were the fortifications yet fully completed nor the corn and other supplies properly provided. On receiving news, therefore, of the enemy's approach, he hastily summoned a council and began to ask their opinion.

(6). Gradually the crowd gathered round to hear these proposals, and the assembly of the people became mixed up with the Senate. Before any answer had been given, the chief men suddenly withdrew, and bringing together into the market-place all the gold and silver from public and private sources flung it into a fire which had been hurriedly made for the purpose, and then, with but few exceptions, threw themselves also upon it. The alarm and consternation thereby occasioned spread through the whole city, and, following upon this, another disturbance was heard proceeding from the citadel. A tower which had long been battered had fallen over, and a detachment of the enemy rushing through the breach had signalled to their general that the city was destitute of the usual outposts and guards. Thinking the opportunity too good to be wasted 'Alexander attacked the city with his whole force and carried it ofihand, having previously given orders that all the grown up persons should be put to death. This command though cruel was perceived in the issue to have been almost inevitable, seeing that it would have been impossible to show mercy to men who either shut themselves up with their wives and children and burnt their houses over their own heads, or sword in hand fought without cessation to their last breath.

1 Gr. $$ 170-172. 2 until the Senate was dismissed. 3 Use 'ut' for 'as might have been expected.' 4 had thought that nothing was to be feared concerning war.

XXXIII. Amid this universal commotion three tribunes of the plebs named Publius Curatius, Marcus Metilius, and Marcus Minucius, make an attack on Sergius and Verginius, the military tribunes of the former year, and by appointing a day for their trial turn the anger and hostility of the people from themselves upon them. [Or. Obl.] · All persons, they say, 'who are overburdened by the conscriptions, the tribute or the protracted campaign and long continuance of the war, or who are plunged in grief at the reverses sustained at Veii, or whose houses are in mourning through the loss of children, brothers, kinsmen and connexions, are now furnished by us with a legal right and an opportunity of taking vengeance for political or domestic grievances upon the persons of two guilty men. The source, they continued, of all our misfortunes can be traced to 3 Sergius and Verginius, a fact which is not so much proved by their accuser as admitted by the accused, both of whom being guilty are laying the blame on each other, Verginius upbraiding Sergius for running away from the enemy, Sergius charging Verginius with treachery.'

1 Thinking that he must not delay in such an opportunity. 2 § 56 b.

3 Say 'is in' for 'can be traced to.'

PART II.

*** The following exercises consist of extracts from English Authors which have been set in various Government and University examinations, including the Oxford Senior Local (indicated by the letters O. L.), the Cambridge Senior Local (C. L.), the Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board (0.C.B.), Woolwich and Sandhurst (Woolwich, &c.), the Indian Civil Service (I. C. S.), various departments of the Home Civil Service, the General Examination at Cambridge, and the Responsions and Pass Moderations at Oxford.

The Vocabulary at the end of this book is not constructed to meet the requirements of the following exercises, and the student will probably require here and there the assistance of an English-Latin Dictionary. A good deal of help may however be obtained from the rules and notes given in Part I.

34. All crimes against the State are punished with the utmost severity. But if the person accused makes his innocence clearly to appear upon his trial, the accuser is immediately put to an ignominious death; and out of his goods or lands the innocent person is abundantly recompensed for the loss of his time, for the danger he underwent, for the hardship of his imprisonment, and for all the charges he has been at in making his defence. Or if that fund be deficient, it is largely supplied by the crown. The king also confers on him some public mark of his favour, and proclamation is made of his innocence throughout the whole city. 0. L. 1878.

35.

He ordered the flames to be quenched: but, while his soldiers were employed in checking them, the Jews sallied from their inner stronghold, and a last struggle ensued. Titus swept the foe from the court with a charge of cavalry, and as they shut the gates behind them, a Roman, climbing on his comrades' shoulders, flung a blazing brand through

M

a latticed opening. The flames shot up; the Jews shrank, shrieking and yelling, from their parapets. Titus, roused from sleep, to which for a moment he had betaken himself, commanded or implored his men to save their glorious conquest; but his voice was drowned in the tumult. 0. L. 1879.

36.

This Tarpeian rock was then a savage and solitary thicket: in the time of the poet it was crowned with the golden roofs of a temple: the temple is overthrown, the gold has been pillaged, the wheel of fortune has accomplished her revolutions, and the sacred ground is again disfigured with thorns and brambles. The hill of the Capitol, on which we sit, was formerly the head of the Roman Empire, the citadel of the earth, the terror of kings; illustrated by the footsteps of so many triumphs, enriched with the spoils and tributes of so many nations. This spectacle of the world, how is it fallen ! how changed ! how defaced! O. L. 1880.

37.

Caesar, when the report of the Senate's action reached him, addressed his soldiers. He told them what the Senate had done, and why they had done it. “For nine years he and his army had served their country loyally, and with some success. They had driven the Germans over the Rhine ; they had made Gaul. a Roman province; and the Senate for answer had broken the constitution, and had set aside the tribunes because they spoke in his defence. They had voted the State in danger, and had called Italy to arms when no single act had been done by himself to justify them. The soldiers whom Pompey supposed disaffected declared with enthusiasm that they would support their commander and the tribunes. In all the army only one officer proved false. 0.L. 1882.

38. A young Spartan, named Isadas, distinguished himself particularly in this action. He was very handsome in the face, perfectly well shaped, of an advantageous stature, and in the flower of his youth. He had neither armour nor clothes upon his body, which shone with oil, and he held a spear in one hand and a sword in the other. In this condition he quitted his home with the utmost eagerness, and breaking through the press of the Spartans that fought, he threw himself upon

the enemy, gave mortal wounds at every blow, and laid all at his feet who opposed him without receiving any hurt himself.

Whether the enemy were dismayed at so astonishing a sight, or, says Plutarch, the gods took pleasure in preserving him on account of his extraordinary valour, it is said the Ephori decreed him a crown after the battle in honour of his exploits, but afterwards fined him a thousand drachms for having exposed himself to so great a danger without arms. C. L. 1878.

39.

At this moment Mamercinus rode with a small troop of horse into the castle, exclaiming, “Fabullus has fought and fallen at Corfinium ; the town must be at once abandoned ; let the soldiers make their escape to Rome. The news was so sudden that the officer hardly knew what he ought to do. He would have at once obeyed the order, had he not justly suspected the author, whom he regarded as a man of the worst character and quite unworthy to be believed. Nor was the occurrence of the day before forgotten. Mamercinus, angry at his delay, seized the standard, a golden eagle, and flung it on the ground, hoping that this act might persuade the soldiers to desert their commander. The tribune, on the other hand, implored and threatened, urging his men to remember their duty, and at least not to fly till they had certain intelligence. The rest looked on in amazement. What the end would have been it is difficult to say. C. L. 1879.

40. The same advices say that at Paris 300 men had taken up arms, and having plundered the market, pressed down by their multitude the king's guards who opposed them. Two were afterwards seized and condemned to death; but four others went to the magistrate who pronounced that sentence and told him that if he took the lives of their comrades it would be at his own peril. All order being thus lost among the enraged people, to keep up a show of authority the captain of the guard pretended that he had represented to the king their deplorable condition, and had obtained their pardon. It is further reported that the dauphin and duchess, as they went to the opera, were surrounded by crowds of people who upbraided them with their neglect of the general calamity in going to diversions when the whole people were ready to perish for want of bread. C. L. 1881.

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