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Clause is omitted from the expression, and the an Clause · which represents.the more probable event, is alone retained.

$ 23. Future Subjunctive.

(a) In Oblique Questions'would,' and occasionally should, are to be translated by a Future Subjunctive.

I did not know when he would come. Nesciebam quando venturus esset.

(6) There is no Future Subjunctive in the Passive Voice, and no Future Subjunctive Active of Verbs that have no Supine. Hence, for ' I did not know when he would learn,' there is no Latin except 'nesciebam quando disceret,' which might also mean “I knew not when he was learning. Such phrases as 'nesciebam quando futurum esset ut disceret'are not found.

EXERCISE 8. In the battle fought near? Heraclea it was for-a-longtime doubtful whether Pyrrhus and his allies or the Romans would come-off victorious. At length the Romans were overcome; but so many soldiers did Pyrrhus lose, that, thinking: it was uncertain how matters would turn out, he despatched a messenger to Rome to treat concerning peace. Upon being introduced to the Senate he4 explained what Pyrrhus desired and endeavoured to ascertain whether the Romans were willing to conclude a treaty. The latter were at-first inclined for peace, until Appius Claudius entered the Senate House, reminded them how-great deeds their ancestors had performed, and with indignant voice asked whither had fled the ancient valour of the Romans or who would everagain hold them in honour if they should do? so dis

i See Gr. 88 295, 296, which should be learnt before doing this Exercise. ? Ad. 3 $ 21. 4 § 17, f. 5 § 20.

6 This ‘or' is to be translated by aut, not by an. The question is not a double one in the sense in which the examples in § 22 are called double.'

7 Pluperf. Subj.

honourable an act. After hearing this their minds were changed', and the ambassador, it is said, was dismissed without-effecting his purpose.


The same (continued). $ 24. What.

(a) What may be simply an Interrogative Pronoun represented by quid.

I know not what it is. Nescio quid sit.

(6) What may also be a compound of Demonstrative and Relative, signifying that which. In this case it is translated into Latin in two ways.

1. By quod, id quod, quae, or ea quae.

They gave him what he had demanded. Quod (or id quod) postulaverat, ei dederunt.

2. By a Neuter Pronoun or Participle.

Let us pursue what is honourable and desirable. Honesta atque expetenda sequamur.

Note. After Verbs of deliberation, enquiry, and doubt, the word what is almost always interrogative; after Verbs of declaring or perceiving it is usually, but not always, interrogative ?; after other Verbs it almost always = that which,

$ 25. Oblique Questions explanatory of hoc, id, illud. The Pronouns hoc, id, illud, are often defined by an Oblique Question.

Cic. Milo, $ 31: Non illud jam in judicium venit occisusne sit. The question whether he was murdered is not now before the court.

And often the Pronoun follows the Oblique Clause, e.g.,

i § 4, Note.

2 Cf. Caes. B. G. vii. 38: ‘Nam dolore prohibeor quae gesta sunt pronuntiare.' Producuntur hi quos ille edocuerat quae dici vellet. The first quae=ea quae, as is shown by the Mood of gesta sunt; the second quae is interrogative, as is shown by the Mood of vellet.

Cic. Milo, $ 57: Manu vero cur miserit, si id potius quaeris. But if you prefer to ask why he set them free.

Cic. de Off. iii. g 11: Rectene autem hanc tertiam partem ad exquirendum officium adjunxerit an secus, de eo fortasse disputari potest.

EXERCISE 9. I am inclined to think it? probable that men in matters of-daily-life act not-so-much from: deliberation as from a certain fixed-condition of the mind. For most men appear to employ deliberation very seldom, unless something of great importance be-at-stake, and still more seldom do they institute an enquiry and consider whether what they are doing is right or wrong. What we do we determine upon in our mind at-once, being influenced each by his own impulse, according as habit has moulded the character of each. Whence it may be seen how-greatly in the formation of our character we are indebted to training and education. Never except by longcontinued experience do we learn to know what is really desirable and what is to be avoided.

Oblique Command.

Gr. SS 200, c, and 204-208. § 26. Oblique Command. Properly speaking, almost the only instances of Oblique Command are those which occur in a whole speech reported in Oratio Obliqua, where they are always put in the Subjunctive (see $ 30). It is convenient, however, to include under this head Clauses introduced by ut or nē, and following Verbs that express such ideas as

To ask or wish, command, contrive,
Allow, forbid, advise, and strive,

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as, Imperavi tibi ut hoc faceres, I commanded you to do this; Suasi tibi ne hoc faceres, I advised you not to do this.

The following remarks in detail upon the above Verbs may be found useful.

(a) Ask. Ali these Verbs, e. g. posco, rogo, precor, postulo, &c., take ut or ne without exception.

(6) Wish. With almost all Verbs included under this head, e.g. opto, exopto, cupio, concupisco, studeo, libet, &c., an Infinitive is far more commonly used than an ut or ne Clause. Volo takes an Infinitive (especially a Passive Infinitive), a Subjunctive with ut, or a Subjunctive without ut, but different parts of the Verb are used differently, e. g. volo scire, but velim scias. Verbs of resolving may be included under this head; of these, placet usually takes ut ; consilium capio and inducere animum (or in animum), an Infinitive or ut; the rest, as, statuo, constituo destino, &c., usually take an Infinitive.

(c) Command. Jubeo takes an Infinitive ; the rest, as, impero, mando, praecipio, praescribo, edico, &c., take ut.

(d) Contrive. Under this head are included

1. Verbs of causing, as, facio, efficio, &c. Curo, when used in this sense, takes a Gerundive, as, pontem faciendum curat, he causes a bridge to be made.

2. Verbs of taking care, as, curo, caveo, video.. 3. Verbs of gaining, as, assequor, consequor, impetro, &c.

4. Verbs of persuading, as, persuadeo, adduco, induco, &c. Persuadeo takes ut when it means to induce, as, mihi persuadet ut hoc faciam, he persuades me to do this, but an Accusative and Infinitive when it means to convince, and is followed by 'that, as, mihi persuadet haec vera esse, he persuades me that this is true.

(e) Allow. Permitto, concedo, &c., take ut. Sino and patior take an Infinitive. Licet may take an Infinitive, a Subjunctive with ut, or a Subjunctive without ut.

(f) Forbid. After all the Verbs that have hitherto been mentioned, the English 'to' is represented by ut, and 'not to' by ne. But after Verbs of forbidding, as interdico and praedico, we must translate 'to' by ne, as the sense is to order not to do something. The exception is veto, which takes an Infinitive.

Note. Under forbid may be included Verbs of hindering and preventing, as, prohibeo, impedio, obsto, &c. These take Clauses introduced by ne, quin, or quominus, representing the English from' with Gerund in -ing, as, “pater meus impedit ne (quin, quominus) proficiscar,' my father prevents me from setting out. Prohibeo and impedio also take an Infinitive. Note that ne cannot be used if there is a Negative word in the Principal Clause, e. g. do not say 'Nihil impedit ne proficiscar' for 'Nothing hinders me from setting out,' but use quin or quominus.

(8) Advise. Such Verbs are hortor and its compounds, suadeo, moneo and its compounds, &c. All these take ut. After dehortor, dissuadeo, and the like, use ne.

(1) Strive. Nitor and operam dare (to take pains) take ut. Conor and adorior usually take an Infinitive. Tento is seldom used with a Verb in Prose. Remember,

Conor facere, Nitor ut faciam, Tento rem. § 27. Omission of Ut. The omission of ut in Oblique Commands is very common.

Servis discedant imperat. He commands the slaves to depart.

EXERCISE 10. Cyrus having taken Sardis and reduced the whole of Lydia set-out-for Ecbatana, in order that he might prepare for war against the Babylonians, and allowed Croesus to accompany him. But in-the-mean-time Pactyas, a Lydian by birth, persuaded his countrymen to take-up arms and endeavour to recover their liberty. When this matter was announced to Cyrus, he commanded Croesus to be summoned, and asked him what he thought should be done. “I am convinced,' said he, “ that these Lydians will be very troublesome to me, and I am almost determined to sell-them-as-slaves. Croesus, hoping to prevent Cyrus from inflicting so great an injury on his country

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