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But se or seipsum might also be used here without, of course, the slightest ambiguity.

$ 32. Vocative Case. A Vocative cannot occur in Oratio Obliqua. In transposing, therefore, from Oratio Recta to Obliqua, if a Vocative occurs in the former, we must either leave it out in Oratio Obliqua, or use a Noun in some other Case. Thus, ‘The orator answered “ I thank you, citizens,” might be turned by Orator, cives suos allocutus, dixit se gratias iis agere,' or by 'Orator dixit se civibus suis gratias agere.'

EXERCISE 12. *** Translate the Speech in this Exercise in two ways, viz. (1) In Oratio

Recta, introduced by inquit ;' (2) In Oratio Obliqua, introduced by


Then Fabius addressing his slaves said, 'I have come reluctantly from my Campanian country-house, and I shall not stay long at Rome. Prepare supper for me immediately. Am I not your master? Are you not my slaves ? Where is the horse which I bought yesterday? I shall set-out before night, wrapped in the great-coat which my brother has given me.'


The same (continued). § 33. Introduction of Reported Speech. Any Verbs that can have an Oblique Statement, Question, or Command dependent on them may serve to introduce a Reported Speech in Oratio Obliqua. Such are all Verbs of declaring, asking, commanding, &c. But often a Reported Speech of this kind appears without any governing Verb at all, and we have to supply one from the sense of the words immediately preceding?

1 The following examples of the introduction of Oratio Obliqua are from Livy, Book i :

(a) c. 9. (After ait.) Dextra Hercules data, accipere se omen, impleturumque fata, ara condita atque dicata, ait.

$ 34. Differences of Latin and English usage. Speeches may begin either with a Statement, Question, or Command. In English, a transition from Statement to Question, from Question to Statement, from Command to Statement, &c., is often marked by a parenthetical Clause, e. g.

"The messengers declared that no insult had been intended. What reason, they asked, could there be for such intention ?'

“The king requested them to state what cause could be assigned sor the defeat. It was evident, he said, that very few precautions had been taken.'

•Pericles urged the Athenians not to lose heart. Why, he asked, did they mistrust him ?'

In Latin no such clause is needed to mark the transition.

They begged the conqueror to spare them : there was no reason, they said, why they should be visited with such a punishment. Victorem oravere uti sibi parceret; non esse cur tanto supplicio afficerentur.

See also examples (c) and (h) in footnote appended to § 33.

Exercise 13. Caius then exhorted his friends not to despair altogether of safety. It-was-better, he said, to wait a few days, inthe-hope-that reinforcements might arrive, than to sur


(6) c. 9. (Verb supplied from context.) Romulus legatos . . . misit, qui societatem connubiumque novo populo peterent. Urbes quoque, ut cetera, ex infimo nasci, &c.

(c) c. 9. (After rogitare.) A plerisque rogitantibus dimissi, Ecquod feminis asylum aperuissent ? id enim demum compar connubium fore.

(d) c. 9. (After docere.) Sed ipse Romulus circuibat, docebatque, Patrum id superbia factum, qui, &c.

(e) c. 22. (Verb supplied from context.) Illi omnium ignari primum purgando terunt tempus : se invitos quicquam ... dicturos, &c.

f) c. 23. (After nuntiare.) Nuntiare Tullo jubet, priusquam dimicent, opus esse colloquio.

(8) c. 24. (Verb supplied from context.) Cum trigeminis agunt reges, ut pro sua quisque patria dimicent ferro. Ibi imperium fore unde victoria fuerit.

(h) c. 26. (After imperare.) Roganti Mettio ex foedere icto quid imperaret, imperat Tullus uti juventutem in armis habeat: usurum se eorum opera, si bellum cum Veientibus foret.

render the city and sue-for peace from an insolent enemy. How often, he added, it happened that? fortune favoured those who seemed most to-be-in-need-of assistance. Why, he asked, did they mistrust him ? Had he ever displeased or injured anyo of them ? Let them not neglect his orders, but rather strive with even greater zeal to perform all those things which were necessary for defending the city.

The Concords. Conditional Sentences.

Gr. SS 95, 209–228, 392-3. § 35. Irregularities of Concord. Nearly all the violations of agreement between Verb and Nominative, Adjective and Substantive, or Relative and Antecedent are due to one of two causes, viz. (1) Constructio ad Sensum (Gr. $ $ 183, 216, 220), i.e. abandonment of the Grammatical rule in favour of the sense, or (2) the disturbing influence of Attraction.

Nearly all these irregularities are noticed and illustrated in the Latin Grammar, $S 216–228. The only additional points that need be mentioned here in connexion with the Concords are (a) the Rule for the Gender of Partitive Adjectives governing a Genitive, and (6) the Attraction of the Demonstrative Pronoun.

§ 36. Partitive Adjectives. Partitive Adjectives (i. e. Comparatives, Superlatives, Interrogatives, Numerals, and Quasi-Numerals) which may govern a Genitive Case*, usually follow the Gender of the word they govern.

One of the tribunes. Unus tribunorum.
One of the Muses. Una Musarum.

The heaviest of the weapons. Gravissimum telorum. Occasionally, however, the Adjective agrees with some other word understood, e. g.

i § 15.
2 § 19, Note 1.

3 Gr. 8 23. 4 Instead of a Genitive we occasionally find e, ex, with Ablative, or, more rarely, de with Ablative or inter with Accusative. The rule for the Gender of the Adjective is the same in any case.

The noblest of all that great multitude. Tantae multitudinis praestantissimus (sc. vir).

Or it may be attracted into agreement with the Subject of the Sentence.

Indus, qui est omnium fluminum maximus. Cic. N. D. ii. $ 52.

§ 37. Attraction of the Demonstrative. In a sentence where hic, iste, or ille are connected by the Verb sum or by a Verb of thinking, calling, or making, with a Noun which further defines their meaning, they are usually attracted into the Gender and Number of the defining Noun.

To Sempronius two legions were entrusted. These consisted of 4000 infantry each. Sempronio duae legiones datae. Ea quaterna milia erant peditum. Liv. xxi. 17.

Every man hurried forward to wound his foe, to scale the wall, and to be seen in the act of performing such deed. That they considered was true wealth, that was fair fame and high nobility. Se quisque hostem ferire, murum ascendere, conspici dum tale facinus faceret, properabat; eas divitias, eam bonam famam magnamque nobilitatem putabant. Sall. Cat. 7.

Hence, for such a sentence as, ' This is my country,' do not write ' Hoc patria est mea,' but Haec patria est meal.'

$ 38. Conditional Sentences. In a Conditional or Hypothetical Sentence, as, ' If it is fine, we shall go out for a walk,' the if Clause is called the Protasis, the other the Apodosis.

i The following are additional examples :

Caes. B. G. iii. 7: Subitum bellum in Gallia coortum est. Ejus belli haec fuit causa.

Caes. B. G. vii. 77: Animi est ista mollitia non virtus, paulisper inopiam ferre non posse.

Liv. i. 45 : Romae fanum Dianae populi Latini cum populo Romano fecerunt. Ea erat confessio caput rerum Romae esse.

Cic. pro Balbo, § 27 : Cum ducibus ipsis, non cum comitatu confligant. Illam enim fortasse virtutem nonnulli putabant, hanc vero iniquitatem omnes.

See also Sall. Cat. 51, where the Relative is used in an exactly similar way : Quae (=that which) apud alios iracundia dicitur, ea in imperio superbia atque crudelitas appellatur.

In translating Conditional Sentences into Latin the following Rules for Mood and Tense must be observed.

(a) When the meaning is, “If A happens, B happens,' the Present Indicative is used both in Protasis and Apodosis.

If we sin, we suffer punishment. Si peccamus, poenas damus.

(6) When the meaning is, 'If A happens, B will happen,' the Future Indicative is used both in Protasis and Apodosis.

If we sin, we shall suffer punishment. Si peccabimus, poenas dabimus.

Note 1. The Protasis will require the Future Simple or the Future Perfect, according as the action happens at the same time as or previously to the Action of the Verb in the Apodosis. Hence for peccabimus we might have written peccaverimus in the above example, and it is doubtful whether peccaverimus would not be the better translation.

Note 2. It may here be stated as a general rule that when the Principal Verb of an Oratio Recta is in the Future, the Subordinate Verbs will generally be in the Future also ; in the Future Simple if the action be contemporaneous with that of the Principal Verb, in the Future Perfect if it be anterior. But in Oratio Obliqua such Subordinate Verbs are put in the Present, Perfect, Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive. This rule is very important to remember, and is repeated at greater length in $ 43.

(c) When the meaning is, 'If A were to happen at any time, B would happen,' the Present Subjunctive is used both in Protasis and Apodosis.

If we were to sin, we should suffer punishment. Si peccemus, poenas demus.

(d) When the meaning is, 'If A were happening now, B would happen,' the Imperfect Subjunctive is used both in Protasis and Apodosis.

If we sinned (or were sinning), we should suffer (or be suffering) punishment. Si peccaremus, poenas daremus.

Note. The Imperfect Subjunctive denotes continuous action, and when coupled with si involves a reference to the time of which we are speaking. Hence, if we are speaking

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