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of the Present time, si with Subjunctive will mean “if we were doing so and so now. But if we are speaking of Past time, si with Subjunctive will mean “if we had done (or had been doing) so and so at the time.'

(e) When the meaning is, 'If A had happened, B would have happened,' the Pluperfect Subjunctive is used both in Protasis and Apodosis.

If we had sinned, we should have suffered punishment. Si peccassemus, poenas dedissemus.

(f) Conditional sentences in Oratio Obliqua. In Oratio Obliqua the above forms become I Aio nos, si peccemus,

{ poenas dare.
| Aiebam nos, si peccaremus, , !
Aio nos, si s peccemus,

peccaverimus, (

I poenas daturos esse. | Aiebam nos, si peccaremus,

l peccassemus, Aio nos, si peccemus, (C) ? Aiebam nos, si peccaremus, )

{ poenas daturos esse. (d) Aiebam nos, si peccaremus, poenas daturos esse. (e) Aiebam nos, si peccassemus, poenas daturos fuisse.

(g) Translate if ... not by nisi rather than si non. Where si non occurs in Latin authors the non is usually regarded as being in close connexion with some particular word in the sentence rather than as negativing the sentence generally, e. g.

Caes. B. G. i. 31 : Si qua res non ad nutum aut ad voluntatem facta sit.

Here non goes closely with ad nutum aut ad voluntatem, and the meaning is not so much 'If anything has not been done, but “If anything has been done, but in a manner contrary to his decision and will.

Caes. B. G. i. 35: Si non impetraret. If he fail to gain his request. Caes. B. G. i. 36: Si id non fecissent. If they failed to do so.

$ 30. Shorter Rule for Conditional Sentences. In doing Conditional Sentences, it will be of some assistance to the learner to remember that the Mood to be used in the Pro

tasis can be almost always determined by considering first what Mood will be required for the Apodosis. Thus,

(a) If the Verb of the Apodosis be in the Indicative or Imperative Mood, the Verb of the Protasis will be in the Indicative.

(6) If the Verb of the Apodosis be in the Subjunctive, the Verb of the Protasis will be in the Subjunctive.

$ 40. Conditional Clauses explanatory of hoc, id, illud. The Pronouns hoc, id, illud, are sometimes defined by a Conditional Clause.

It will be most dangerous if we ascend the mountain. Hoc periculosissimum erit, si in montem ascenderimus.

EXERCISE 14. [Translate first by Or. Rect., and then by Or. Obl.] “If I die,' said the king, 'I shall leave the kingdom to you, my son'. Many will attempt to kill both yourself and your brothers; all will envy you. But you need not fear any designs of your enemies, if only you do what I advise. Do not favour? the unjust or neglect your subjects. Let neither your brothers nor your mother persuade you that honour and glory are to be despised. But why do I speak these things? Do you not know that the 3 wisdom which you have acquired by experience and industry will be a protection to you* against all the dangers and difficulties which must be encountered by you?'

The Relative Pronoun.

Gr. 88 222-229. § 41. Uses of the Relative. It may be worth while here to explain the principal uses of the English Relative with a notice of the corresponding Latin forms.

1 $ 32. ? $ 120, B. 3 $ 72, a, 1. 48 67

A. The Relative introduces a Coordinate Clause. This may be called its Continuative Use. For example, “He told the news to the general, who immediately summoned a council, and said,' &c. Here who' is equivalent to and he,' and the Latin may be variously rendered, e.g.

(a) By isque.

• De re ducem certiorem fecit; isque convocato statim concilio dixit,' &c.

Et is may also be used, and for Negatives nec is.

He has a memory which is almost incredible. Memoriam habet, et eam paene incredibilem.

He has a son who is not very obedient. Filium habet, nec eum satis obedientem.

Or et ille, ille autem may be used ; ille being the Pronoun regularly employed to mark a change of Subject.

(6) By qui. In such cases it is generally better to make qui begin a fresh sentence. De re ducem certiorem fecit. Qui convocato statim concilio, &c. (c) By avoiding Coordination altogether. Hac de re dux ab eo certior factus, convocato statim concilio, &c.

B. The Relative introduces a Subordinate Clause, and such Subordinate Clause may be of three kinds.

1. The Explanatory Relative Clause is Adjectival in its nature, or perhaps resembles more nearly a Substantive in Apposition. It states something which is true of the whole thing or class of things denoted by the Noun which is its Antecedent, and it is therefore explanatory of some part of its meaning, e.g. 'Swallows, which are birds of passage, only stay the summer with us. Here the clause " which are birds of passage,' applies to all swallows, and is partly explanatory of the meaning of the word 'swallows.'

2. The Restrictive Relative Clause is purely Adjectival, It states something which applies only to the particular Noun or Nouns under notice, and thus restricts or limits their meaning, e. g. ‘Swallows which come to us in March often die of cold. Here the clause' which come to us in March,' restricts the statement about swallows and makes it

applicable only to a certain class of them, viz. those which come to us in March.

A knowledge of the distinction between the Explanatory and Restrictive uses of the Relative will often be required for the proper treatment of Relative Clauses in Latin. Take the following example :

• The Belgae who dwell on this side the Rhine send to Caesar.'

If the Relative Clause here is Explanatory and states something which is true of all the Belgae, the Latin will be

Belgae, qui cis Rhenum incolunt, ad Caesarem mittunt.

But if it is Restrictive, and refers to the Belgae who dwell on this side the Rhine as distinguished from the Belgae who dwell elsewhere, the same order cannot always be maintained in Latin without risk of ambiguity. It will be better to use a form like one of the following:

ii Belgae qui cis Rhenum incolunt ad Caesarem qui cis Rhenum incolunt Belgae | mittunt (or mitqui Belgarum cis Rhenum incolunt ( tit for the last

quicquid Belgarum cis Rhenum incolit ) example). Note. The Restrictive Relative is used in English to define the Nominatives 'it' and 'there. We are familiar enough with the fact that the main predication of a sentence is not necessarily furnished by the Verb, and that such a simple sentence as `We shall go to town to-day,' may, by simply altering the emphasis, be made to have as many different meanings as it has words. Now by giving emphasis to any word in a sentence you generally make that word the predicate, i. e. that part of the sentence which gives information previously unknown. In English we often indicate this emphatic word or predicate by placing it early in the sentence, preceded by “it is' or 'there is,' and further defining “it' or 'there' by the Relative "who,' which,' or that. Thus, supposing that “to-day' were the emphatic word in the example just given, our method of indicating it would be thus,

'It is to-day that we shall go to town.'

There is no Latin idiom resembling this. In Latin the emphatic word is placed in one of the emphatic positions in

the sentence, i.e. in the first place, or the last, e.g. ' hodie in urbem ibimus.'

Similarly, where other Nominatives besides it and there are used, and the Predicate stands first in the English, e. g. So great were the labours he undertook, Tantos labores suscepit.

3. An Adverbial Clause, as, 'We did not expect such treatment from you who have always been so kind to us.' Here'who'='since you. This usage is comparatively rare. The Latin is qui followed by the Subjunctive Mood”.

$ 42. Parentheses after the Relative. Parenthetical expressions, such as they say,' 'as the story goes,' &c., have already been noticed above in § 9. They are especially frequent after the Relative. The treatment is the same as in the cases mentioned in § 9, e. g.

Vercingetorix, who, as we have mentioned above, had been sent thither. Vercingetorix, quem eo missum esse supra demonstravimus.

§ 43. Subordinate Clauses in Future Time. It has been already remarked ? that when the Principal Verb of an Oratio Recta is in the Future, Subordinate Verbs will usually be in the Future also. Beginners are liable to be misled by the fact that the Subordinate Verb is put in the Present Indefinite Tense 3 in English, whereas it really refers very often to Future Time, and under such circumstances must always be expressed in the Future in Latin.

He will carry off what he can. Quod auferre poterit auferet.

When I return, I will buy this house. Quum rediero, hasce aedes emam.

If he falls, it will be all over with us. Si cadet (or ceciderit), actum erit de nobis.

In the above examples sometimes the Future Simple is used, sometimes the Future Perfect, according as the action of the Subordinate Clause is viewed as happening at the same time as that of the Principal Verb or previously to it.

In Oratio Obliqua, however, the Subordinate Verbs are not put in the Future Subjunctive, but what was a Future

i Gr. SS 143, 282–284. 2 $ 38, b, Note 2. 3 Gr. § 58. ,

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