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Simple in Oratio Recta becomes a Present or Imperfect Subjunctive in Oratio Obliqua (according as the Tense of the Governing Verb is Primary or Historic'), and what was a Future Perfect in Oratio Recta becomes a Perfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive in Oratio Obliqua. Thus, the first two of the above examples would become in their Oblique form,

I ait se quod auferre possit ablaturum.

aiebat se quod auferre posset ablaturum.
I ait se quum redierit hasce aedes empturum.
l aiebat se quum rediisset hasce aedes empturum.

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EXERCISE 15. Then the counsel-for-the-prosecution, who, they say, was a man of remarkable ability, began as follows [(1) Or. Rect., (2) Or. Obl.], 'Gentlemen-of-the-jury, if yonder prisoner-at-the-bar were brought to trial on account of any extraordinary and heinous crime, such as? " murder, embezzlement, (or) treason, it would perhaps be worth-my-while to deliver a long and impressive speech and to show in every way how worthy of punishment he is. But since he is accused of a merely trifling fault, it will be sufficient if I briefly state the case and leave the matter to be decided by you. For you are all men of unquestionable virtue and honesty, and will either acquit or condemn the man, according-as you judge him innocent or guilty.'


The same (continued). § 44. Relative for Demonstrative. At the beginning of a fresh sentence in English the Demonstrative or Personal Pronouns this, it, he, them, &c., are used in reference to some Noun mentioned in a preceding sentence. The

2 § Gr. $$ 147, 148.

2 quales sunt.

Demonstratives hic, is, iste, ille, may be used in the same way in Latin, but it is often preferable to employ the Relative Pronoun.

The Albans sent ambassadors to Rome to sue for peace. They upon their arrival began to pray, &c. Albani legatos Romam pacem petitum miserunt. Qui quum advenissent, orare coeperunt, &c.

When the Relative is thus used, it is frequently equivalent to a Demonstrative and a Conjunction, and not only makes reference to a preceding Noun, but carries with it the force of and' or 'for,' or, if the sentence be adversative, but' or whereas

They carried the wounded into the camp, and after doing this, they desist from the work. Saucios in castra tulere; quo facto opere desistunt.

Note 1. This usage illustrates what has been said above (8 41) that the Relative may often stand for et is, or et ille. It may also stand for et ego, et tu, e.g.

Posteaquam mihi renuntiatum est de obitu Tulliae, filiae tuae, graviter molesteque tuli, communemque eam calamitatem existimavi : qui si adfuissem, &c. (i.e. et si ego adfuissem).

De periculo me commonefecisti; cujus consilio si paruissem, &c. (i.e. et si tuo consilio paruissem).

Note 2. When the Relative is used in this way it is often quite impossible to construe it into English without resolving it into a Conjunction and Demonstrative.

Caes. B. G. i. 26: Caesar ad Lingonas literas nuntiosque misit, ne eos frumento neve alia re juvarent; qui si juvissent (and if they did assist them) se eodem loco quo Helvetios habiturum.

If qui were translated by who' here, no grammatical position could be found for it in the English sentence.

Cic. Milo, $ 44: Qui quo die praepositus est (for on the day on which he was set over us) tanta repente vilitas annonae ..... consecuta est.

Note 3. For the Adverbs thence or hence, there = in that place, and there=thither or to that place, when referring to a Noun previously mentioned, we may use unde, = a quo loco, ubi, = in quo loco, and quo,= ad quem locum.

Note 4. The Noun to which the Relative at the be

ginning of a new period refers is often repeated with the Relative.

Caes. B. G. i. 14: Cum equitatu Helvetiorum proelium committunt, et pauci de nostris cadunt. Quo proelio sublati Helvetii, &c.

$ 45. Oratio Obliqua in Narratives should be con. tinuous. In English a narrative which begins Obliquely often passes after the first or second sentence into the Direct form, e. g.

•The Egyptian priests say that Pheron, one of their kings was struck with blindness owing to the following circumstance. The river had swollen to an unusual height, and,' &c.

In translating into Latin the whole narrative must be kept in Oratio Obliqua', e.g.

Aegyptii sacerdotes unum ferunt ex regibus suis, Pheronem, hunc in modum oculis esse captum; amnem praeter solitum crevisse, &c.

Not'amnis praeter solitum creverat.'


The Scythians according to Herodotus originally inhabited Asia, but were unable to resist the Massagetae in war and accordingly left their homes, crossed the Araxes and entered the Cimmerian territory. At their” approach the natives, having learnt how great the numbers of the enemy were, summoned a meeting and deliberated what was best to be done? At this meeting4 opinions were divided. Some declared that nothing now remained for them except to 5 abandon the country and seek other homes, to avoid having to contend with an enemy almost countless in number. Why, they asked”, should their own lives and the safety of their wives and children be hazarded where no hope of victory was possible? Let those fight who had regard neither for themselves nor others; for-their-own-part they preferred peace and tranquillity to the uncertain chance of war.

i To this, as to every rule of Grammar, there are exceptions. The first chapter of the first book of Livy has an interesting collection of Oblique Statements interspersed with remarks of the author in Oratio Recta. 2 § 44. 3 Gr. § 379.

4 § 44, Note 4. 6 Say, with an almost countless number of enemies,

5 g 15. 7 $ 34.


The same (continued). $ 46. Relative preceding Antecedent. When the Pronouns hic or is are Antecedent to qui, the Antecedent and Relative Clauses are sometimes transposed so that the Relative Clause comes first. Hence,

(a) In translating ‘he who,' they who,' that' which,' 'the things which,' &c., we may place the Pronoun, with the words belonging to it, either before or after the Relative Clause, e.g.

* That which you have long been seeking is now in your hands' may be translated

1. Id nunc in manibus vestris est, quod jamdudum quaeritis, or (transposing the Clauses),

2. Quod jamdudum quaeritis, id nunc in manibus vestris est.

Note. This transposition of Clauses imparts rather a sententious character to the language, and is more fitted for speeches and impressive passages than for ordinary prose narrative. There are only six places in the first Book of Caesar's Gallic War, where it occurs, and five of these are in speeches ; whereas in the Milo of Cicero, which contains very little more matter, it occurs about twenty times.

(6) If the Demonstrative has a Substantive in agreement with it, e. g. 'those words which,' 'that senator who,' &c., the Substantive should, as a rule, if the Clauses are transposed, be placed in the Relative Clause, and attracted into agreement with the Relative.

That part of the land which the Gauls inhabit has been entirely subdued by our men. Quam terrae partem Galli incolunt, tota ea est a nostris subacta.

(c) This transposition is almost invariably employed in the phrases quo... eo (the ... the) with Comparatives, as, Quo plus habet, eo plus cupit. See $ 72, e.

(d) When no emphasis is intended to be laid on the Pronoun is, it is often omitted.

Qui peccat, miser est. He who sins is miserable.

§ 47. Examples of Explanatory and Restrictive Relative. The following examples of Explanatory and Restrictive Relative (see § 41, B, I, 2) may be usefully studied.

They plundered all the property of Cethegus, which was being conveyed in a single ship. Omnia Cethegi bona, quae in una navi vehebantur, diripuerunt.

They plundered all the property of Cethegus which was in the city. Quae Cethegi bona in urbe erant, ea omnia diripuerunt.

The sailors who were in the ship perceived me. Qui (or quot) in navi nautae erant me aspexerunt.

The sailors, who were preparing their supper, perceived me. Nautae, qui caenam parabant, me aspexerunt.

Note 1. In phrases relating to quantity or measure, where 'all which is expressed in words or implied, the use of quod or quantum with a Partitive Genitive is frequent.

The corn that was in the city. Quod frumenti in urbe erat. (The meaning is All the corn which, &c.)

All the country that lies between Rome and Faesulae. Quod inter Romam Faesulasque agri est.

The sea which is between Greece and Asia is called the Aegean. Quod inter Graeciam Asiamque mare (or maris) est Aegeum vocatur.

Note 2. It should be remarked in passing that the Pronoun ille is scarcely ever Antecedent to qui, but that, when it is, the qui is always Explanatory, and not Restrictive.

Cic. Milo, § 29: Illi, qui erant cum Clodio.

EXERCISE 17. Men-in-misfortune, if they bear their lot patiently, are often happier than those whom no good-fortune satisfies.

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