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And it is certain also that to those who are gifted with a cheerful disposition the greatest calamities often seem trifling. Retzius, as the story goes?, after he had been taken captive by Mazarinus and thrown into prison, consoled himself neither with books nor philosophy, to which subjects indeed he had never devoted-his-attention, but preferred rather to ridicule his conqueror and keepers; and though separated from friends, and deprived of amusements, and destitute of the necessaries of life, he always wore a cheerful countenance.

It is fitting that examples of men of this kind should be recorded, in order that we may learn to bear contentedly those misfortunes which cannot be avoided.

XVIII.

The same (continued). § 48. Qui Continuative,how treated in Oratio Obliqua. It will be seen from what has been said in § 41 that qui when not used Adjectivally or Adverbially may be resolved into et is, and introduces a Coordinate Clause. When such a Clause appears in Oratio Obliqua we should naturally expect to find it treated as Coordinate and subjected to the ordinary rule for Statements in Oratio Obliqua. And this we often find done.

Liv. xxiv. 3 : Fama est aram esse in vestibulo templi, cujus (= et ejus) cinerem nullo unquam moveri vento. There is a report that in the vestibule of the temple there is an altar, the ash of which is never stirred by any wind.

Liv. iii. 9: Non illum dixit consulare imperium sed tribunitiam potestatem invisam intolerandamque facere; quam (=et eam) pacatam reconciliatamque Patribus de integro in antiqua redigi mala. He said that that man had made hateful and intolerable not the consular authority but the tribunitial power, which after being

1 g 8, Note.

2 8 9.

3 Transpose.

peacefully settled and made acceptable to the patricians was being brought back afresh to its former evil condition.

On the other hand we sometimes find such Clauses treated as Subordinate and constructed with their Verb in the Subjunctive Mood. An instance occurs in Livy iii. 9, the very chapter from which the second of the two examples given above is taken :

Quippe duos pro uno dominos acceptos immoderata, infinita potestate ; qui (=et ii of Or. Rect.) soluti atque effrenati omnes metus legum omniaque supplicia verterent (= vertunt of Or. Rect.) in plebem'. For instead of one master they had received two of unrestrained and boundless power, who free and unchecked themselves were bringing to bear all the terrors of the law and its punishments upon the people.

EXERCISE 18. On the death of Polycrates, Maeandrius might, if he had so wished, have usurped the sovereignty by force of armss, but being unwilling to enslave his country he called the citizens together and said [(1) Or. Rect., (2) Or. 0bl.], • Polycrates, who, as you know, has been lord of this land for many years, is now dead, and the sovereignty of right belongs to me. But it is my countrymen not myself whom? I wish to benefit ; and that which I condemn inthe-case-of another, I will, if I can, avoid myself. I do not approve-of what? Polycrates did in his lifetime, and I will not imitate him willingly. Of all vices the most pernicious 4 is lust of empires which makes men cruel and unjust and generally leads them to ruin. It is my intention therefore to resign the chieftainship of this state, which henceforth will receive equal laws and be free.'

1 No doubt qui in the above sentence might be regarded as used in a Consecutive sense (=tales ut ii), or even in a Final sense. But it is difficult to explain all instances in the same way. Take the following,

Caes. B. G. vii. 14 : Haec si gravia aut acerba videantur, multo illa gravius aestimare, liberos, conjuges in servitutem abstrahi ; quae (=et ea) sit necesse accidere victis. Here the Relative seems purely continuative ; 'that their wives and children should be dragged into slavery ; and this (he added) would be the necessary consequence of defeat.'

I have not been able to find in the larger Grammars any comprehensive rule for the general treatment of the Relative in Oratio Obliqua. On the whole it is perhaps safe to say that the English who or which may be treated as introducing a Subordinate Clause in Latin Oratio Obliqua, unless their identity with the expressions and he, and it, &c., be very clearly marked.

2 Say, might have been able to usurp. 3 Say, by force and arms.

XIX.

The same (continued). § 49. Various attractions of the Relative.

(a) The Relative, like the Demonstrative ($ 37), is usually attracted into the Gender and Number of any Substantive with which it is connected by the Verb sum, or a Verb of thinking, calling, or making, and which serves to further define its meaning.

Thebes, which is the capital of Boeotia. Thebae, quod Boeotiae caput est.

Caes. B. G. vii. 63: (Ab hoc concilio afuerunt) Treviri, quod aberant longius et ab Germanis premebantur, quae fuit causa (which circumstance was the cause) quare toto abessent bello, &c.

(6) In Gr. $ 228 we have, Puer, cui Servio Tullio nomen fuit, A boy whose name was Servius Tullius, where Servio Tullio, which we should expect to find in the Nominative Case in Apposition to nomen, is attracted into the Case of cui. This usage is peculiar to expressions of naming. The same attraction is found with Demonstratives; we might write ‘Huic, or illi, nomen Servio Tullio fuit.'

(c) A Noun placed in Apposition to a preceding word or clause, and further defined by a Relative Clause, is generally attracted into the Case of the Relative.

He marched towards Capua, a city which had lately revolted. Ad Capuam flexit iter, quae urbs (not urbem quae) nuper defecerat. 1 $ 41, B, 2, Note. 2 $ 24. 3 $ 130, 6. + $ 36.

5 Of empire, regnandi.

Note. So the phrases, 'a thing which,' 'a circumstance which,' &c., (where 'thing' and 'circumstance' refer to the whole action described in the preceding Clause) are quae res, quam rem, &c. Here is to be noticed the phrase id quod, sometimes used for quae res or quam rem.

$ 50. Relative Clauses denoting distance. The English expressions which is some distance from, which is ten miles distant from,' &c., are often rendered in Latin by a parenthesis introduced by autem, the Clause being made Coordinate instead of Relative.

On arriving at Tusculum, which is about ten miles distant from Rome, Cicero began, &c. Cum Tusculum pervenisset-abest autem (or distat autem) ab urbe fere decem milia-orsus est Cicero, &c. But'a town which is distant’would be quod oppidum abest.'

EXERCISE 19. In the reign of Augustus al noble Roman, whose name was Gallus, incurred the displeasure of the Emperor, and to escape a dishonourable death committed suicide. When this was made known, the whole city was plunged in the deepest grief, and even Augustus himself, either to avoid appearing to be the author of his death, or because he really regretted the affair, displayed no less sorrow than the rest. This is indeed a hard fate,' said he, “that 2 I alone of mankind am not permitted to be-angry-with my friends as much as I please.'

Eight days afterwards Gallus was honoured with a most sumptuous funeral which the whole city attended". The only one of his friends who was absent was Lycoris", a woman of surpassing beauty, whom Gallus had passionately loved. She was staying at Baiae, which is more than a hundred miles distant from Rome, at the time when Gallus met-his-death, and could not? accomplish so great a journey in so short a time.

1$ 76, b. 2 & 14. 3 Gr. $ 119. Use celebrare. 58 Say, Alone of his friends Lycoris was absent. $ 60, 6. ?§ 130, b.

XX.

The same (continued). § 51. The Relative after Ordinals and superlatives. After an Ordinal or Superlative Adjective a Relative Clause is often added in English to denote the limitations within which such Adjective is to be understood, e.g. “Marcellus was the third general who won the Spolia Opima.' Here the Relative Clause explains in what respect Marcellus is to be understood as being the 'third' general.

The Relative when so used is not Explanatory but Restrictive, and therefore cannot (as explained in § 41, B, 2) be translated literally as it stands. "Marcellus tertius dux erat qui Spolia Opima tulit' could only mean “Marcellus, who won the Spolia Opima, was third general,' without denoting in what respect he was third.

The following rules may generally be observed for translating this idiom into Latin.

A. When the English Ordinal? or Superlative is a Complement of the Verb 'to be.'

1. Ordinals. Two ways of translating are possible. (a) Marcellus was the third who won the Spolia Opima. Marcellus Spolia Opima tertius tulit.

(6) Marcellus was the third who won the Spolia Opima. Eorum qui Spolia Opima tulerunt Marcellus fuit tertius.

Note. The latter is rather a cumbrous rendering, but is occasionally required for the sake of perspicuity.

2. Superlatives. The same two methods of translation may be used as for Ordinals. There is also a third method, in which the Negatives non, nullus, &c., are used with a Comparative Adjective governing an Ablative Case.

(1) This is the pleasantest day we have ever spent. Hunc diem jucundissimum omnium agimus.

(2) This is the pleasantest day we have ever spent. Eorum dierum quos egimus hic jucundissimus est. (Very poor Latin.)

(3) This is the pleasantest day we have ever spent. Hoc die nullum jucundiorem unquam egimus.

1 Including only, only one, &c., Lat. solus.

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