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Note. The rendering by a Negative Particle with Comparative Adjective and Ablative of the Relative Pronoun is the regular method employed when the Superlative and Relative are themselves in an Appositive or Relative Clause, e.g.,

Caesar, the most famous general who ever commanded a Roman army. Caesar, quo non dux illustrior Romanis copiis unquam praefuit.

Caius, who gave the most splendid banquets we have ever heard of. Caius, quo non alium lautiora convivia unquam habuisse accepimus.

Also to translate 'one of the best, bravest, &c. ... who.'

He was killed by one of the greatest ruffians that have ever infested the country. Ab homine occisus est, quo vix infestior alius hanc terram vexavit.

B. When the English Ordinal or Superlative occurs in any other connexion, the usual method of translation is to transfer the Adjective, whether Ordinal or Superlative, to the Relative Clause, and put it in Agreement with the Relative. · He sent the first man he saw. Virum misit, quem primum vidit.

On the last night we spent in Rome we supped with Cicero. Nocte ea, quam ultimam Romae egimus, apud Ciceronem coenavimus.

The last soldier who scaled the wall dislodged a tile with his foot. Qui ultimus militum (or ex militibus) murum ascendit tegulam pede disjecit.

Note 1. In Caes. B. G. ii. 10, we find, Primos, qui transierant, equitatu circumventos interfecerunt. Here'qui transierant' is explanatory, and primos = the front ranks. • They surrounded with cavalry and slew the front ranks, which had crossed the river;' not 'the first who had crossed.'

Note 2. Transposition of the Antecedent and Relative Clauses [$ 46] may be used with great neatness in rendering this idiom.

He promised to send me the most beautiful flowers he had. Quos pulcherrimos haberet flores, eos ad me missurum se promisit.

$ 52. Relative after Nouns with Epithet. When an English Noun with Epithet is followed by a Restrictive Relative Clause defining the limitation within which such Epithet is to be used, the Epithet should be placed in the Relative Clause and made to agree with the Relative itself.

The incredible wealth he amassed. Divitiae, quas incredibiles accumulavit.

The extraordinary ability he displayed. Ingenium, quod singulare praestitit.

Cf. Liv. ii. 43: ‘Praeter ceteras imperatoris artes, quas parando gerendoque bello edidit plurimas' (besides the numerous other military qualifications he displayed).

Note. The words 'all’or all the preceding a Noun are not to be transferred to the Relative Clause in translating into Latin. If omnis is used for all’ it is generally placed after the Relative Clause.

They have cut down all the trees which are in the garden. Arbores quae in horto sunt succiderunt omnes.

He punished all who came late. Eos qui sero venerunt supplicio affecit omnes.

Quod, quot, and quicquid, with Partitive Genitive, are also frequently used for translating all who or all which. See $ 47, Note 1.

EXERCISE 20. The two armies met at Flodden Field and there engaged-in one of the most terrible battles that have ever taken place in this country. King James fought bravely at-the-head-of his men, and, by the extraordinary valour he displayed, for a long time kept the English at bay, till at length, in a very fierce charge of our men, he was shot through the body with an arrowa. Night at length put an end to the combat, and next day the Scots returned to their own country, having lost their king and an immense number of nobles and knights. The English were not much inclined to pursue them; for though they seemed. to have gained the day, yet they had themselves also lost an immense number of their men, and had scarcely come-off

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1 $ 127...

. 4.2 g 102.

3 $ 44.



better than their adversaries. It is well known that the body of the dead king was carried to Berwick, which is about fifteen miles distant ($ 50), and afterwards to London, where it was buried. This war was the last that was waged between the English and the Scotch.


The same (continued). § 53. English Relative Clause translated by a Par. ticiple. Short Relative Clauses can often be rendered with great neatness by a Participle in Latin.

He read out in the Senate a letter which he had received from Catulus. Epistolam a Catulo acceptam in Senatu recitavit.

Romulus, according to the ancient plan of those who found cities, opens an asylum. Romulus vetere consilio condentium urbes asylum aperit. Liv. i. 8.

Let us enjoy what we have bought. Emptis fruamur.

Cautions. Three cautions are to be observed in imitating this idiom.

(a) The Masculine and Feminine Nominative of the Participle are rarely used as an equivalent for is qui, ea quae, ii qui, &c., with Verb. Thus, it would not be good Latin to say, 'triumphantes laudantur,' for 'those who triumph are praised,' though we might with perfect propriety say "triumphantibus laus datur,' for 'to those who triumph praise is given.'

Note. Adjectives are also occasionally used to translate a Relative Clause, but with the same limitation, viz. that they must not be so employed in the Nominative Masculine or Feminine. Cicero uses 'honestum' or 'honesta' in the sense of that which is honourable,' but not 'honestus' or ' honesti' in the sense of he who is honourable,' those who are honourable?'

(6) Be careful never to use is or ille with a Participle to denote he who,' 'those who, &c. Thus in the example

1 These remarks do not apply to such Adjectives or Participles 'as have acquired an absolutely Substantival sense, e. g. sapiens, juvenis.

given in (a) it would be totally wrong to put iis triumphantibus' as a translation of to those who are triumphing.' Iis triumphantibus could only mean “to those persons (who have just been mentioned) whilst they are triumphing.'

In Caes. B. G. ii. II, we have 'Magnam multitudinem eorum fugientium conciderunt. This does not mean 'a great multitude of those who were flying,' but 'a great multitude of them (i.e. the enemy) as they were flying.'

(c) Avoid using a Participle for rendering ‘he who,' that which,' &c., if the Relative Clause is a very long one, with a number of Oblique Cases, Adverbs, &c., in it : e. g. do not write paratis multorum hominum labore et industria fruamur' for 'let us enjoy what has been provided by,' &c. Say, 'iis rebus fruamur, quae,' &c.

EXERCISE 21. *** Translate the words in italics by Participles or Adjectives. .

Cicero, in the book which he has written concerning moral-duties, says it cannot be doubted that? expediency can never dispute-precedence with honourable-principle. In this he is quite right”. For however expedient a thing may be, nevertheless it is not right that it should be done, if it is in-the-least-degree dishonourable. If what were expedient were at the same time* always just, it would be allowed us to do many things which, as-it-is, we are prevented from doing by good-feeling, religion, and the laws. It may sometimes be expedient to desert friends who are in distress, or to kill a tyrant who is oppressing his subjects, or to rob a miser who is hoarding his money5, in order that we may supply what is necessary to those who are-inwant-of food and clothing. Yet none of these things does honourable principle permit us to do. Cicero at the same time* adds many examples from which we can perceive that many things which seem to be expedient are not exi Quin. 2 § 131.

3 Use Pres. Indic. in Latin, 4 $ 104, 6,

5 Numos.

pedient in reality. About these we will perhaps speak hereafter.

XXII. Copulative Verbs and Apposition. Participles.

Gr. SS 230-234, and 317. § 54. Copulative Verbs and Apposition. Before doing this Exercise, paragraphs 230–234 of the Grammar should be read, particular notice being taken of the expression

Galba doctus fuisse dicitur' for 'It is said that Galba was learned,' and of the Accusative Case in the sentence Consulem fieri magnificum est' for 'It is a glorious thing to be made consul.'

§ 55. Subordinate Clauses rendered by a Participle. It has already been noticed that the Latin Participle may be used to translate clauses introduced in English by the Relative Pronoun ($ 53). It may also be used to translate Clauses or Phrases expressive of Time, Cause, Condition, Concession, or Purpose.

(a) Time. By far the commonest use of the Participle, when employed as equivalent to a Subordinate Clause, is in denoting relations of Time'.

These attacked the rear, and killed great numbers of them as they fled. Hi novissimos adorti magnam multitudinem eorum fugientium conciderunt. Caes. B. G. ii. 11.

1 The following examples are taken from a few consecutive chapters of Caesar, B. G. vii. :

C. 42. Hos continuo in itinere adorti omnibus impedimentis exuunt, repugnantes (upon their resisting) diem noctemque obsident.

c. 44. Haec cogitanti (as he was thinking this over) accidere visa est facultas bene rei gerendae.

c. 45. Legionem unam eodem jugo mittit, et paulum progressam (when it had advanced a little way) inferiore constituit loco.

c. 54. Discedentibus (on their departure) his breviter sua in Aeduos merita exposuit.

C. 62. Sic cum suis fugientibus (in their flight) permixti.
c. 66. Proinde agmine impeditos (when encumbered) adorirentur.

c. 67. Germani hostes loco depellunt ; fugientes (as they fly) usque ad fumen persequuntur.

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