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He intended to attack the Romans when encumbered on their march. Romanos impeditos in agmine adoriri cogitabat.

Note 1. When the word with which the Participle agrees is a Demonstrative Pronoun it is often omitted.

When they attempted to speak he prevented them and threw them into prison. Conantes [sc. eos] dicere prohibuit et in catenas conjecit. Caes. B. G. i. 47.

Often the Noun or Pronoun with which the Participle is to agree does not occur till later in the English sentence.

When however he proceeded to urge his point with greater vehemence, the king answered him as follows. Instanti vero acrius rex ita respondit.

Note 2. Be careful to ascertain exactly the Noun or Pronoun with which the Participle is to agree.

On his departure Caesar gave Lepidus a ring. Caesar discedens anulum Lepido dedit, if his departure' means Caesar's departure : but, Discedenti Lepido Caesar anulum dedit, if it means Lepidus' departure.

(6) Cause, Condition, Concession, and Purpose. The Perfect Passive or Deponent Participle is often used in a Causal Sense, as noticed above in $ 21. This usage is especially frequent in the Ablative Absolute Construction.

As the summer was now ended, he determined to lead his army into winter quarters. Aestate jam confecta exercitum in hiberna ducere constituit.

Condition and Concession (i.e. Clauses introduced by if and although) are sometimes, but not very often, rendered by Participles in Latin.

If the mountain is passed, the rest of the journey will be safe. Superato monte, reliquum iter tutum erit.

Though forty years old, he was not yet married. Quadraginta annos natus, nondum tamen uxorem duxerat.

Cf. Caes. B. G. vii. 57: "Summa imperii traditur Camulogeno, qui prope confectus (though almost worn out) aetate tamen propter singularem scientiam rei militaris ad eum est honorem evocatus.'

Purpose may be expressed by the Future Active Participle or by the Gerundive.

He returns to Genua, in order to defend Italy with the army which

netiturit

was about the Padus. Genuam repetit, eo, qui circa Padum erat exercitus, Italiam defensurus. Liv, xxi. 32.

He gave one legion to Gaius Fabius to lead into the country of the Morini. Unam legionem in Morinos ducendam Gaio Fabio legato dedit. Caes. B. G. v. 24.

Note. The use of the Future Active Participle to denote a purpose is rare in Cicero, Caesar, and Prose Writers generally before the time of Augustus.

§ 56. English Noun rendered by Latin Participle.

(a) The frequent employment of Participles to represent what is expressed in English by a Noun-generally a Noun of an Abstract kind '—is a very noteworthy feature of Latin writing.

When we perceived his wretchedness and despair. Ubi afflictum eum ac desperantem vidimus.

In the presence of his own army. Exercitu suo praesente.

Silence and desertion reigned around. Omnia silentia ac deserta videres.

(6) Especially to be noticed is the use of the Perfect Passive Participle to represent the former of two English Nouns united by the Preposition 'of.'

From the building of the city to its liberation. Ab urbe condita ad liberatam (sc. urbem). Liv. i. 60.

More grief was felt at the loss of citizens than joy at the defeat of the enemy. Major ex civibus amissis dolor quam laetitia fusis hostibus fuit. Liv. iv. 17.

Before the birth of Epaminondas. Ante Epaminondam natum.

The loss of Sicily and Sardinia. Sicilia Sardiniaque amissae. Liv. xxi, 1.

§ 57. Employment of the Genitive Participle. Certain English expressions require the employment of the Genitive of the Present Participle in Latin.

A vast crowd clamouring for peace. Ingens multitudo pacem poscentium. Liv. ii. 39.

A voice was heard foreboding destruction. Vox audita est exitium praenuntiantis (lit. of one foreboding).

A menacing appearance. Species minantis.
Tears of sorrow. Lacrymae dolentis or dolentium.

1 g 100.

EXERCISE 22. Whilst? Onesilus was occupied with” the siege of Amathus, the only city of Cyprus whicho had not revolted from the Medes, the Athenians and Ionians captured and burnt Sardis, which, as we have remarked", was at that time the capital of Lydia. It is said that, when this was announced, Darius taking-no-notice-of the Ionians, who, he knew, would pay dear for their rebellion, asked “Who? those Athenians were,' and, upon being informed, called-for his bow and with (§ 69) menacing voice and gesture shot an arrow upward into the sky with these words, 'Grant me, Jupiter, to be avenged on the Athenians. He also ordered one of his slaves. to say to him daily as he was eating-his-dinner, Master, remember the Athenians.' No doubt it seemed to him an unworthy thing to have been defied by so small a state.

XXIII.
Time, Place, Measure, Weight, and Number.

Gr. SS 101-107, 164-5, 235-239.
$ 58. Point of Time. Many words not in themselves
denoting Time are occasionally put in the Ablative to mark
a date, as, bello Mithridatico, in the Mithridatic war; ad-
ventu Caesaris, on the arrival of Caesar.

$ 59. At a Place.

(a) The Preposition 'at' cannot be rendered by the Locative in Latin if the Verb immediately preceding denote motion to. In such cases the rule for ‘To a place' must be followed, e. g.

To assemble at the bridge. Ad pontem convenire.
To assemble at Athens Athenas convenire.
To arrive at the river. Ad flumen pervenire.
To arrive at Rome. Romam pervenire.
1 Gr. $ 364

2 8 102.
3 $ 56,6.

4 $ 51, B. 5 § 42, 6 § 54.

$.19, Note 2. 8 8 45. $ 55.

. Note. So also 'where' for 'whither 'must be translated by quo, or in quem locum after a Verb of Motion, not by qua or ubi ; and 'there' for “thither' by eo.

(6) When 'at' is used of places near which a battle has been fought, ad with Accusative must be used rather than the Locative Case.

The battles that were fought at Cannae, Zama, and the Trasimene Lake. Pugnae ad Cannas, ad Zamam, ad lacum Trasimenum factae.

(c) The Prepositions at and in are often used in English with the name of a place to form an Adjectival phrase qualifying a Noun, e. g. ‘his country-house at Faesulae,' 'our home in the mountains,' 'the women in the city,' &c. In translating such phrases it is clear that the ordinary rules for translating at or in a place can seldom apply, since the Latin Locative and Ablative, and all Cases under the government of Prepositions, are Adverbial expressions, and are never, or at all events very rarely, in Latin Prose Authors, used Adjectivally to qualify a Noun. There are, however, several ways of meeting the difficulty.

1. As the phrase under notice is Adjectival, we may translate by a Latin Adjective, if one can be found to suit the sense.

His country house at Faesulae. Villa ejus Faesulana.
Our home in the mountains. Montana domus nostra.
The women in the city. Urbanae mulieres.

Or we may use an Adjectival Clause, i. e. a Clause introduced by the Relative Pronoun.

His country house at Faesulae. Villa, quam Faesulis habuit.

Our home in the mountains. Domus, quae in montibus nobis est, or, domus quam in montibus habemus.

The women in the city. Quae in urbe erant mulieres.

2. After a Verb of Motion the English at and in generally become to or from in Latin, e.g.

He retired to his country house at Faesulae. Faesulas ad villam suam se contulit.

We descend from our home in the mountains. Domo nostra ex montibus descendimus.

- -

3. After a Verb of Rest the Locative, or Ablative with Preposition, may be used, modifying the Verb.

He was staying at his country house at Faesulae. Faesulis in villa sua commorabatur.

$ 80. Measure of Space.
(a) The Accusative is to be used,
1. After all Verbs of Motion.
Caesar advanced 3 days' journey. Caesar tridui iter processit.

2. After Verbs or other words denoting Extension over Space.

The territories of the Helvetii extended 240 miles in length. Fines Helvetiorum patebant in longitudinem ducenta quadraginta milia passuum.

Spears 6 feet long. Hastae senos pedes longae.

(6) When Distance from is specified, either the Accusative or Ablative is used.

Caesar milia passuum tria ab Helvetiorum castris castra posuit.
Caes. B. G. i. 22.

Ariovistus milibus passuum sex a Caesaris castris consedit. Caes.
B. G. i. 48.
Ut ab urbe abesset milia passuum ducenta. Cic. Sest. $ 29.

Note 1. If the place from which the distance is reckoned be not specified, the Preposition a or ab often stands before the Numeral.

A milibus passuum duobus (2 miles of) castra posuerunt. Caes. B. G. ii. 7.

Note 2. Observe that in the above expressions the numeral usually follows milia passuum.

Note 3. Spatium and intervallum when used in defining distance are always in the Ablative. Mile passuum intervallo distantes. Liv. xxiii. I.

Quum Viridorix contra eum duum milium spatio consedisset. Caes. B. G. iii. 17.

(c) To express more than’or less than’a certain distance considerable variety of expression is allowed, e. g. 'The marsh was more than 2 miles broad,' might be translated thus,

1. Palus plus quam duo milia passuum lata erat. 2. Palus latior quam duo milia passuum erat.

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