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(6) PASSIVE VOICE. He said that the Gauls would be conquered. Gallos victum iri? dixit, or, Fore (or futurum esse) dixit ut Galli vincerentur, (lit. • He said that it would come to pass that the Gauls should be conquered').

He said that the Gauls would have been conquered. Futurum fuisse dixit ut Galli vincerentur, lit. ' He said that it would have come to pass that,' &c.

§ 6. Fore (or futurum esse) ut. In the preceding examples we have seen the phrases fore ut or futurum esse ut, and futurum fuisse ut, used to form Passive Future Infinitives. They are also required for forming Future Infinitives Active in the case of all Verbs that have no Supine (and consequently no Future Participle, which is formed from the Supine Stem). Nearly all Inceptives in -SCO2 are of this kind. Note the following examples :

We hope that the snow will melt. Fore (or futurum esse) speramus ut nix liquescat.

We hoped that the snow would melt. Fore (or futurum esse) speravimus ut nix liquesceret.

We hoped that the snow would have melted. Futurum fuisse speravimus ut nix liquesceret.

Note J. Beware of putting nivem fore speravimus, ut, &c. The Verb fore (or futurum esse) is used Impersonally 3 and the Noun which would be in the Accusative, if the Verb had a regular Future Infinitive, must now be put in the Nominative, as Subject of the Verb in the ut Clause.

Note 2. Fore (or futurum esse) ut, may also be used to form the Future Infinitive Active of a regularly conjugated Verb, but instances are not very common.

. EXERCISE 2. It is on record that Spurius Cassius, a Roman knight, slew Dumnorix, the leader of the Gauls4 in this battle, and that 5500 infantry and 1100 cavalry were either slain by our men or drowned in the river. Next day Caesar

* Gr. § 137. ? Gr. $ 75, a. Gr. $ 62. § 2.

gained-possession-of the camp of the enemy and distributed the booty to the soldiers. And now perceiving 1 that the army would suffer from want of corn, and that (their) labours would become oppressive to the soldiers, if he should delay longer in these parts, he determined to march into the territories of the Arverni at the earliest opportunity, in order that he might finish the war and lead his troops into winter quarters. He also sent a slave to Titurius, the centurion of the seventeenth legion, to announce? to him that he should set out immediately.


The same (continued). . $ 7. Accusative with Infinitive as Subject of Impersonals. The Accusative with Infinitive, or the Infinitive alone, may stand as Subject of Impersonal Verbs, as, expedit, it is expedient, constat, it is agreed, &c., and also as Subject of certain Verbal phrases formed by combining est, erat, &c., with Neuter Adjectives or with Nouns, as, utile est, it is useful, par est, it is reasonable, proper, or fitting, fas est, it is lawful, &c., as, 'It is fitting that you should obey me,' 'te mihi parere par est. (The use of quod and ut with these constructions is also frequent. See $$ 13, 15).

Note on 'should. It is to be observed that the English Auxiliary should' in these constructions sometimes only requires to be represented by a Present Infinitive in Latin, as, “It is fitting that a man should be good,' 'Par est hominem esse bonum ;' sometimes it bears the meaning of necessity or duty, and must then be rendered by a Gerundive or other appropriate phrase, as, “ It is manifest that virtue should be cultivated,' 'Virtutem esse colendam (debere coli, &c.) manifestum est.'

$ 8. Accusative with Infinitive explanatory of hoc, id, illud. We often find in Latin the Pronouns hoc, id, or

i § 21.

2 Gr. 8 300, 2.

illud, introduced at the beginning of a sentence, and afterwards further defined by an Accusative with Infinitive.

Hoc quoque animadvertendum est, homines esse natura laudis appetentes. It is also to be noticed that men are by nature eagerly desirous of praise.

Note. The Pronounille, meaning that yonder or that other?, and commonly used to introduce a new subject of discourse, is specially appropriate for the translation of such phrases as ' It is also to be noticed,' or, “There is a further (or another) remark to be made, namely that men are,' &c.: Illud quoque mentione dignum est, homines esse, &c.3

§ 9. Parentheses at the beginning of a narrative. In English we often find such parenthetical expressions as 'it is said,' 'they say,''we are told,' &c., at the beginning of narratives. In translating into Latin, the Verb which we insert parenthetically should, as a rule, be made the Principal Verb, and the Statements of the narrative itself should be expressed by Infinitives in dependence on it. Thus 'Manlius, they say, engaged in battle with a gigantic Gaul’is not'Manlius, ferunt, cum ingenti Gallo manum conseruit,' but, “Manlium cum ingenti Gallo manum conseruisse ferunt.' We find, however, ‘ut

1 Literally, 'This is also to be noticed,' &c., but the translation as given above represents the more ordinary English expression ; and throughout this book the translations are intended rather to exhibit the corresponding English idiom, and so to prepare the student for the pieces he will afterwards have to encounter for translation, than to give an exactly literal version of the Latin.

2 § 17.

3 The following examples of hoc, id, illud, followed by an explanatory Accusative with Infinitive are taken from the 'Oratio pro Milone' of Cicero, and may with advantage be read and remembered :

$ 8. Itaque hoc . ... memoriae prodiderunt, eum, qui ... necavisset, esse liberatum.

§ 11. Si id memineritis, insidiatorem jure interfici posse.

§ 12. Sequitur illud, quod . . . . dicitur, caedem in qua P. Clodius occisus est, senatum judicasse contra rempublicam esse factam.

$ 21. Multa etiam alia vidit, sed illud maxime, quamvis atrociter ipse tulisset, vos tamen fortiter judicaturos.

$ 70. Quanquam quis hoc credat, Cn. Pompeium ....., judicium expectaturum fuisse.

ferunt,'ut opinor,''ut audio,''opinor,' and 'credo’employed parenthetically. “Credo,' when so used, is ironical, meaning 'I suppose.'

EXERCISE 3. It is certainly worthy of remark that the wisest of men are often rather negligent in very small matters. Who knows-not that Archimēdeș, the Syracusan, a man of extraordinary attainments, when the city was besieged by the Romans under the leadership of Marcellus, was so intent upon certain problems that he did not even perceive that the city was in danger nor provide-for his own safety in any way? It is further to be noticed? that it is not characteristic of wise men to be eagerly-desirous of property oro money, as though these things were to be preferred to all others. Aristides, the Athenian, died, it is said“, in such great poverty, that money was actually wanting to pay for his funerale.


The same (continued). § 10. Hope, Promise, and Threaten. After hope, promise or undertake, and threaten, the English Present Infinitive must be translated by a Future Infinitive in Latin.

He hopes, promises, threatens to come. Sperat, pollicetur, minatur se venturum.

Note 1. Posse is an exception. 'He hoped to be able to come' is 'speravit se venire posse.'

Note 2. Spero with a Present Infinitive has the meaning of 'to think confidently. Duos se habere amicissimos speravit (fondly imagined). .

§ 11. 'As to,''enough to.' For ‘he was so wise, foolish, &c., as to do so and so,' use ut with Subjunctive.

. i Gr. $ 368.

5 g 142.

2 8 8, Note. 3 § 134. 4 Gr. 8 231. 6 Say, wanting with which he might be buried.

He was so foolish as to fall into the snares. Tam stultus erat ut in dolos incideret'.

The same construction is used to translate our 'enough to,' after Adjectives.

He was prudent enough to say nothing about these things. Tam prudens erat ut de his rebus nihil diceret.

§ 12. 'If absent,' when a boy,' &c. In English a Conjunction is often prefixed to Nouns and Participles, a Tense of the Verb 'to be' being understood, as, 'If invited, he will come, this happened to me when a boy,' 'though absent, not forgotten,' &c. In translating into Latin, either omit the Conjunction, as, 'hoc mihi puero accidit,' or supply the Conjunction and with it the Verb of being, as 'hoc mihi accidit quum puer essem. But do not write 'hoc mihi accidit quum puero, or quum puer.'

Note. Nisi, however, is used without a Verb, e.g. Cic. de Am. § 62 : Et judicare difficile sane est nisi expertum. So also are quamvis and tanquam.


It? certainly cannot be doubted that young men are often so foolish as to think that they have no need of instruction. Some indeed hope to learn all things without difficulty, without experience, and* without the advice of older men: to these let the fate of many men of whom the poets have sung be an examples. Who is ignorant that Phaethon, the son of Phoebus, when quite a youth, was presumptuous enough to suppose that he could drive the chariot and horses of the sun through the sky ? Phoebus was overcome by the entreaties of the young man and promised to grant this; but after he had entered on the course, the horses having swerved from their

i Or, inciderit. See Gr. § 206, b.

4 20. 5 Gr. § 117, f.

? $ 8.

6 § 72.

3 Gr. 88 117, C, 263.

7 § 17, f.

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