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3. Palus plus duo milia passuum lata erat 1, 4. Palus latior duo milia passuum erat. 5. Palus plus duobus milibus ? passuum lata erat. 6. Palus latior duobus milibus passuum erat. Note 1. For longus, latus, altus, the Adverbial expressions in longitudinem,' in length, lengthwise, in latitudinem, in altitudinem, are often found, especially after the Verb patere, to extend.

Note 2. For the marsh was 50 feet broader than the river,' write ‘palus quinquaginta pedibus latior quam flumen erat.'

(d) Measure may also be expressed by a Genitive of Quality, as, fossa ducentorum pedum, a trench 200 feet long.

$ 61. Weight. Weight may be expressed by the Accusative, usually followed by the indeclinable Noun pondo, in weight.

A gold crown a pound in weight. Corona aurea libram pondo.

Pondo may also stand, apparently, as a Genitive, e.g. Corona aurea pondo ducentorum (of 200 lbs. weight); or as a Plural Nominative, e. g. quinquagena pondo (500 lbs. weight) data consulibus.

$ 62. Fractions. Fractions are expressed by pars with Ordinals, as, septima pars, one seventh, duae septimae partes, two-sevenths, &c. Pars is often omitted, only the Ordinal, as tertia, quarta, being used. One half is pars dimidia. When the denominator exceeds the numerator by I only, it is often omitted, as duae partes, two thirds, quatuor partes, four fifths, &c.

§ 63. Distributive Numerals. In dealing with expressions of Measure and Weight care must be taken to use the Distributives, singuli, bini, terni, &c., when the number specified belongs to each of several things mentioned. Thus, 'A spear 5 feet long'is 'hasta quinque pedes longa;' but for 'Spears 5 feet long' we must write 'hastae quinos pedes longae,' as the meaning is that each spear is 5 feet long. 'Hastae quinque pedes longae' might be taken to 1 The omission of quam is exceedingly frequent in such phrases. 2 Gr. § 121, C.

3 Gr. § 121, g.

mean that the united length of the spears was 5 feet. Of course, if each, every, or a piece, be in the sentence, the proper Latin numeral is sufficiently indicated; but these words are often omitted.

EXERCISE 23. Cyrus having subdued the nations of Upper Asia returned to his palace at? Ecbatana, and a few months afterwards prepared to march against the Chaldaeans, in-the-hope-that he might succeed in taking Babylon. Now this city, Herodotus says, was surrounded by four walls 200 feet high and more than thirteen miles long : these walls were built of bricks cemented-together with bitumen brought from the springs at Is, a town eight days' journey from Babylon. The city was divided into two parts by the river Euphrates, and in the centre of each part was a strong fortress, in one of which stood the king's palace, in the other the temple of Jupiter Belus, a square edifice nearly 1500 feet each-way, with gates of solid brass. When Cyrus arrived at this city, and pitched his camp about three miles from the walls, the Babylonians came out to meet him, and having fought an unsuccessful battle retreated within the walls where they had collected from all parts a store-of-provisions for’ many years. How Cyrus after a siege of many months at length captured the city in the year 538 B.c. 4 is well known to most people.

Accusative Case. Impersonal Verbs.

Gr. 98 108–114, 240-246, 78–80, 132–3, 269-272. § 64. Accusative Case. Attention should be paid to the rules for Verbs of asking and teaching, Gr. $$ 114, 244.

1 $ 59, C, 2. ? $ 59, a, Note. * $ 73. * Gr. $ 165, 6, (4).

The Accusatives of Cognate Meaning, Limitation, and Respect belong more to Poetical than to Proșe usage.

§ 65. Impersonal Verbs. It is pointed out in the Latin Grammar [$ 132, Note 2], that miseret, piget, poenitet, pudet, taedet, often take a Genitive of the thing, i. e. of that which causes the feeling of pity, dislike, &c., as, me stultitiae pudet. But if the thing which causes the feeling be only indicated by a Demonstrative or Relative Pronoun, e. g. 'I am weary of this,' there is nothing of which you need be ashamed,' &c., the Genitive of such Pronoun must not be used. Instead of a Genitive we sometimes find a Nominative Neuter Pronoun, standing as Subject to the Verb, as, hoc me taedet, nihil est quod te pudeat ; or the government of the Pronoun may be changed, as, Nihil est quod te facere pudeat, where quod is the Object of facere.

$ 66. Use of Passive Impersonals. Intransitive Verbs are often used Intransitively in the Passive Voice, as, pugnatur, it is fought. In translation, avoid the use of it, and take some Substantive of kindred meaning as Subject of the Verb, as, “The battle is fought,' or translated by an Active form, as, 'I fight,''he fights,' &c., according as the sense is pugnatur a me, pugnatur ab eo, &c.

The use of Passive Impersonals is very common in Prose Narrative, and may often be introduced by way of variety with great neatness and effect. It is chiefly employed as follows:

(a) To denote the mere occurrence of an event.

A shout is raised; a panic ensued ; a rush was made. Clamatur; perturbatum est; concursum est.

(6) To make statements of which the Subject is indefinite, i.e. where in English we use the words one, people, we, you, &c., in the sense of anybody.

One does not often sleep till mid-day. Perraro usque ad medium diem dormitur.

(c) To express English Abstract Nouns for which there is no exact equivalent in Latin.

Walking in the Subura will be attended with great danger. Non sine summo periculo in Subura ambulabitur.

(d) Often merely for the sake of securing variety of expression.

Livy i. 17: Inter ordines certabatur; oriundi ab Sabinis, ne, quia post Tatii mortem ab sua parte non erat regnatum (=nullus rex fuerat), in societate aequa possessionem imperii amitterent, sui corporis creari regem volebant; Romani veteres peregrinum regem aspernabantur; in variis voluntatibus regnari (=regem esse) tamen omnes volebant.'

Here the repetition of rex and regem is avoided by the use of the Impersonals.

EXERCISE 24. On the last night we spent' in Milo's house at Lanuvium a strange and unheard-of event occurred. For scarcely had we gone to bed? when an unearthly wail resounded through the house, and a voice was heard foreboding 3 destruction to Milo and his friends. Terrified at this noise we arose ; a rush was made into the hall, and pale with fear we asked each other what so terrible a portent meant. At length Milo, on being asked his opinion, said [(1) Or. Rect., (2) Or. Obl.]. «Though it ill becomes a brave man to be terrified without-reason, nevertheless the warnings of the Gods—if this be a warning of the Godsmust needs cause each of us a certain amount of apprehension. But having been taught wisdom by experience I am rather inclined to fear that? some one of our own household has done this. Let us search diligently, in-the-hopethat we may find out and punish so impudent a fellow.' Thereupon we ran-in-various-directions through the house, and no part was left unsearched; but failing to discover the cause of the strange event, we returned to bed. Many years afterwards a slave confessed that he had been bribed by Clodius to perpetrate the deed.

IS 51, B. 5 Indic.

? $ 66, a, 68 8, Note.

38 57. 7 $ 119


4 § 116. $ 66.

Dative Case. Double Negative.

Gr. SS 115-119, 247-254.
§ 67. Predicative and other Datives.

(a) The Substantives which are used in the Dative Case to form Predicates of Sentences are commonly of a semiabstract character, e.g. names of actions, effects, and feelings?. Many of them are equivalent to Adjectives. The following are a few of the Substantives most commonly used thus :

auxilio, an assistance. ludibrio, mockery, sport. causae, a cause.

odio, hateful. curae, subject of care. praedae, source of plunder. dono, a gift.

praesidio, a protection. exemplo, an example.' probro, a disgrace. exitio, a destruction, fatal. pudori, source of shame. fraudi, cause of harm. saluti, cause of safety. frugi, thrifty.

subsidio, a reinforcement. honori, an honour.

voluptati, source of pleasure. impedimento, a hindrance. usui, useful.

(6) Many of the above will be found useful in the rendering of English Adjectives when employed as Predicates.

This will be useful, fatal, honourable, pleasing, &c., to me. Hoc wihi usui, exitio, honori, voluptati, &c., erit.

For very useful, very honourable, say, magno or summo usui, honori.

(c) These Datives are mostly found with esse. Of the other Verbs with which they are found the most common are habere, treat or account as, and dare, assign as. Auxilio, praesidio, subsidio, are used with a great variety of Verbs, e. g. mittere, proficisci, venire, relinquere, &c. . (d) The Adjectives used with this Dative are, with the single exception of bonus, Adjectives of quantity, especially magnus, major, maximus, tantus, and quantus.

* 1 Roby's Latin Grammar, Vol. II., Preface, should be carefully studied in connexion with this subject.

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