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(e) Dative for Genitive. The use of a Dative where a Genitive might have been expected is frequent in Latin.

Liv. i. 10: ‘Et jam admodum mitigati animi raptis (= raptarum) erant.'

Liv. i. 39: `Puero dormienti ... caput arsisse ferunt.'
Liv, xxix, 29: ‘Militanti in Hispania pater ei moritur.'
Cic. Milo, $ 18: 'Extorta est confitenti sica de manibus.'

Note. "To throw oneself at anybody's feet, at my feet,' &c., is always alicui, mihi, &c., ad pedes se projicere, never alicujus, meos.

§ 68. Double Negative. In Latin, as in English, two Negatives make an Affirmative. Thus,

Non nihil = not nothing = something.

Nihil...non=nothing...not = everything. But there are three exceptions.

(a) When either...or follow a Negative, the Latin is not aut...aut, vel...vel, but

This affair brings no consolation either to you or to me. Nihil haec res solacii nec mihi nec tibi affert.

(6) When even follows a Negative, the Latin is not etiam, but ne...quidem.

This affair brings no consolation even to me. Nihil haec res solacii ne mihi quidem affert.

Cf. Cic. de Am. § 103: Nunquam illum ne minima quidem re offendi.

Liv. ii. 61 : ‘Illum non minae plebis non senatus preces perpellere unquam potuere non modo (I do not say) ut vestem mutaret, aut supplex prensaret homines, sed ne ut ex consueta quidem (but even) asperitate orationis aliquid leniret atque submitteret.'

(c) When any more than, any oftener than, or the like, follow a Negative, the Latin is non magis quam, non saepius quam, &c.

Good springs not from evil, any more than figs from olives, Non nascitur ex malo bonum, non magis quam ficus ex olea. Sen. Ep. 87.

The above may also be rendered As little does good spring from evil, as,' &c.

Cic. de Off. iii, 118: Neque enim bonitas nec liberalitas nec comitas esse potest, non plus quam amicitia, si haec,' &c.

EXERCISE 25. Charles in-no-way dispirited even by the daily losses which ? his troops sustained by hunger, disease, and the sword, sent a letter by a messenger at the beginning of winters to Philip at Cremona, in which he wrote as follows [(1) Or. Rect., (2) Or. Obl.], 'It has now for many months been a source-of-grief to me that* I have been unable to send forces to the assistance of 5 yourself and your friends. But so great have been the difficulties which I have had to encounter, that our hope of finishing the war this year must be abandoned. And indeed it would have been no disgrace either? to yourself or to me if we had been compelled to accept terms of peace. But if the contingent from France8 arrives within twenty days, I shall endeavour to persuade the Prussians also to join us, and by their aid I hope we shall quickly accomplish the task we have undertaken. It is true that 10 Francis and his allies have threatened to break down the bridge over the Padus ', and intercept the supplies of corn. But I do not care for the plans 12 of these men, any more than 13 for the dangers and calamities which have hitherto prevented me from consulting your interests and consolidating my empire. Farewell.'

Ablative Case. Quam. Too. The.

Gr. § 120-126, 255-263, 312, 308. § 69. Ablative of Manner. The English with denoting manner requires cum in Latin, unless the Noun has an

18 68, 6. 28 117, 1. 3 & 56. 4 § 13. 5 Lat., for an assistance to, $ 67, c. 6$ 41, B. 2, Note and Footnote. 78 68, an 8 8 73, Note 2. $ 38, 6. 10 Quod. 11 Pons in Pado factus, 12 The plans are not a subject of care to me.

13 g 68, C.

Adjective in agreement, when cum may be either inserted or omitted.

They enlisted with readiness. Cum alacritate nomina dederunt.

They enlisted with the utmost readiness. Summa alacritate, or cum summa alacritate, nomina dederunt.

$ 70. Ablative of Comparison. Quam.

(a) The English than in Comparisons may usually be translated by quam, except when the latter of the two words denoting the things compared is (1) a Relative Pronoun, (2) a Negative, as nullus, nemo. In these cases the Ablative of Comparison must be used. We always write quo fortior, ne Davo quidem fortior, rather than fortior quam qui, fortior quam ne Davus quidem. The Ablative is also more usual when the things compared are in different numbers, e.g. write ocyor cervis rather than ocyor quam cervi, imperatore ipso acriores rather than acriores quam imperator ipse.

(6) An Ablative of Comparison is only admissible when the Nouns compared would, if quam were used, be in the Nominative or Accusative Case.

Note. The use of the Comparative Ablative may produce considerable ambiguity, e. g.

Non melius se servo vestiebat. Here servo may equally well stand for quam servus or quam servum, and the sentence may mean (1) He clothed himself no better than his slave (a) clothed him, (b) clothed himself, or (2) He clothed himself no better than he clothed his slave.

Plebs tribunis infestior patribus erat. Here, of the words tribunis and patribus, it is difficult to decide which is Dative after infestior, and which is Ablative of Comparison. If tribunis is for quam tribuni, the sentence means, “The people were more hostile to the fathers than the tribunes were.' . If patribus is for quam patres, the sentence means, “The people were more hostile to the tribunes than the fathers were.'

$ 71. Too.

(a) The Adverb too is translated by nimis or by the Comparative of the Adjective or Adverb.

The citizens are too turbulent. Cives sunt nimis turbulenti, or, Cives sunt turbulentiores.

(6) When too introduces a Comparison, use a Comparative, with quam pro, if a Noun follows, and with quam ut or quam qui, if a Verb follows.

The district was too small for its population. Regio angustior erat quam pro multitudine hominum.

The king was too angry to restrain himself. Rex iratior fuit quam ut, or quam qui, sese contineret.

Davus is too contemptible to be envied. Davus abjectior est quam cui, or quam ut ei, invideatur.

Note. If a Negative occurs in the first Clause, the rendering may often be made by tam or adeo followed by quin or ut.

Nobody is too foolish to see this. Nemo tam stultus est quin hoc videat.

I am not too foolish to see this. Non adeo stultus sum ut hoc non videam.

Caes. B. G. vii. 47: ‘Nihil adeo arduum sibi esse existimaverunt quod non virtute consequi possent. They thought nothing was too difficult for them to achieve by valour.

§ 72. The. Although the English the is commonly left untranslated in Latin, yet there are certain cases where it is necessary to express it.

(a) The' is often Demonstrative, being equivalent to that,' e. g.

(1) When it is followed by a Restrictive Relative Clause. When the day came which he had appointed. Ubi ea dies quam constituerat venit. Caes. B. G. i. 8.

(2) When it refers to a previous Noun and is used in the sense of the aforesaid.'

Hearing that Fabius was delivering a speech in the Forum, we at once proceeded to the place. Ut Fabium in Foro concionari accepimus, statim in eum locum descendimus.

(6) The is sometimes equivalent to what or how great after Verbs of perceiving or knowing, especially when a Restrictive Relative Clause follows.

I know the love you bear me, Quantum, or quem, in me amorem habeas novi. Not 'amorem novi, quem in me habes.'

I know the value of this work. Hoc opus quam pretiosum sit novi.

Caes. B. G. vii. 54: ‘Discedentibus his breviter sua in Aeduos merita exposuit, quos et quam humiles accepisset (the position and miserable state in which he had found them).... et quam in fortunam quamque in amplitudinem deduxisset' (and the fortune and prosperity to which he had raised them).

(c) For the preceding an Ordinal or Superlative and followed by a Restrictive Relative Clause, as, 'I will kill the first man who does this,' see $ 51, B.

(d) Proper Names in Latin scarcely ever have Adjectives attached to them as Epithets. Hence such an expression as the learned Cicero' is never “Cicero doctus. Say, • Cicero, vir doctissimus.'

The same form may be used when the Noun is not a Proper Name.

The learned king. Rex, vir doctissimus.
Or we may express the by ille.
The learned king. Rex ille doctus.

Note. Ille is often used where we use the in the sense of the well known.'

Sic horridus ille defluxit numerus Saturnius. Thus the harsh Saturnian measure ceased to flow.

(e) The before Comparatives is eo, or, if in a Subordinate Clause, quo.

The city was taken the more easily because the citizens refused to arm themselves. Eo facilius capta est urbs, quod cives armari noluerunt.

The more they drink the more they thirst. Quo plus bibunt eo magis sitiunt.

Note. The English student is probably aware that the before Comparatives is an Oblique Case of the old AngloSaxon Demonstrative thik; hence it exactly corresponds in form and signification with the Latin eo and quo.

EXERCISE 26. When America was first discovered, and numbers of Europeans hearing of the wealth it possessed went out to settle in the New World, scarcely any men could be

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