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found to till the fields or work the mines; for the inhabitants were too weak and lazy to endure any kind of labour. Accordingly, the 1 horrid practice of importing negroes from their homes in Africa gradually arose; and as the English were more active than all-other nations in this business, the whole of the trade was soon in the hands of our countrymen. Barbarous-cruelties-were-inflicted on the miserable creatures; for after being closelypacked in dark narrow 4 cabins, and almost starved-todeath, they were sold, when they reached the end of their voyage, and compelled to toil for the remainder of their lives without hope of freedom. The celebrated Pitt greatly wished to put an end to this horrible 5 traffic, and it is said that when he was walking one day in his park at Hayes with his friend Wilberforce, he asked him to bring-forward a bill in Parliament for that purpose. Wilberforce replied that the longer he lived the more he pitied the slaves, and that he would do what Pitto requested with the greatest readiness.

XXVII. Genitive Case. Historic Infinitive. A, or An.

Gr. SS 127-131, 264–268, 134-137, 273-277. § 73. Prepositions rendered by the Genitive. The Latin Genitive is used (a) to qualify Nouns like an Adjective (Subjective Genitive), or (6) to stand as the Direct Object of Nouns? or Adjectives. In whichever of these

1$ 72, d, Note.

2 8 59, C, 2.

s § 66, C. 4 Gr. § 385. 5 § 117, g.

6 § 17, e. 7 The Dative is scarcely ever used to express the Direct Object of Substantives in Latin. Signum receptui, signal for retreat, is perhaps the only common one, e.g. receptui signum audire. Cic. Phil. 13. 7.

two ways it is used it represents what in English may be expressed by a Noun under the government of certain Prepositions. By far the most common of such Prepositions is 'of,' and on this account we are accustomed to regard it as the only one which can be represented in Latin by a Genitive Case. The following examples, however, will show that there are certain other Prepositions as well as some phrases of a Prepositional nature (e. g.

subject to caused by,' &c.), which will admit of being translated by a Genitive.

Subjective Genitive.
Without orders from the general. Injussu ducis.

Sabinus' hesitation on the previous days. Sabini superiorum dierum cunctatio. Caes. B. G. iii. 18.

The tribes on the sea coast. Nationes orae maritimae. He feared a rising in Gallia. Motum Galliae verebatur. Caes. B. G. v. 5.

The Trinobantes being protected from all injury at the hands of the soldiers. Trinobantibus ab omni militum injuria prohibitis. Caes. B. G. v. 21.

The provocation created by the agrarian law. Agrariae legis stimuli. Liv. ii. 54.

The prosperity and adversity we have successively enjoyed during the last few years. Horum deinceps annorum vel secundae res vel adversae. Liv. v. 51.

Objective Genitive.
Desire for wealth. Divitiarum cupido.
Aversion to fraud. Fraudis detestatio.
Control over anything. Alicujus rei potestas.
A remedy for (or against) love. Remedium amoris.

Intimacy with Cingetorix. Familiaritas Cingetorigis. Caes. B. G. v. 3.

The war with (or against) the Veneti. Bellum Venetorum. Caes. B. G. iii. 16.

Note 1. In Cic. in Verr. i. § 2, we find 'cum summa expectatione populi Romani,' with the utmost expectation on the part of the Roman people ;' here populi Romani is Subjective. But immediately after, in § 4, we find 'expectatio accusationis meae,' 'anticipation of the manner in which I shall conduct the prosecution,' accusationis meae

being Objective. Again, in Caes. B. G. i. 30 we find 'Helvetiorum injuriae populi Romani,' the injuries inflicted by the Helvetii on the Roman people,' Helvetiorum being Subjective, populi Romani Objective.

Note 2. A large number, however, of English attributive phrases consisting of a Noun governed by a Preposition do not admit of being rendered by a Genitive ; e. g. The reinforcement from Spain, A house by the river, A voyage by moonlight, The fish in the pond, &c. Nor can these be translated literally into Latin, since, as has already been remarked ($ 59 c), the Locative and Ablative, and Cases under the government of a Preposition, are regarded as strictly Adverbial in Latin, and are rarely used Adjectivally to qualify Nouns 1. For the translation of such phrases the rules given in $ 59,c may often be followed. We may translate by an Adjective, or introduce the Adverbial expression by means of a Relative Clause or Participle, e. g.

The reinforcement from Spain. Auxilia Hispana.
A house by the river. Aedes quae ad amnem sunt sitae.
A voyage by moonlight. Iter ad lunam factum.

When the whole expression is introduced by the’ in the sense of 'all the,' we must follow the rules given in $ 47.

The fish in the pond. Qui sunt in vivario pisces, or, quicquid in vivario piscium est.

$ 74. Elliptic Genitive. The Elliptic Genitive (Gr. $ 130, 6) depending on some word understood signifying business, duty, nature, characteristic, may often be used in the translation of such phrases as it is imprudent,' 'it is wise, it is mere folly,' &c.

It is sheer madness to do this. Dementis (or dementiae) est hoc facere.

1 In the following instances from the de Amicitia Cicero does use Adverbial phrases to qualify Nouns. $$ 3, 62, sermo de amicitia ; $ 51, utilitatis causa amicitias ; $ 61, sine ulla exceptione communitas ; 8 66, in omni re severitas. Cf. also Liv. ii. 40, parvos ex Marcio ferens filios (her two children by Marcius); Liv. ii. 52, sed huic praelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum crimini fuit;' Caes. B. G. V. 5. 'quorum in se fidem perspexerat.'

And in the translation of many other English phrases which cannot here be classified, e. g.

Anyone may go astray. Cujusvis est errare.

Prudence however is shown in taking another course. Prudentis autem est aliter agere.

Cic. pro Leg. Man. c. vii. $ 18: "Erit igitur humanitatis vestrae (it will show a kindly feeling on your part, or, it will be only consistent with your kindly nature) magnum numerum eorum civium calamitate prohibere, sapientiae videre multorum civium calami. tatem a re publica sejunctam esse non posse.'

$ 75. Historic Infinitive. The Historic Infinitive? may often be used with effect in passages descriptive of events occurring with unusual suddenness or rapidity or of a great number of events occurring at the same time.

Sall. Jugurth. 51: ‘Sed nec Jugurtha quidem interea quietus erat; circumire, hortari, renovare praelium, et ipse cum delectis tentare omnia ; subveräire suis, hostibus dubiis instare, quos firmos cognoverat eminus pugnando retinere. But meantime Jugurtha by no means remained quiet. Passing through the ranks he encouraged his men, renewed the fight, and assailed every part in person with chosen troops, giving help to his own men, charging the enemy when they wavered, and checking those he knew were standing firm by giving battle at a distance.

$ 76. A, or An. Although the English Indefinite Article a or an is usually left untranslated in Latin, yet there are certain cases where it requires to be represented.

(a) When a means one it must be rendered by unus, or, if the reference is to one of two things, by alter.

He squandered his whole property in a year. Totam rem suam uno anno dissipavit.

Hannibal was blind of an eye. Hannibal altero oculo captus est.

(6) When a means a certain one it should be translated by quidam.

A senator met me yesterday. Senator quidam heri mihi occurrit.

A colleague of ours was chosen. Quidam ex collegis nostris delectus est.

1 Gr. § 275.

(c) When a means such it is translated by is or ejusmodi followed by ut or qui.

His was an integrity that nothing could corrupt. Ea integritate vitae fuit quam nihil corrumpere posset.

It is a subject on which we cannot dwell. Res est quam verbis prosequi pudeat.

EXERCISE 27. When Edmund had reigned only six years he was sitting-at-table one day with his friends, when a robber named Liofa, who had been banished from the land, either 1 inflamed with envy towards the king or impelled by a desire for notoriety, entered the hall and sat down amongst the guests. The king, who was not of a nature to put-up-with an affront, perceiving this, summoned a servant and desired him to drive the insolent fellow 2 from. the house. [(1) Or. Rect., (2) Or. Obl.] • It is a most shameless thing 3,' he said, 'not only to come uninvited to another-man's table, but after the commission of so many crimes * to insult even the king in his own palace.' When the servant proceeded to execute these commands, Liofa resisted him. The king himself came to his assistance, and seizing Liofa by the hair threw him on the ground 6. But he ?, ill-disposed to submit to this, stabbed the king with a dagger. Then indeed on all sides a panic ensued 8: some called for the guards °, others rano to raise the dying king, others turned their swords on the robber himself. His head having been cut off at a blow, his dead body was torn in pieces by the exasperated attendants.

i Seu. 5 § 55, a. ground.

2 § 117, g.

3 $ 74.

4 § 56. 6 Threw Liofa, his hair having been seized, on the 7 § 17, f.

8 $ 66. 9$ 75.

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