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XXVIII. English Gerund in -ing. Without. Instead of.

Gr. SS 309-311. § 77. English Gerund in -ing. The use of the Gerund or Verbal Noun in -ing is exceedingly common in English, but it frequently happens that there is no direct equivalent for it in Latin.

(a) Nominative Case of the Gerund. For translating the Nominative Case of the English Gerund the Latin Infinitive may sometimes be used.

Seeing is believing. Videre est credere.

But a construction with Finite Verb and Relative Clause (e. g. credit qui videt) is often preferable.

Taking away friendship from life is like taking away the sun from the world. Tollit solem e mundo qui amicitiam e vita tollit.

(6) Objective Case of the Gerund. For translating the Objective Case of the English Gerund the Latin Infinitive may also be sometimes used.

I prefer hunting to fishing. Malo venari quam piscari.

Often however a Verbal Noun in -tio or -tus is to be preferred.

(c) Gerund governed by a Preposition. Frequently the English Gerund is under the government of a Preposition or Prepositional phrase. Two of these, viz. ' without' and 'instead of;' will now receive special notice ; the remainder will be dealt with in a subsequent Exercise.

$ 78. “Without' with Gerund in -ing. There are three principal ways of translating without' followed by the Gerund in -ing.

(a) By a Participle (or Adjective) preceded by a Negative.

They set out without delaying any longer. Non amplius morati profecti sunt.

The town was taken without a single man being killed. Ne uno quidem interfecto urbs capta est.

And indeed it is difficult to judge without having tried. Et judicare difficile est sane nisi expertum. Cic. de Am. 8 62.

It is miserable to be pained without getting any advantage. Miserum est nihil proficientem angi. Cic. N. D. iii. $ 6.

Sometimes a Negative Adjective will answer the purpose.

The king sent Cyrus away without punishing him. Rex Cyrum impunitum dimisit.

(6) By a Coordinate Clause introduced by nec or sed non. He made a long speech without persuading any one. Orationem longam habuit, nec tamen ulli persuasit.

He was condemned without being punished. Damnatus quidem est, sed non supplicio affectus.

(C) By a Subordinate Clause introduced by ut non, non ut, nisi, or quin.

Without wishing to detract from his praise, I cannot acquit him of want of judgment. Ut non laudes ejus imminuere velim, ita judicium ei deesse non abnuerim.

He was fond of pleasure without ever exceeding due bounds. In voluptatem pronior, neque tamen ut modum excederet.

Cic. pro Leg. Man. § 19: «Non enim possunt una in civitate multi rem ac fortunas amittere, ut non plures secum in eandem trahant (without drawing) calamitatem.'

Cic. pro Leg. Man. § 19: 'Ruere illa non possunt ut haec non eodem modo labefacta concidant' (without these falling). .

You cannot learn without studying. Discere non potes nisi! literis studeas (or studueris).

You cannot study without learning. Literis studere non potes quin' discas.

$ 79. “Instead of' with Gerund in -ing. There are three principal ways of translating “instead of' when followed by the Gerund in -ing.

(a) By neque.

Instead of wasting his time at home, he ought to have enlisted. Nomen dare oportuit, neque domi tempus terere.

(6) By quum (= whereas) and debeo.

Instead of fighting he fled. Quum pugnare deberet (or debuisset), tergum hostibus dedit.

1 Nisi here implies without previously studying,' quin 'without sub. sequently learning. This distinction between the usage of the two words will always hold good. Ut non might have been substituted for quin,

(c) By tantum abest ut... ut, or adeo non ... ut.

Instead of desiring the honour I refused it when offered. Tantum abfuit ut honorem cuperem ut oblatum rejicerem; or, Adeo non honorem cupiebam ut oblatum rejicerem,

EXERCISE 28. Xenophon relates that Artaxerxes, instead of putting Cyrus to death because he had conspired against him, sent him away into Lydia, a province over which he had given him entire command. As soon as Cyrus 2 arrived there 3, instead of attending-to-the-welfare-of his subjects, he made it his sole object * to form a plan for 5 recovering the kingdom, of which he thought he had been unjustly deprived. Accordingly he received all who 6 came from the king with great favour and affability, in order to entice them to quit his brother's party and follow him. He also gained-the-affections-of the barbarians under his government?, familiarising himself with them, and associating himself with the common-soldiery, without, however, laying-aside the dignity of a general; and these he trained by various exercises for service-in-war. To these also he added several bodies of Grecian troops which he had raised under various pretexts, and appointed Clearchus as their captain. At the same time several cities in the provinces which Tissaphernes governed renounced their allegiance and went over to him, and, a war having broken out in consequence, Cyrus, under-pretence-of arming against Tissaphernes, now collected troops with less reserve 8.

4 Id unum

1 § 49. C. 2 $ 17, e. agere ut.

5 Of.
8 Say, more openly, apertius.

3 § 44, Note 3
6 § 52, Note.

7 $ 73.

XXIX.

The same (continued). $ 80. Other Prepositions with Gerund in -ing. Many other Prepositions besides without' and 'instead of' commonly precede the Gerund in -ing ; such are in, from, by, to, for, on, upon, before, after, towards, beyond, about, &c. Several of these may be rendered by the Latin Gerund in -dum, -di, -do, or by the Gerundive constructed with a Noun (Gr. 88 138–9, 279), either with or without a Preposition. Thus, of may often be rendered by a Genitive, for by a Dative, to by ad with Accusative, &c. It is assumed that the learner has at least some elementary knowledge of the limits within which the Gerund may be so used. There remain, then, to be considered those combinations of the English Gerund with a Preposition which can seldom or never be represented by the Latin Gerund. It is scarcely possible, nor would it be desirable, to furnish an exhaustive list of these, but a considerable number will be given in the following examples, together with hints for translating them into Latin.

(a) Often an English Preposition + Gerund may be resolved into an Oblique Statement or Question, or into a Subordinate Clause denoting Time, Purpose, Cause, Condition, Concession, &c., and the translation must be made accordingly, e. g.

(1) Oblique Statement. He made no denial of his being deeply in debt=He did not deny that he was (Acc. and Inf.) deeply in debt.

I am vexed at your doing this = I am vexed that (quod) you do this.

(2) Oblique Question.

He had no reason for acting thus = There was no reason why he should act thus.

(3) Subordinate Clause denoting Time.

On, upon, after, seeing this he cried out= When, after, he had seen this, he cried out.

(4) Subordinate Clause denoting Purpose.

I prevented him from writing the letter =I prevented him that he might not write the letter.

He set out with the intention of waylaying Milo. Eo consilio profectus est ut insidiaretur in via Milonem.

Note. The phrase “on condition of' with Gerund may be rendered by ea (or hac) conditione .... ut or ne, or by ita ... si. The former construction may always be employed, the latter is more usual when future events are spoken of.

Peace was granted on condition of the enemy delivering up their arms. Pax ea conditione data est ut hostes arma traderent.

Liv. xxiii. 7: •Legati ad Hannibalem venerunt, pacemque cum eo conditionibus his fecerunt, ne quis imperator ......... haberet, ut suae leges ...... Capuae essent,' &c.

I will do this on condition of your finishing the work by to-night. Ita hoc faciam si opus ante noctem perfeceris.

Hor. Ep. I. vii. 69: “Sic ignovisse putato me tibi si caenas hodie.' Consider that I have pardoned you on condition of your supping with me to-day.

(5) Subordinate Clause denoting Cause.

For doing this he was condemned = He was condemned because he had done this.

(6) Subordinate Clause denoting Condition.

In doing this you will act rightly=If you do this you will act rightly.

(7) Subordinate Clause denoting Concession. In spite of his doing this = Although he did this.

(8) The Preposition in with the Gerund sometimes gives a little trouble, e. g. In doing this you are acting rightly. This example differs from the one just given in (6), since no condition is implied. The most usual way of translating is to use quod (=in that, or, as regards the fact that) or quum, with Indicative.

In doing this he acts rightly. Quod ita facit recte facit.

In backbiting others you injure yourself. Quum alios carpis, tibi ipsi injuriam facis.

Cic. Milo, $ 77: 'Quod vero sedet .... satis declarat,' &c. In sitting there he sufficiently declares, &c.

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