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The Preposition by is sometimes used with the Gerund in the same signification. Cicero has a curious use of ita .... ut, which seems best rendered by our by with Gerund, e. g.

Ad Att. I. 1: 'Nam illi ita negant ut mihi se debere dicant.' They refuse him by saying they are pledged to me,

Milo, § 27: Ita profectus est ut contionem relinqueret.' He began his journey by leaving a meeting.

(6) To give, however, in detail a list of all the possible methods of turning these phrases would only confuse and weary the beginner, who will be far more benefited if he employs his own ingenuity and common sense in combating the difficulty than if he were to commit to memory any number of examples. Every combination of an English Preposition with the Gerund may either be translated literally or may be turned by means of one or other of the constructions already familiar to those who have done the preceding Exercises of this book, and it will soon become an easy task to determine which is to be used in any given instance. The most simple and easy English form in which you can represent the phrase will probably be the best for your purpose. Express the phrase exactly in the words you would use in explaining it to a little child. Thus, the following sentence, • The impossibility of achieving this must be obvious to the dullest

capacity,' merely means in simple language, ‘Even the most stupid person must see that this cannot be done,' and the Latin will be 'Haec fieri non posse ne stultissimum quidem fallat,' or something of the kind.

EXERCISE 29. This gave Crassus reason for suspecting treachery, of which the message from Artabasus ought to have fully convinced him. That prince informed Crassus that king Orodes had invaded his ? dominions with a great army, that the war he had to maintain prevented him1 from

Referring to Artabasus,

sending the aid he had promised; but that he advised him? to march towards Armenia, in order that they might fight with greater hope of success by uniting their forces against the common enemy: that if he ? would noto follow that advice, he? cautioned him ? at least to avoid, in marching and encamping, the open plains, and such places as were convenient for horse-soldiers, and always to keep-close-to the mountains. Crassus, instead of givingear-to these wise counsels 4, angrily inveighed against him who gave them, and without vouchsafing a reply to Artabasus, only spoke thus to his messengers, [Or. Obl.], 'I have no time at present for considering the affairs of Armenia ; I shall go thither soon, and shall punish Artabasus for so treacherously deserting me.'

XXX. Quod and Antequam with Subjunctive. § 81. Quod. The Causal Conjunction quod, because, usually takes an Indicative in Oratio Recta. But it takes a Subjunctive under two special circumstances.

(a) When it denotes a reason entertained not by the writer or speaker but by some one else.

Was not Aristides exiled from his country for being too just? Aristides nonne ob eam causam expulsus est patria, quod praeter modum justus esset? Cic. Tusc. v. $ 36.

Here the use of esset' rather than erat' implies that Aristides was not too just’ in Cicero's opinion, but in that of the people who banished him.

They condemned him for breaking his word. Damnarunt eum quod fidem non servasset.

Here .quod fidem non servasset' is the reason alleged by the judges who condemned, not the statement of any fact by the historian.

1 Referring to Artabasus.

3 Use nolo.

? Referring to Crassus.

4 § 117,8.

(6) When it is used to denote a supposed or possible reason, which is not however meant to be alleged as the true one.

The general refused to fight, not that (or not because) he feared, but because he wished to delay. Dux pugnam detrectavit, non quod timeret, sed quia cunctari volebat.

The above example might also have been expressed thus :

The general refused to fight more because he wished to delay than because he feared. Dux pugnam detrectavit magis quia cunctari volebat quam quod hostem timeret.

Livy ii. 1: ‘Libertatis autem originem inde magis, quia annuum imperium consulare factum est quam quod deminutum quicquam sit ex regia potestate.

Note that in such cases the true reason is usually expressed by quia with Indicative.

$ 82. Antequam, Priusquam.

(a) Antequam and Priusquam, when used of present or past events, usually take an Indicative to denote the priority in time of one of two events, each of which actually happens or did happen. (Note that ante, prius, are often written with the Principal Clause, and quam with the Subordinate.)

These things were done before Croesus came to the throne. Haec prius facta sunt quam Croesus est regnum adeptus.

(6) Antequam and Priusquam take a Subjunctive to denote the priority in time of one event to another without implying that the second event ever really happens or did happen at all.

He died before completing the work. Mortuus est priusquam opus conficeret.

If confecit were written instead of conficeret, it would imply that he did finish the work, but died previously, which is absurd.

Before attacking the town, Fabius sent for the allies. Priusquam oppidum oppugnaret Fabius socios arcessivit.

Here the use of oppugnaret leaves it doubtful whether Fabius ever really attacked the town. Oppugnavit' would imply that he did attack it, but sent for the allies first.

Before you begin there is need of deliberation. Priusquam incipias consulto opus est.

(6) When the reference is to Future Time, Antequam

and Priusquam take either a Present Subjunctive or a Future Perfect Indicative, according as the occurrence of the future event is regarded as a possibility or a certainty.

Cic. Agr. ii. 20 : 'Is videlicet antequam veniat in Pontum literas ad Cn. Pompeium mittet.

Cic. Att. v. 14: 'Antequam aliquo loco consedero ... expectabis.'
Occasionally also Cicero uses a Present Indicative.
Att. iv. 1 : Priusquam de ceteris rebus respondeo ... dicam.'

§ 83. Not.... until. The words not ... until may be translated by non ante (or non prius)... quam, the rule for the Mood being the same as above. I

Another way is by tum ... cum.

For the advantages of genius are never fully enjoyed until shared with all one's friends. Fructus enim ingeni tum maximus capitur cum in proximum quemque confertur. Cic. de Am. $ 70.

Cic. de Am. $ 53: Quod Tarquinium dixisse ferunt, tum exulantem se intellexisse quos fidos amicos habuisset, quos infidos, cum (had never known until) jam neutris gratiam referre posset.'

$ 84. Whether. If Clauses introduced by "whether,' ‘or,' are Subjects or Objects of a Verb, they are Interrogative, and must be translated by utrum ..... an, &c. Sometimes, however, whether,' 'or,' introduce Subordinate Clauses indicating alternative suppositions, and in such case they must be translated by sive ... sive, or seu ... seu, usually with an Indicative Mood.

Whether this news is true or false, I shall set out at dawn. Sive vera sive falsa haec sunt, prima luce proficiscar.

Whether this news is true or false is uncertain. Utrum vera an falsa haec sint incertum est.

I wish to ascertain whether we are conquerors or conquered. Victoresne an victi simus cognoscere volo.

I wish to act honourably, whether we are conquerors or conquered. Honeste agere volo, seu victores seu victi sumus.

EXERCISE 30. Before Harold became king, he had been driven by a tempest upon the coast of Normandy, and delivered up to William, Duke of that province, who refused to let him

go until" he had bound himself by an oath that he would assist him in obtaining the crown of England. Whether he regarded this oath as of little value, or thought it better for the English people that he should be king, it is certain that, upon the death of Edward some years afterwards, he changed his mind and led a large army against William, who had landed his troops near Hastings. Before engaging in battle he pitched his camp on some rising ground, and strengthened it with a ditch and stockade. The battle lasted 2 a whole day, and the fighting did not cease until Harold had fallen, his eye pierced through with an arrow.

When the fight was ended and the English army driven off the field, the poor old mother of King Harold sent to William and offered a large sum of money if he would give her up the dead body of her son to be buried 3. William refused her request“, not because he wished to pain the unhappy woman, but because he was too highminded to 5 sell his foe's dead body for gold. Afterwards, when it was found, he gave her leave to take it 6 for nothing, and it was buried in the Abbey Church at Waltham.

XXXI.
Avoidance of Demonstrative Pronouns.

Gr. $S 315-6. § 85. Demonstrative avoided in Latin. In an English sentence of more than one clause we are accustomed to make free use of the Pronouns he, him, she, her, it, they, them in reference to a preceding Noun, e. g.

When the man came near we recognised him.

2 § 66.

i § 83. “Refused'=said that he would not.

3 $ 55, b. Gr. § 281. 5 § 71.

6 § 44.

4 & 56.

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