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In Latin Prose writing, on the other hand, the rule is to avoid the Pronoun if possible, i. e. if the omission is possible without loss of clearness.

This omission can be effected in three ways.

(a) By placing the Noun at the beginning, so that it can easily be referred to as the Subject, or Object, or in some other way the common property, of all the Clauses.

When Caesar arrived, he sent for the centurion. Caesar, quum pervenisset, centurionem arcessivit.

When Caesar arrived, they attacked him. Caesarem, quum pervenisset, aggressi sunt.

When they see Caesar, they attack him. Caesarem quum vident aggrediuntur.

For though the second consul gave no other cause of offence, yet his name was odious to the nation. Consulis enim alterius, quum nihil aliud offenderit, nomen invisum civitati fuit. Liv. ii. 3.

Some covet riches, others despise them. Divitias alii cupiunt alii spernunt.

(6) By placing the Noun, as before, at the beginning, and making a Participle do duty for one of the Clauses. This method of rendering should be perfectly familiar to the learner. He attacked the boar and killed it. Aprum aggressus interfecit.

They rewarded the man and sent him away. Hominem praemiis affectum dimiserunt.

They laughed at Laelius as he passed by. Laelium praetereuntem deriserunt.

(c) By simply omitting the Latin Pronoun where the English usage would require it.

A certain Gaditan came from the end of the world to see Titus Livius, and as soon as he had seen him went home again. Gaditanus quidam ad visendum T. Livium ab ultimis terrarum finibus venit, statimque ut viderat (not eum) abiit.

Diog. Laert. in Thal: “Thales a ducenda uxore alieno animo erat. Urgenti (not eum) aliquando matri ut se matrimonii vinculis astringeret, “Nondum tempestivum esse” respondit. Multos post annos cum eadem acrius instaret (not ei), “Non amplius tempestivum esse” dixit.'

$ 86. Exceptions. It is not however always possible to omit the Pronoun, e. g.

(a) When the Noun is Subject of a Principal Clause, and the Pronoun referring to it is Object of a Subordinate Clause, the Pronoun is often required in Latin.

Caesar, when they attacked him, resisted with all his might. Caesar, cum in eum impetum facerent, summis viribus restitit.

(6) Or when the Noun and Pronoun are each Objects of their own Clause, but in different Cases, the Verb in one Clause, for instance, being Transitive, and in the other taking a Dative, Genitive, or Ablative, e. g.

He exhorted his son and at length persuaded him. Filium hortatus est, et tandem ei persuasit.

Caes. B. G. vii. 62: 'Dux ... suis aderat atque eos cohortatus est.'

(c) When two or more Nouns occur in the early part of the sentence and reference is made to them by Demonstratives in the subsequent Clauses, the use of hic, is, ille, and se, is almost always necessary to prevent ambiguity. This remark is too obvious to require illustration.

$ 87. That of, those of. The expressions that ofi' 'those of' are never to be translated literally into Latin. The best methods of translation are the following.

(a) Repeat the Substantive.

The camp of Caesar was three miles distant from that of the enemy. Milia passuum tria ab hostium castris castra Caesaris aberant.

(6) Use an Adjective with which the Substantive can be understood in agreement.

The fleet of the Romans joined that of the allies. Sociorum classi Romana [sc. classis] conjuncta est.

He preferred his own safety to that of his brother. Fratris saluti suam anteposuit.

Livy xxi. 19: 'Uti vestram Carthaginiensium amicitiae praeponamus.'

(c) Omit the Substantive altogether.

The keels are much flatter than those of our ships. Carinae aliquanto planiores quam nostrarum navium [sc. carinae) sunt. Caes. B. G. iii. 13.

Note. This omission of the Substantive is especially frequent where in English the words that of;' those of;' would be preceded by a Preposition, e.g.

Cic. Sex. Rosc. Am. $ 140: ‘Suam causam cum Chrysogono [i. e. cum causa Chrysogoni] communicare.'

Cic. pro Leg. Man. $18: Civium calamitates a republica si. e. a reipublicae calamitatibus] sejunctas esse non posse.'

EXERCISE 31. As soon as Philopoemen was made commander-inchief of the Achaeans, he assembled his allies before taking the field and exhorted them to second his zeal 1 with courage and warmth, and support him with a honour both to 3 themselves and him. And do not 4,' he continued 5, pay attention to the beauty of your dress, which becomes women only, and those, too, of little merit, but rather to that of your arms; for the more valuable these are, the more you will fear to lose them in battle. This is an object indeed worthy of men who are intent upon their own glory and that of their country.' Philopoemen probably said this, not because he thought that expensive adornment was necessary or desirable, but because he believed that in no other way could he turn the Achaeans from their luxury and effeminate love of dress. His speech at all events was received with universal applause, and at the breaking up of the assembly all those who were magnificently dressed were pointed at in’ derision; so great an influence have the words 8 of an illustrious person not only in dissuading men from vice, but in inclining them to virtue; and if his actions correspond with his words, it is scarcely possible to resist 10 his exhortations.

1 $ 56. ? 8 69. 3 $ 73. 4 SS 130, 6, 120, B. 5 § 34.

6 52, Note. 7 Say, with. 8 To such a degree do the words ... dissuade.

9 § 44. 10 Potest can only be used for 'it is possible' with Passive Impersonals (Gr. § 377), i.e. you can say ‘resisti non potest,' but not ‘resistere non potest,' for 'it is impossible to resist,


The Latin Period. § 88. The Period. It must not be supposed that in translating into Latin we are bound to make each sentence begin and end exactly where the English does. On the contrary, we often find cases where several separate English sentences can best be rendered by one continuous sentence in Latin.

It was a favourite practice with Latin writers to select some leading event for their Principal Clause, and to group around it in Subordinate Clauses or Phrases all the attendant circumstances of Time, Cause, Purpose, Result, &c. In English these latter are often expressed by Coordinate Clauses. The difference can best be shown by an example.

Day dawned: the army broke up its camp, and advanced to the river. But they found it impossible to cross on foot, owing to the depth of the water, and Vairo became alarmed at the prospect of being surrounded by the enemy if he wasted his time in constructing a bridge. He resolved therefore to retrace his steps, and offer battle immediately.

Here, taking Varro's resolve as the leading statement, we may express the other statements by Subordinate Clauses in Latin, or by phrases equivalent to Subordinate Clauses, e.g.

Castris prima luce motis, cum exercitus ad flumen processisset, neque propter altitudinem aquae pedibus transire (or transiri) posset, veritus Varro, si ponte faciundo tempus tereret, ne ab hostibus circumveniretur, pedem referre constituit atque hostem ad pugnam quam primum provocare.

This arrangement of a Principal with a large number of Subordinate Clauses is called a Period.

Commonly it is the last event in point of time which is selected for the Principal Clause in a Period, and the Subordinate Clauses describe the previous or contemporaneous events, such as the purpose, the condition, the time, the cause, &c. Occasionally, however, for the sake of variety perhaps, the Latin writer selects a prior event for his Principal Clause, and depicts the subsequent events as related to it in the way of result. Thus, in the example above given we might take the circumstance of the water being deep as the leading event, and make the sentence run thus,

Castris prima luce motis, cum exercitus ad flumen processisset, tanta erat aquae altitudo ut pedibus transiri non posset, et veritus Varro, si ponte faciundo tempus tereret, ne ab hostibus circumveniretur, pedem referre constitueret, atque hostem ad pugnam quam primum provocare.

$ 89. Arrangement of Subordinate Clauses. Clauses introduced by ut (that), ne, quod, quia, quasi, quam, usually come after the Verb to which they are subordinated, whilst those introduced by ut (when), ubi, quum, postquam, si, and some others usually come before it.

In constructing a Latin Period, however, the Subordinate Clauses are usually arranged with strict reference to the order in time in which the events occur, and as the Principal Verb is not uncommonly last in point of time ($ 88), the whole group of Subordinate Clauses will in such case precede it.

Note. Hence Subordinate Clauses placed before the Verb of which they are explanatory sometimes create a difficulty to beginners, as they seem at first sight to belong to some previous Verb or Participle, e.g.

Caes. B. G. vii. 11: 'Altero die quum ad oppidum Senonum Vellaunodunum venisset, ne quem post se hostem relinqueret, quo expeditiore re frumentaria uteretur, oppugnare instituit.'

Here the Clause ne ........ relinqueret, which belongs to oppugnare instituit, might easily be taken to be explanatory of the preceding Verb venisset ?.

1 Where this rule is violated, some good reason probably exists for the irregularity. Cf. Liv. vii. 32: Valerius levibus certaminibus tentandi hostis causa haud ita multos moratus dies, signum pugnae proposuit, paucis suos hortatus, ne,' &c. Here hortatus, though a prior event to signum pugnae proposuit, is placed after it in the sentence. But on referring to the passage it will be seen that hortatus ne, &c, serve to introduce a long Oratio Obliqua which could not conveniently have been introduced before the Principal Clause ‘signum pugnae proposuit.'

2 The same peculiarity of arrangement occurs in the following examples :

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