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$ 90. Treatment of Connective Particles. In turning a number of English Coordinate Clauses into a Latin Period, the English Connective Particles should be carefully noticed, as a right understanding of their import is necessary for determining what Conjunctions will be necessary for the corresponding Subordinate Clauses in the Latin. Thus, the word “therefore' implies an inference from some preceding statement: the action described in such statement is consequently to be regarded as the cause of the action described in the clause introduced by 'therefore,' and will have to be connected with the therefore' Clause by a Causal Conjunction in the Latin. When this has been done, the English and the Latin sentences, though differing in construction, will be found to have practically the same signification. It makes little difference whether we say, “You are an enemy; therefore I hate you,' or, Since you are an enemy, I hate you.'

The words "consequently,' 'accordingly,' and 'for,' also point to a rendering by Causal Conjunctions in Latin ; 'then,'

meanwhile,' upon this,' after which,' &c., point to Temporal Clauses ; 'but,' 'yet,' 'nevertheless,' point to Concessive Clauses, and so on. A few examples will easily illustrate these points.

Such were the operations of Caesar. Meanwhile the Treviri were preparing to attack Labienus. Dum haec a Caesare geruntur, Treviri Labienum adoriri parabant.

The battle had now been going on for six hours, and not only strength but ammunition was failing our men, whilst the enemy were pressing on more hotly than ever, and had begun to tear down

Caes. B. G. vii. 12: Quo ex oppido cum legati ad eum venissent oratum ut sibi ignosceret suaeque vitae consuleret, ut celeriter reliquas res conficeret, qua pleraque erat consecutus, arma conferri, equos produci obsides dari jubet.'

Caes. B. G. vii. 43 : 'Ipse majorem Galliae motum expectans, ne ab omnibus civitatibus circumsisteretur, consilia inibat,' &c.

Caes. B. G. vii. 55: Oppidum quod a se teneri non posse judicabant, ne quo esset usui Romanis, incenderunt.

Cic. de Am. 8 69: 'Quintum vero Maximum fratrem, egregium virum omnino, sibi nequaquam parem, quod is anteibat aetate, tanquam superiorem colebat.'

the ramparts and fill the trenches. At this juncture Baculus and Volusenus come running up to Galba, and inform him that, &c. Cum jam amplius horis sex continenter pugnaretur, ac non solum vires sed etiam tela nostris deficerent, atque hostes acrius instarent et vallum scindere et fossas complere coepissent, Baculus et Volusenus ad Galbam accurrunt atque, &c. Caes. B. G. iii. 5.

Thus far events were all terminating contrary to their expectations. They were confident however of possessing great power by sea. Jam ut (although) omnia contra opinionem acciderent, tamen se plurimum navibus posse confidebant. Caes. B. G. iii. 9.

§ 91. Prepositional and other phrases rendered by Subordinate Clauses. The preceding remarks will suggest an easy method of dealing with such English phrases as 'due to,' 'consequent on,' 'resulting from,' with many others which merely serve to show that one action takes place before or after another, or because of it, or in spite of it. Take the following example :

The growing distress occasioned by the long-continued blockade and consequent scarcity of coin produced a change of feeling towards Pericles which ultimately led to an open rebellion.'

By the help of a Grammar and an English-Latin Dictionary we might expect some such translation as the following from a boy who had never observed the methods of expression adopted by Latin writers :

Crescens dolor, ex obsidione urbis diu producta, et ex inopia frumenti, quae eam secuta est, ortus, mutationem animi in Periclem effecit, quae in apertam seditionem tandem exarsit.

This translation is grammatically correct, but it is not Latin. What we really have to do in rendering such a sentence is to observe the order of the events. These are (1) the longcontinued blockade, (2) the scarcity of corn, (3) the distress, (4) the change of feeling, (5) the rebellion. The Latin may then take this shape :

Jam vero, (1) urbe diutius obsessa, (2) cum propter inopiam frumenti, (3) magis magisque in dies laboraretur, (4) adeo mutati sunt in Periclem animi, (5) ut seditio tandem aperta oriretur.

şi 92. Collocation of Conjunctions. In arranging the Subordinate Clauses in a period, beware of collocations of Conjunctions, as ne quod quum, ut si postquam, &c., e. g.

Fearing lest their father, when he returned, would punish them, if they appeared sullen.

Do not, if you translate by Conjunctions throughout, arrange them as follows,

Veriti ne, si, quum pater suus rediisset, morosi viderentur, in se animadverteret.

But,

Veriti, si morosi viderentur, ne pater suus, quum rediisset, in se animadverteret

$ 93. Collocation of Ablatives Absolute. As may be supposed, the Ablative Absolute plays a highly useful part in the construction of Latin Periods. It is not at all uncommon to find a collocation of several of these, sometimes united by Conjunctions, sometimes not, as in the following examples. Note that, in Livy especially, the Subject of the sentence is often inserted between two Ablatives Absolute.

Livy v. 43: 'Inde clamore sublato, ac testudine facta, subeunt.'

Livy vii. 32: · Hac legatione Romam relata, positis omnium aliarum rerum curis, patres, fetialibus ad res repetendas missis, belloque, quia non redderentur, sollemni more indicto, decreverunt ut,' &c.

Livy vii. 37: ‘Ita rebus gestis, consul, advocata contione, P. Decii ... laudes peragit.'

Caes. B. G. i. 24: 'Ipsi confertissima acie rejecto nostro equitatu, phalange facta, .... successerunt.'

Caes. B. G. ii. 11: 'Exaudito clamore, perturbatis ordinibus, omnes in fuga sibi praesidium ponerent.'

Caes. B. G. ii. 12: 'Celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis, aggere jacto turribusque constitutis, magnitudine operum,' &c.

1 Even the concurrence of two Conjunctions, as, ut si, ne quum, is often studiously avoided in Latin :

Caes. B. G. iii. 1 : ‘Huic permisit, si opus esse arbitraretur, uti in his locis ... collocaret.'

Caes. B. G. vii. 10: 'Magnam haec res Caesari difficultatem ad consilium capiendum afferebat, si reliquam partem hiemis uno loco legiones contineret, ne cuncta Gallia deficeret ; si maturius ex hibernis educeret, ne ab re . . . laboraret.'

Nepos, Cim. c. 4: 'Fuit enim tanta liberalitate, quum compluribus locis praedia hortosque haberet, ut nunquam iis custodiam imposuerit."

Cic. Milo, § 21: 'In communi omnium laetitia, si etiam ipse gauderet, timuit ne videretur,' &c.

Caes. B. G. iii. 1: ‘Galba secundis aliquot praeliis factis, castellisque compluribus eorum expugnatis, missis ad eum undique legatis, obsidibusque datis et pace facta, constituit,' &c.

Caes. B. G. vii. 2: •Tum collaudatis Carnutibus, dato jurejurando,' &c.

Caes. B. G. vii. 82 : ‘Multis undique vulneribus acceptis, nulla munitione perrupta,' &c.

In all the above examples the Ablatives Absolute are written strictly in the order of time in which the events occurred of which they are descriptive.

EXERCISE 32. Next day the general brought up his artillery and arranged the siege-works which he had determined to construct. A violent shower-of-rain then came on, and observing that the sentinels were somewhat carelessly posted on the enemy's wall, he thought this no bad time for executing his project. Accordingly, he ordered his men to occupy themselves less actively in the siege-works, and proceeded to disclose to them his plan of action. Then stationing the battalions in a secret position between his camp and the works, he gave the signal for assault, having previously encouraged his men to reap at length a harvest of victory proportioned to their great toils, and having promised rewards to those who first mounted the walls. The soldiers immediately rushed forth from all quarters and speedily filled the wall. The enemy, alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, were dislodged from their fortifications and towers, and drew up in form of a wedge in the market-place and open streets, intending, if an attack should be made on them from any side, to fight with line drawn up to receive it.

1 Say, rather lazily, languidius.

Fearing lest their father, when he returned, would punish them, if they appeared sullen.

Do not, if you translate by Conjunctions throughout, arrange them as follows,

Veriti ne, si, quum pater suus rediisset, morosi viderentur, in se animadverteret.

But,

Veriti, si morosi viderentur, ne pater suus, quum rediisset, in se animadverteret'.

$ 93. Collocation of Ablatives Absolute. As may be supposed, the Ablative Absolute plays a highly useful part in the construction of Latin Periods. It is not at all uncommon to find a collocation of several of these, sometimes united by Conjunctions, sometimes not, as in the following examples. Note that, in Livy especially, the Subject of the sentence is often inserted between two Ablatives Absolute.

Livy v. 43: 'Inde clamore sublato, ac testudine facta, subeunt.'

Livy vii. 32: Hac legatione Romam relata, positis omnium aliarum rerum curis, patres, fetialibus ad res repetendas missis, belloque, quia non redderentur, sollemni more indicto, decreverunt ut,' &c.

Livy vii. 37: ‘Ita rebus gestis, consul, advocata contione, P. Decii ... laudes peragit.'

Caes. B. G. i. 24: 'Ipsi confertissima acie rejecto nostro equitatu, phalange facta, .... successerunt.'

Caes. B. G. ii. 11: 'Exaudito clamore, perturbatis ordinibus, omnes in fuga sibi praesidium ponerent.'

Caes. B. G. ii. 12: “Celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis, aggere jacto turribusque constitutis, magnitudine operum,' &c.

1 Even the concurrence of two Conjunctions, as, ut si, ne quum, is often studiously avoided in Latin :

Caes. B. G. iii. 1: 'Huic permisit, si opus esse arbitraretur, uti in his locis ... collocaret.'

Caes. B. G. vii. 10: "Magnam haec res Caesari difficultatem ad consilium capiendum afferebat, si reliquam partem hiemis uno loco legiones contineret, ne cuncta Gallia deficeret ; si maturius ex hibernis educeret, ne ab re . . . laboraret.'

Nepos, Cim. c. 4: 'Fuit enim tanta liberalitate, quum compluribus locis praedia hortosque haberet, ut nunquam iis custodiam imposuerit.'

Cic. Milo, § 21: 'In communi omnium laetitia, si etiam ipse gauderet, timuit ne videretur,' &c.

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