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sidium in Rutenis constituit, partem copiarum in Helvetios convenire jubet.'

Caes. B. G. vii. 17: Aggerem apparare, vineas agere, turres duas constituere coepit 1.'.

§ 98. Antithesis (avri, Oéors, placing over against) is the adjustment of contrasted words in consecutive Sentences or Clauses so as to correspond with each other in position.

Si rixa est, ubi tu pulsas, ego vapulo tantum.

Here tu and ego, which are contrasted with each other, are placed in Antithesis by being made to stand as the first word in their respective Clauses.

If there are several contrasted words in two or more Clauses, the order of such words should exactly correspond, if a correct Antithesis is desired.

They ordered Stasimus to be beaten and Davus to be imprisoned. Stasimum virgis caedi, Davum in vincula conjici jusserunt.

Cic. in Verr. I. $ 2: Caius Verres, homo (a) vita atque factis (6) omnium jam opinione (c) damnatus, (d) pecuniae magnitudine (e) sua spe et praedicatione (f) absolutus.'

Here the expressions d, e, f, are antithetical to a, b, c, respectively.

§ 97. Chiasmus (xiaouós, crossing) is a variety of Antithesis. It occurs when couplets, triplets, &c., of contrasted words are placed in reversed order in adjacent Clauses. Thus, if A and B in one Clause be contrasted with C and D respectively in another, then, if A, B, be the order of the words in one Clause, a Chiasmus will be created if the order of words in the other Clause be D, C. Cicero is very fond of using this figure, e. g.

1 A very remarkable instance of continuous Asyndeton occurs in Caes. B. G. vii. 4: Rex ab suis appellatur; dimittit quoquoversus legiones ; obtestatur ut in fide maneant. Celeriter sibi Senones ... adjungit; omnium consensu ad eum defertur imperium. Qua oblata potestate, ... obsides imperat, certum numerum militum ad se adduci jussit. Armorum quantum ... efficiat, constituit ; imprimis equitatui studet. Summae diligentiae summam imperii severitatem addit; magnitudine supplicii dubitantes cogit.' Such a passage as this is, however, very rare, and is not to be generally imitated. It has rather the appearance of being a mere summary of events jotted down in Caesar's note-book and afterwards copied verbatim into the narrative.

De Sen. $ 3: 'Sed de ceteris et diximus multa et saepe dicemus.'

De Sen. § 44: 'Quia non modo vituperatio nulla sed etiam summa laus senectutis est, quod,' &c.

De Am. & 57: Quam multa enim quae nostra causa nunquam faceremus, facimus causa amicorum.'

De Am. $ 65: Ut ne criminibus aut inferendis delectetur aut credat oblatis.'

In Verr. I. § 1 : ‘Inveteravit enim jam opinio perniciosa reipublicae nobisque periculosa.'

§ 98. Anaphora (åvapopá, recurrence) is the repetition of a word with several other words, phrases, or clauses.

Cic. Mil. § 2 : Non enim corona consessus vester cinctus est ; non usitata frequentia stipati sumus; non illa praesidia,' &c.

Cic. Mil. § 67: “Si Milonem times, si hunc de tua vita .... putas, si Italiae delectus, ut .... dictitarunt, si haec arma, si Capitolinae cohortes, si excubiae, si vigiliae, si delecta juventus,' &c.

Note 1. The words most usually so repeated are (1) The Relative qui, quae, quod, (2) Short Interrogative words, as quis, cur, (3) Short Conjunctions and Adverbs, as quum, quod, si, ne, ut, non, (4) Short Prepositions, as ad, per, de, pro.

Note 2. Anaphora is chiefly employed where emphasis and impressiveness are required. Hence the frequency with which it is employed in speeches. In Cicero's Oratio pro Milone, for instance, it occurs between 50 and 60 times. It is less suited for ordinary prose narrative, though even there its use is not infrequent.

$ 99. Hints for translating Coordinative Conjunctions. From an inspection of the examples just given under the headings of Asyndeton, Antithesis, and Anaphora, we may obtain the following hints for the translation of the Coordinative Conjunctions and,'' but' or 'whereas,''or,' &c.

(a) In Adversative Clauses the words 'but,' 'whereas,' whilst,' and sometimes and,' may often be omitted in Latin, the required adversative notion being expressed by antithetical arrangement of the opposed words.

He then had no reason for making a journey, but rather reason for stopping at home, but (or whereas) Milo had no power to stay. Ergo illi ne causa quidem itineris, etiam causa manendi, Miloni manendi nulla facultas. Cic. Mil. $ 45.

We are accustomed to loathe the craven-hearted and suppliant, but the brave and spirited we wish to see live. Timidos et supplices .... odisse solemus, fortes et animosos servari cupimus. Cic. Mil. $ 92.

Will ye retain the memorials of this man's soul, but suffer no sepulchre for his body to exist in Italy? Hujus vos animi monumenta retinebitis, corporis in Italia nullum sepulchrum esse patiemini? Cic. Mil. § 104.

Note. To express 'but not Cicero not only places the opposed words antithetically, omitting the Conjunction, but combines with the Negative Particle (non) one or more words from the preceding Clause. The following examples are from the 'de Amicitia :'

$ 19: ·Ex propinquitate benevolentia tolli potest, ex amicitia non potest' (but not from friendship).

$ 55: 'Quid autem stultius quam ... cetera parare quae parantur pecunia .... amicos non parare ?' (but not friends).

$ 62: "(Scipio) querebatur , . . . capras et oves quot quisque haberet dicere posse, amicos quot haberet non posse dicere' (but not how many friends).

§ 73: •Ut Scipio P. Rupilium potuit consulem efficere, fratrem ejus Lucium non potuit' (but not his brother Lucius).

(6) A series of English words, phrases, or clauses, having an and' prefixed to the last of them, may be translated into Latin by inserting et between each or by leaving out et altogether, as has already been explained above ($ 20).

But instead of et we may insert between each some other word, usually a short word, as qui, de, si, &c.

They fought for their country, their altars, and their hearths. Pro patria, pro aris, pro focis pugnabant.

(c) A series of English words, phrases, or clauses, having 'or' prefixed to the last or inserted between each, may be translated by inserting vel or aut between each.

But, again, instead of vel or aut we may insert between each some other word, usually a short word.

Who fears the Gauls, the Belgae, or the Germans? Quis Gallos, quis Belgas, quis Germanos timet ?

EXERCISE 33. It was then, then I say, that I perceived and long previously forecast the storm that? was being raised and the tempest that was threatening our country. I began to see that such gross wickedness and monstrous audacity on the part of? a frenzied young fellow of noble birth could not be restrained within peaceful bounds, but that if it were allowed to remain unpunished the s evil would one day burst forth to the ruin of our country. It is true there has not happened much since to add to my detestation of the man. For nothing he has done against me has been done through hatred of me, but through hatred of rigorous dealing of dignity and of the common weal. It is not myself 4 he has insulted so much as the Senate, the Roman knights, the entire body of the nobility, and the whole of Italy. In short, his conduct has not been more impious against me than against the immortal gods themselves. For he has outraged them by a crime which no man ever committed before, whereas towards me he has merely cherished the same feelings as his friend Catiline would also have cherished if he had defeated me. And therefore I never thought it necessary to prosecute him any more than that blockhead whose very nationality we should be ignorant of, if he did not of his own accord avow himself a Ligurian.

1 $ 72, b. 2 $ 73. 3 $ 72, a, 2. * $ 41, B, 2, Note. 5 “Not so much as' is generally ‘non magis quam' in Latin. 68 68, c.

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