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REPORT

OF THE

SIXTY-FIRST MEETING

OF THE

BRITISH ASSOCIATION

FOR THE

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE

HELD AT

CARDIFF IN AUGUST 1891,

LONDON:
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1892.

OFFICE OF THE ASSOCIATION: BURLINGTON HOUSE, LONDON, W.

PRINTED BY
SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE

LONDON

Page

Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. FRANCIS

ĜALTON (Chairman), Professor A. W. WILLIAMSON, Sir Douglas GALTON,

Professor Bord Dawkins, Sir Rawson Rawson, Dr. J. G. GARSON, Dr.

John Evans, Mr. J. HOPKINSON, Professor R. MELDOLA (Secretary), Pro-

fessor T. G. BONNEY, Mr. W. WHITAKER, Mr. G. J. Symons, General PITT-

RIVERS, and Mr. W. TOPLEY........

41

Report of a Committee, consisting of Messrs. J. LARMOR and G. H. Bryan,

appointed to draw up a Report on the present state of our knowledge of

Thermodynamics, specially with regard to the Second Law

85

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors FITZGERALD (Chair-

man), ARMSTRONG, and 0. J. LODGE (Secretaries), Sir WILLIAM TAOmson,

Lord' RAYLEIGH, J. J. THOMSON, SCHUSTER, POYNTING, CRUM Brown,

Ramsay, FRANKLAND, TILDEN, HARTLEY, S.P. THOMPSON, MOLEOD,

ROBERTS-AUSTEN, RÜCKER, REINOLD, CAREY FOSTER, and H. B. Dixon,

Captain ABNEY, Drs. GLADSTONE, HOPKINSON, and FLEMING, and Messrs.

CROOKES, SHELFORD BIDWELL, W. N. SHAW, J. LARMOR, J. T. BOTTOMLEY,

R. T. GLAZEBROOK, J. Brown, and Joon M. Thomson, appointed for the

purpose of considering the subject of Electrolysis in its Physical and Chemical

Bearings

.... 122

Eleventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir WILLIAM Thomson, Mr.

R. ETHERIDGE, Professor JOAN PERRY, Dr. HENRY WOODWARD, Professor

Thomas Gray, and Professor JOHN MILNE (Secretary), appointed for the

purpose of investigating the Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of

Japan. (Drawn up by the Secretary) ....

.... 123

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord RAYLEIGH, Sir WILLIAM

THOmson, Professor CAYLEY, Professor B. PRICE, Dr. J. W. L. GLAISHER,

Professor A. G. GREENHILL, Professor W. M. Hicks, and Professor A.

LODGE (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of calculating Tables of cer-

tain Mathematical Functions, and, if necessary, of taking steps to carry out

the Calculations, and to publish the results in an accessible form

129

First Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. J. Symons (Chairman),

Professor R. MELDOLA, Mr. J. HOPKINSON, and Mr. A. W. CLAYDEN

(Secretary), appointed to consider the application of Photography

Elucidation of Meteorological Phenomena. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 130

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 0. J. LODGE, Professor CAREY

FOSTER, and Mr. A. P. CHATTOCK (Secretary), appointed to investigate the

Discharge of Electricity from Points

139

Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord McLAREN (Chairman), Professor

CRUM BROWN (Secretary), Mr. MILNE-HOME, Dr. JOHN MURRAY, Dr.

BUCHAN, and the Hon. RALPH ABERCROMBY, appointed for the purpose of

co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making Meteoro-

logical Observations on Ben Nevis

140

Third (Interim) Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor FITZGERALD,

Dr. JOHN HOPKINSON, Mr. R. A. HaDFIELD, Mr. Trouton, Professor

ROBERTS-AUSTEN, Mr. H. F. NEWALL, and Professor BARRETT (Secretary),

on the various Phenomena connected with the Recalescent Points in Iron

and other Metals......

........ 147

Page

Second (Interim) Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. John KERR, Sir

WILLIAM THOMSON, Professor RÜCKER, and Mr. R. T. GLAZEBROOK (Secre-

tary), appointed to co-operate with Dr. Kerr in his researches on Electro-

optics

147

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor LIVEING, Dr. C. PIAZZI

SMYTH (Secretary), and Professors DEWAR and SCHUSTER, appointed to

co-operate with Dr. C. Piazzi Smyth in his researches on the Ultra-violet

Rays of the Solar Spectrum ....

147

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. GRYLLS ADAMS (Chair-

man and Secretary), Sir WILLIAM Thomson, Professor G. H. DARWIN,

Professor G. CHRYSTAL., Professor A. SCHUSTER, Professor RÜCKER, Mr. C. H.

CARPMAEL, Commander CREAK, the ASTRONOMER ROYAL, Mr. WILLIAM

ELLIS, and Mr. G. M. WHIPPLE, appointed for the purpose of considering

the best means of Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Observations....... 149

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. CAREY FOSTER, Sir

WILLIAM Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. PERRY, Professor W.

G. ADAMS, Lord RAYLEIGH, Dr. O. J. LODGE, Dr. John HOPKINSON, Dr.

A. MUIRHEAD, Mr. W. H. PREECE, Mr. HERBERT TAYLOR, Professor EVERETT,

Professor SCHUSTER, Dr. J. A. FLEMING, Professor G. F. FITZGERALD,

Mr. R. T. GLAZEBROOK (Secretary), Professor CHRYSTAL, Mr. H. Tomlin-

son, Professor W. GARNETT, Professor J. J. THOMSON, Mr. W. N. Shaw,

Mr. J. T. BOTTOMLEY, and Mr. T. GRAY, appointed for the purpose of

constructing and issuing Practical Standards for use in Electrical Measure-

ments

152

Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor CAYLEY, Professor

SYLVESTER, Mr. A. R. FORSYTH, and Professor A. LODGE (Secretary), ap-

pointed for the purpose of carrying on the Tables connected with the Pellian

Equation from the point where the work was left by Degen in 1817 160

Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir G. G. STOKES (Chairman),

Professor SCHUSTER, Mr. G. JOHNSTONE ŠTONEY, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain

ABNEY, Mr. WHIPPLE, Professor McLEOD, and Mr. G. J. Symons (Secre-

tary), appointed for the purpose of considering the best methods of recording

the direct Intensity of Solar Radiation

160

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Roscoe, Mr. J. N. LOCKYER,

Professors DEWAR, Wolcott Gibbs, LIVEING, SCHUSTER, and W. N.

HARTLEY, Captain ABNEY, and Dr. MARSHALL Watts (Secretary),

appointed to prepare a new series of Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of

the Elements and Compounds ...,

161

Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor THORPE, Professor

HUMMEL (Secretary), Dr. PERKIN, Professor RUSSELL,

Captain ABNEY, and

Professor Stroud, on the Action of Light upon Dyed Colours. (Drawn up

by the Secretary)

263

Report (provisional) of a Committee, consisting of Professors McLeod and

W. RAMSAY and Mr. W. A. SHENSTONE (Secretary), appointed to investigate

the Influence of the Silent Discharge of Electricity on Oxygen and other

Gases

264

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors H. McLEOD (Chair-

man), ROBERTS-A USTEN (Secretary), and REINOLD and Mr. H. G. MADAN,

appointed for the Continuation of the Bibliography of Spectroscopy 264

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor TILDEN and Professor

ARMSTRONG (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating Isomeric

Naphthalene Derivatives. (Drawn up by Professor ARMSTRONG)... ..... 265

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden, McLEOD,

PICKERING, RAMsay, and Young and Drs. A. R. LEEDS and Nicol

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