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modified the conclusions previously formed respecting both INTRO:
the individual and his age,—the obscure period of transition
when the sceptre passed from the Carlovingian to the Cape-
tian dynasty.

That the method of numerical notation employed by Employment
Gerbert was identical with that of our modern era, and that, numerical
at the same time, his knowledge was not derived from the by Gerbert.
Saracens, would appear to be equally well ascertained facts.
The dislike and dread with which the Mahometan race had
been regarded ever since the Crescent and the Cross con-
tended for the possession of France at Poitiers, and the
consequent rarity of their intercourse with Christian Europe',
the entire absence of Arabic words and of everything
suggestive of Arabic influences in his writings, render it in
the highest degree improbable that Gerbert was indebted M. Olleris'
to such sources for his method. That method, M. Olleris with respect
considers, may have very well been derived from those whence fier
writers whom we have already passed under review as ledze.
constituting the manuals of the Middle Ages, and especially
to the one by whose name, as the 'new Boethius,' Gerbert
was known among his admiring contemporaries'. Under

bert derived his know

1 M. Guizot has pointed out the Olleris says :-'Le voile épais qui remarkable contrast observable in the couvre cet époque de sa vie, ses con. writings of the chroniclers of the first naissances fort exagérées en mathéCrusades, such as Albert d'Aise, matiques et en astronomie, permirent, Robert le Moine, and Raymond près d'un siècle après sa mort, à d'Agiles, and the accounts of the Beusson, cardinal de l'antipape Gui. later Crusades, belonging to the later bert, ennemi de Saint-Siège, de prohalf of the twelfth and thirteenth fiter d'un mot échappé à l'ignorance centuries, by Guillaume de Tyr and d'Adhémar de Chabanais, qui avait Jaques de Vitry. By the former the dit que Gerbert était allé à Cordoue, Mahometans are spoken of only with pour affirmer qu'il avait appris dans contempt and hatred, the hatred and cette ville les sciences et la magie. contempt of ignorance; in the writings Des moines credules, avides du mer. of the later chroniclers they are no veilleux accreditèrent ces bruits, y longer regarded as monsters; it is ajoutèrent de nouvelles fables, que le evident that a certain amount of in. moyen age accueillit sans hésiter, les tercourse had been going on between temps modernes en ont admis une the Christian and the Saracen, and a partie. Mais ces récits mensongers corresponding amount of sympathy ne sont-ils pas complètement réfutés has been developed; the morals of par la faveur constante dont Gerbert the latter are even favourably con. a joui auprès des évêques et des trasted with those of the countrymen princes chrétiens du Xe siècle, par of the writers. See Hist. de la Civili. le silence absolu de tous ses contemsation en Europe, in 204–207. porains, dont quelquesuns l'ont at

With respect to the period of taqué avec acharnement, par son Gerbert's residence at Barcelona, M. aveu indirect qu'il ne comprend pas


the patronage of the princes of the house of Saxe, Gerbert taught with great success at Rheims, and the account given by Richerus of the system he employed and the authors upon whom he commented, is deserving of quotation ; it must however be observed, that such instruction, at this

period, can only be regarded, in its thoroughness and extent, His teaching as of an entirely exceptional character :-Dialecticam ergo at Rheims.

ordine librorum percurrens, dilucidis sententiarum verbis enodavit. Imprimis enim Porphirii ysagogas, id est introductiones secundum Victorini rhetoris translationem, inde etiam easdem secundum Manlium' explanavit; cathegoriarum, id est prædicamentorum librum Aristotelis consequenter enucleans. Peri ermenius vero, id est de interpretatione librum, cujus laboris sit, aptissime monstravit. Inde etiam topica, id est argumentorum sedes, a Tullio de Greco in Latinum translata", et a Manlio consule sex commentariorum libris dilucidata, suis auditoribus intimavit. Nec non et quatuor de topicis differentiis libros, de sillogismis cathegoricis duos, de ypotheticis tres, diffinitionumque librum unum, divisionum æque unum, utiliter legit et expressit. Post quorum laborem, , cum ad rhetoricam suos provehere vellet, id sibi suspectum erat, quod sine locutionum modis, qui in poetis discendi sunt, ad oratoriam artem ante perveniri non queat Poetas igitur adhibuit, quibus assuescendos arbitrabatur. Legit itaque ac docuit Maronem et Statium Terentiumque poetas, Juvenalem quoque ac Persium Horatiumque satiricos, Lucanum etiam historiographum. Quibus assuefactos, locutionumque modis compositos, ad rhetoricam transduxit'.

l'arabe ? Il faut donc reconnaître que Gerbert n'a visité ni Séville ni Cordoue, que ses maîtres étaient chrétiens, que les auteurs placés entre ses mains étaient ceux que l'on étudiait en France avant les guerres civiles,entre autreslerhéteur Victorinus, Martianus Capella, et surtout Boèce, dont Cassiodore fait un si pompeux éloge. C'est chez lui qu'il puisa ces notions scientifiques tant admirées par le XIe siècle, qui lui donna les titres flatteurs de philosophe, de savant, de nouveau Boèce.' Olleris, Vie de Gerbert, p. 21.

1 Manlius' is, of course, Boethius; see infra, pp. 51–53. It would scarcely be necessary to make this observation had not Hock in his Histoire du Pape Sylvester II, traduite par M. l'Abbé J. M. Axinger, supposed a totally different person to be designated.

3 M. Olleris correctly observes, • Richer se trompe quand il les prend pour une traduction.'

3 Richeri (E.) Historiarum Quatuor Libri, Lib. III c. 46 & 47. Reims, 1855.


the Millen


the general

Pope Gerbert lived to see the commencement of the INTROeleventh century and the inauguration of what may fairly be regarded as a less gloomy period, but the years which approach one immediately followed on the thousandth Christian year were nium clouded by a recurrence of that same terrible foreboding which occupied our attention in the earlier part of our enquiry. The Millennium was drawing to its close; and the monks, as they turned with trembling hand the mystic page of the Apocalypse, declared that they could only interpret the solemn prediction which marks the opening of the twentieth chapter, into an announcement that the end of all things must now be looked for. A panic not less severe Panic than that of the age of Jerome or of Gregory seized upon Christian men's minds. The land was left untilled; the pursuits of business and pleasure were alike disregarded; the churches were thronged by terrified suppliants seeking to avert the Divine wrath. The paroxysm subsided indeed a3 the use to which seasons revolved with their accustomed regularity, but the impression clergy skilfully converted the predominant feeling into chan- verted by the nels that well subserved the interests of the Church. The ordinary preamble to deeds of gift of this period,—Mundi appropinquante termino, Intonante jam per universum globum evangelica tuba, —-attests the widespread character and the reality of the conviction; and from this time we may date the commencement of that great architectural movement which subsequently reared in the proudest cities of Europe the monuments of Christian art and of Christian self-devotion.

In no subsequent age do we find this belief, though ever The anticipaand anon recurrent, operating with an equal power. The end of the theory has been revived by the student of prophecy and frenabis by the charlatan, but it has never since so far attracted popular attention as to paralyse the activities of a nation and to divert multitudes from the ordinary avocations of life. It is only indeed in facts like these that we realise how closely the avowed belief of those ages was interwoven with their action, and, when we find conviction thus potent to restrain the ardour of the warrior and to arrest the industry


tion of the

agitate the masses.


INTRO: of the peasant, we begin in some measure to compreliend

how great must have been its power in the cloister where it Importance was born. We begin to discern how all education, conceived as an element and directed as it was by those who upheld and inculcated retem of the this belief, must necessarily have reflected its influence; and

conceding, as we well may, that in no other period in the known history of our race have events more emphatically seemed to favour the construction thus placed upon them, we may claim that this conviction carried with it something to justify as well as to explain the narrow culture of those times. And further, if we add to this consideration the recollection how imperfect was the possession then retained of the literature of antiquity, the indifference with which that literature was regarded by the majority, and the difficulties under which it was studied and transmitted, it may perhaps occur to us that the censure and the sarcasm so often directed against these ages, might well give place to something more of reverence and gratitude towards the heroic few who tended the lamp amid the darkness and the storm

The eleventh century saw the revival of the controversy which Paschasius had initiated. In contravention of the extreme theory which he had supported, Berengar, an archdeacon of Tours and head of the great school founded by Charlemagne which still adorned that city, maintained the entirely opposed view which regarded the Lord's Supper

i It is somewhat remarkable that être fatale eut sonné sans catastrophe, so well-informed a writer as Mr les hommes, animés d'une ardeur inLecky, in his able sketch of the be- accoutumée, semblèrent apprécier lief of these centuries (see Hist. of davantage le bienfait de l'existence. Rationalism, Vol. I) should hare left De toutes parts les écoles sortirent this theory almost altogether un- de leur long assoupissement; on noticed. M. Digot, Recherches sur se mit à reconstruire les églises et les Écoles Épiscopales et Monast. de

les monastères en ruine, enfin les la province de Trèves, has indeed in

lettres et les arts prirent subitement clined to the opinion that its influ- un essor nouveau.' Les Écoles Épisence has been exaggerated, but Léon copales, etc. p. 96. M. Olleris has Maitre quotes satisfactory evidence forcibly characterised the sentiment to show that the reconstruction of before prevalent:- Personne the ruined churches and monas- songeait à s'instruire. A quoi bon teries in France was not attempted cultiver son esprit ? Pourquoi tranuntil after the year 1000; of the scrire des livres qui allaient périr change that then took place he thus dans la conflagration universelle ?' writes: "Lorsque l'heure qui devait l'ie de Gerbert, p. 21.

Berengar, 1. 1000, d. 1088.


as purely emblematical. This interpretation was as old as

DUCTION Clemens and Origen, but the principle which Berengar concurrently asserted startled and aroused the Church. While New position familiar with the writings of the Fathers, for he was one of the most learned men of his time, he refused implicit deference to their authority, and declared that in the search for truth reason must be the guide. The sacred writings themselves attested, he urged, that the highest of all truth had been inculcated by the Divine Master in a form that recognised this fundamental law. Such was the commencement of a fresh controversy which, though familiar to modern ears, seemed strange and portentous to the eleventh century. Lanfranc, The position which Berengar was led finally to assume d. 1089. aroused a host of antagonists. Foremost among them was Lanfranc, the archbishop of Canterbury, an ecclesiastic who having once contemplated the profession of the jurist, and studied the civil law at Bologna, had afterwards taken upon himself the religious life and uncompromisingly espoused its most rigid interpretation. From the vantage ground of learning superior even to that of Berengar, he assailed in language of stern rebuke the assumptions of the latter. The Ile maintains right faith, he maintained, did not exhaust itself in efforts vative view in to reconcile to the understanding mysteries above human berençar. comprehension, and of these was that of the Real Presence. 'God forbid,' he exclaimed, that I should rely rather on human reasoning than on the truth and the authority of the holy Fathers. Ne videar magis arte quam veritate sanctorumque Patrum auctoritate confidere'. In the sarcasm here implied in the use of arte in its technical sense, we are reminded of that prevalent conception of proof, as essentially a dialectical achievement in compliance with certain rules, which perhaps more than anything else fettered the spirit of enquiry in this age. A wide interval had been traversed

assumed by this thinker.

b. 1005 (?),

1 De Sacra Cona, c. 7. The reply cum secundum rationem est factus of Berengar in the long lost trea- ad imaginem Dei, suum honorem retise discovered by Lessing is worthy linquit, nec potest renovari de die in of nota: Maximi plane cordis est, diem ad imaginem Dei. Adv. Lan. per omnia ad dialecticam confugere, franc, Lib. Posterior, ed. Vischer, quia confugere ad eam ad rationem 1834, p. 105. est confugere, quo qui non confugit,

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