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certain mode of delivering them: this appears to be beyond doubt if we carefully note the expressions italicised: and finally the title of the statute, Quomodo legi debent lectiones cursoriæ in scholis grammaticalibus, evidently signifies that cursory lecturers in grammar are to observe a certain method, not that cursory lectures are to be discontinued. In fact, in another statute, which seems to have escaped Mr Anstey's notice, it is expressly required that cursory lectures in grammar shall be given. (Mun. Acad. 438—9.)



Abbo, of Fleury, sustains the tradition
of Alcuin's teaching, 69; his pu-
pils, 70

Abelard, pupil of William of Cham-
peaux, 57, 77, n. 1; asserts the
rights of reason against authority,
58; attacked by Gualterus, 62
Accursius, of Florence, his labours
in connexion with the civil law,

Ægidius, supports Aquinas against
the Franciscans, 121; a student
at the university of Paris, 134
Ælfred, king, statement of respecting
the knowledge of Latin in Eng-
land in his time, 21; exertions of,
in restoring learning, 81; founda-
tion of the university of Oxford by,
now generally rejected, 83, n. 3
Age of students at the university of
Paris in the Middle Ages, 131;
limitation with respect to, in sta-
tute respecting admission of stu-
dents at King's Hall, 253; average,
of the arts student at time of
entry, 346
Agricola, Rudolphus, prophecy of,
concerning the spread of learning
in Germany, 409; scholarship of,
410; the De Formando Studio of,
ib.; outline of the contents, ib.; the
De Inventione of, 412; the latter
recommended by Erasmus to
Fisher, 497; a prescribed text-book
at Cambridge, 630

Ainslie, Dr., his Memoirs of Marie
de St. Paul, 236, n. 1
Aix-la-Chapelle, decree of council at,

A.D. 817, 19
Albertus Magnus, commentary of, on
the Sentences, 62; commences to
teach at the university of Paris,
107; reputation of, as an ex-
pounder of Aristotle, ib.; street

which still bears his name, ib. n.
3; discrepancy in statements re-
specting time of his arrival in
Paris, ib.; known as the 'ape of
Aristotle,' 108; method of inter-
pretation of, compared with that
of Aquinas, ib.; obligations of, to
Avicenna, ib. n. 1; characterised
by Prantl as a mere compiler, ib.
n. 2; a native of Swabia, 113; sup-
ports Aquinas against the Fran-
ciscans, 121; theory of, with re-
spect to the subject-matter of logic,

Alcock, John, bp. of Ely, procures
the dissolution of the nunnery of
St. Rhadegund and the foundation
of Jesus College, 321; a benefactor
to Peterhouse, ib. n. 2
Alcuin, diversity of opinion respect-
ing share of, in the revival of learn-
ing under Charlemagne, 11; cha-
racter of, compared with that of
Charlemagne, 12; draws up a
scheme of education for the em-
peror, 13; retires to Tours, 14;
condemns Virgil, 16; and all pagan
learning, 17; library at York de-
scribed by, ib. n. 1; death of, de-
scribed by Monnier, ib. n. 2; teacher
of Rabanus Maurus at Tours, 54;
tradition of the teaching of, 69
Aldrich, Robt., fell. of King's, a friend

of Erasmus at Cambridge, 499
Aldhelm, archbp. of Canterbury, his

knowledge of Latin and Greek, 8
Alexander of Aphrodisias, extensions

given to the psychology of Aris-
totle by, 117
Alexander Iv, pope, hostile to the
university of Paris, 119; appealed
to by the monks of Bury, 150
Alexander vi, pope, authorises the
licensing of 12 preachers annually
by the university, 439

Alexander, de Villa Dei, author of a
common text-book on grammar
used at Cambridge, 515 and n. 1
Alliacus, cardinal, unfavorable to the

teaching of Aquinas, 123
Alne, Robert, owner of a treatise by
Petrarch lent to a master of
Michaelhouse in the 15th cent., 433
Ambrose, founder of the conception
of sacerdotal authority in the
Latin Church, 3
Ammonius, the friend of Erasmus,
492; letters from Erasmus to, ib.;
498, n. 3; 503, n. 3; 505 and n. 2
Ampère, view of, with respect to

Charlemagne's design, 13
Analytics, Prior and Posterior, of
Aristotle, not quoted before the
twelfth century, 29
Anaxagoras, the vous of, the basis of
the theory of the De Anima, 115
Angers, migration to, from Paris in
1228, 107

Anjou, Margaret of, character of,
312; Ultramontane sympathies
of, 313; petition of, to king Henry
VI for permission to found Queens'
College, ib.

Annunciation of B. V. Mary, college

of the, Gonville Hall so called,
245; gild of the, at Cambridge, 248
Anselm, St., successor to Lanfranc
in the see of Canterbury, 49; grow-
ing thoughtfulness of his times,
ib.; considered that nominalism
was necessarily repugnant to the
doctrine of the Trinity, 55; his
Latinity superior to that of a sub-
sequent age, 57; his death, ib.;
character and influence of his
writings, 63; perpetuated the in-
fluence of St. Augustine, ib.; his
theology characterised by Ré-
musat, 64, n. 1; none of his writ-
ings named in the catalogue of the
library of Christchurch, 104
Anstey, Mr., on the supposed exist-
ence of the university of Oxford
before the Conquest, 81, n. 1; on
the probable adoption of the sta-
tutes of the university of Paris at
Oxford, 83, 84; objections to the
theory of, of the relations of
'grammar' to the arts course, 350,
n. 1
Antichrist, appearance of imme.
diately to precede the end of the
world, 10

Antichristo Libellus de, erroneously
attributed to Alcuin, 16, n. 1; its
resemblance to Lactantius, ib.

Antony, St., the monachism of, com-
pared with that of the Benedic-
tines, 86

Aquinas, St. Thomas, commentary of,
on the Sentences, 62; one of the
pupils of Albertus at Cologne, 107;
method of, in commenting on Aris-
totle compared with that of Al-
bertus, 108; obligations of, to Aver-
röes, ib. n. 1; combination of Aris-
totelian and Christian philosophy
in, 110; influence of, on modern
theology, 112; difficulty of his
position with respect to the New
Aristotle, 113; sacrificed Averroes
in order to save Aristotle, 114;
adopted the method of Averroes,
ib.; philosophy of, attacked by the
Franciscans, 120; unfavorable cri-
ticism of the teaching of, prohibit-
ed, 122; canonisation of, ib.; vision
of, in Dante, ib. Summa of, 123;
method of, condemned by various
mediæval teachers, ib.; method of,
as compared with that of Lombar-
dus, calculated to promote contro-
versy, 125; commentaries of, pre-
ceded the nova translatio of Aris-
totle, 126; agreement of, with
Roger Bacon as to the subject-
matter of logic, 180; position of,
compared with that of Petrarch,'386
Aquitaine, kingdom of, monasteries
in, 11
Arabian commentators on Aristotle,
their interpretations bring about a
condemnation of his works, 97
Aretino, see Bruni.

Argentine, John, provost of King's,
426; his proposed act' in the
schools, ib.

Aristotle, varied character of the
influence of, 29; known from sixth
to thirteenth century only as a
logician, ib.; Categories and Peri-
ermenias of, lectured on by Gerbert
at Rheims, 44; his theory of uni-
versals described in translation of
Porphyry by Boethius, 52; Pre-
dicamenta of, ib.; supposed study
of, at Oxford in the twelfth cen-
tury, 83; the New, when introduced
into Europe, 85; respect for, in-
spired among the Saracens by
Averroes, 91; philosophy of, first
known to Europe through the Ara-
bian commentators, ib.; only the
Categories and De Interpretatione
of, known to Europe before the
twelfth century, 92; translations of,
from the Arabic and from the

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Greek, how distinguished, ib.; phi-
losophy of, not known to the
schoolmen before the thirteenth
century, 94; never mentioned in
the Sentences, ib.; all the extant
works of, known to Europe through
Latin versions before the year 1272,
ib.; writings of, on natural science
first known through versions from
the Arabic, 95; comparative accu-
racy of the versions from the Latin
and those from the Arabic, ib.; nu-
merous preceding versions through
which the latter were derived, ib.;
the New, difficulties of the Church
with respect to, 97; varied charac-
ter of its contents, ib.; scientific
treatises of, condemned at Paris,
ib.; and again in 1215 and 1231,
98; Dominican interpretation of,
a notable phenomenon in the thir-
teenth century, 108; psychology
of, 115; translations from the
Greek text of, 125; Nova Transla-
tio of, 126; Ethics of, newly trans-
lated under the direction of Grosse-
teste, 154; worthlessness of the
older versions of, ib.; the New, first
effects of on the value attached to
logic, 179; works of, studied at
Prague and Leipsic in the fifteenth
century, 282, n. 2; authority of,
attacked by Petrarch, 386
Arithmetic, treatment of the subject

by Martianus, 26; treatise on, by
Tunstal, 592; the study of, recom-
mended by Melanchthon, ib. n. 1
Argyropulos, John, 405; improve-
ments of on the interpretation of
Aristotle, ib.; declared Cicero had
no true knowledge of Aristotle,
406; translations of, from the
Greek, ib.; admitted excellence of
these, 407; lecture of, attended by
Reuchlin, 407
Arnobius, an objector to pagan learn-
ing, 16

ter of St. Mary's Hostel, 563;
summons of, before the chapter at
Westminster, 605; articles against,
606; recantation of, ib.
Arundel, archbp., his visitation at
Cambridge, 258; commission ap-
pointed by, ib.; his character, 259,
n. 1; constitutions of, 272; when
bp. of Ely asserted his jurisdiction
over the university, 288; Fuller's
comments on his visitation, ib. n. 1
Ascham, Scholemaster of, quoted, 59,
n. 3; testimony of, to evils re-
sulting from indiscriminate ad.
mission of pensioners, 624
Ashton, Hugh, executor to the count-

ess of Richmond for carrying out
foundation of St.John's College, 464
Astronomy, treatment of the science
of, by Martianus, 26
Augustine, St., founder of the dog-
matic theology of the Latin Church,
3; theory contained in the De Ci
vitate Dei of, 4; juncture at which
the treatise was composed, 10; obli-
gations of John Scotus to, 41; in-
fluence of upon Anselm, 49; his
spirit revived in Anselm, 63; trans-
lations of Aristotle by, how dis.
tinguished from those of a later
period, 93; Platonic tendencies of,
an element in the literature which
Aquinas attempted to reconcile,
113; little valued by many of the
Humanists, 484; regarded by Bur-
net as a schismatic, 485; tenacity
of the influence of, ib.
Augustinian canons, priory of at
Barnwell, 139; hospital of, founded
at Cambridge, 223
Augustinian friars, their house near
the old Botanic Gardens, 139;
character of as a body, 564; site
of their foundation at Cambridge,
ib. n. 3; engrossed the tuition of
grammar at Oxford, 565; at one
time taught gratuitously, ib.;
church of, at Cambridge, not in-
cluded in the episcopal jurisdic-
tion, ib.

Arts course of study, when intro-
duced at Cambridge, 342
Arts, faculty of, the first instituted
at Paris, 77

Arts student, course of study pur-
sued by the, 345; his average age
at entry, 346; his relations to his
'tutor,' ib.; aids afforded him by
the university, 347; aids afforded to
by public charity, ib.; his prospects
on the completion of his course,362
Arthur, Tho., a convert of Bilney,
562; migrates from Trinity Hall
to St. John's, ib.; appointed mas-

Aulus Gellius, Lupus of Ferrières in-
tends to forward a copy of, 20; the
class lecturer at C. C. C. Oxford
ordered by bp. Fox to lecture on,
521, n. 2
Auvergne, William of, condemnation
of a series of propositions from the
De Causis by, 114
Averroes, familiarises his country-
men with Aristotle, 91; entirely
ignorant of Greek, 95; extension

given to the psychological theory
of Aristotle by, 116; his theory of
the Unity of the Intellect, ib.; the
first to develope the psychology of
Aristotle into a heresy, 117; criti-
cised by Aquinas, ib.; followed by
Alexander Hales, ib.; influence
exercised by, over the Franciscans,
118; differs from Aristotle in re-
garding form as the individualising
principle, 120; his writings rare
in the Cambridge libraries of the
fifteenth century, 326
Avignon, university of, formed on
the model of Bologna, 74
Avignon, subserviency of the popes

at, to French interests, 194; effects
of the papal residence at, ib.; in-
fluence of the popes at, on the uni-
versity of Paris, 215


Bachelor, term of, did not originally
imply admission to a degree, 352;
meaning of the term as explained
by M. Thurot, ib. n. 3.
Bachelors of arts, position of, in re-

spect to college discipline, 369
Bacon, Roger, his testimony with
respect to the condemnation of the
Arabian commentaries on Aristotle
at Paris, 98; repudiates the theory
that theological truth can be op-
posed to scientific truth, 114, n. 2;
a student at the university of Paris,
134; his testimony to the rapid
degeneracy of the Mendicants,
152; his opinion of the early trans-
lations of Aristotle, 154; his em-
barrassment when using them at
lecture, ib.; his account of some
of the translators, 155; his career
contrasted with that of Albertus
and Aquinas, 156; unique value of
his writings, ib.; his Opus Majus,
Opus Minus, and Opus Tertium,
157; his different treatises dis-
tinguished, ib. n. 1; importance
attached by him to linguistic
knowledge, 158; and to mathe-
matics, ib.; probably not a lec-
turer at Merton College, 159, n. 4;
his philosophic insight rendered
less marvellous by recent investi-
gations of Arabic scholars, 170;
his account of the evils resulting
from excessive study of the civil
law, 209

Baker, Tho., his observations on the
estates lost by St. John's College,

Balliol College, Oxford, a portion of
Richard of Bury's library trans-
ferred to, 203, n. 2; Wyclif master
of, 264; his efforts on behalf of the
secular clergy at, ib.
Balsham, the village of, formerly a
manor seat of the bishops of Ely,
224, n. 3
Balsham, Hugh, bp. of Ely, his elec-
tion to the see, 223; his struggle
with Adam de Marisco, 224; a Bene-
dictine prior, ib.; an eminently
practical man, 225; his merits as
an administrator, ib.; his decision
between the archdeacon and the
university, ib.; confirms the sta-
tute requiring scholars to enter
under a master, 226; introduces
secular scholars into the hospital
of St. John, 227; failure of his
scheme, ib.; his bequests, 228, n. 2
Barnes, Robt., prior of the Augus-
tinians at Cambridge, 564; sent
when young to study at Louvain,
565; returns to Cambridge with
Paynell, 566; lectures on the La-
tin classics and St. Paul's Epistles,
ib.; disputes with Stafford in the
divinity schools, 568; presided at
the meetings at the White Horse,
573; his sermon at St. Edward's
Church, 575; is accused to the
vice-chancellor, 576; is confronted
privately with his accusers in the
schools, ib.; refuses to sign a re-
vocation, 578; is arrested and exam-
ined before Wolsey in London, ib.;
is tried before six bishops at West-
minster, ib.; signs a recantation,
ib.; his narrative of the con-
clusion, ib.; disclaims being a
Lutheran, 580; is imprisoned at
Northampton, ib.; escapes to Ger-
many, ib.


Barker, John, the sophister of
King's,' 425

Barnet, bp. of Ely, omits to take the
oaths of the chancellors of the uni-
versity, 287, n. 2

Barnwell, priory at, a house of the

Augustinian canons, 139
Barnwell, the prior of, appointed by
pope Martin v to adjudicate upon
the claims of the university in the
Barnwell Process, 289; fight be-
tween and the mayor of Cam-
bridge, 374
Barnwell Process, the, terminates
the controversy concerning juris-
diction between the bishop of Ely
and the university, 146; bull for,

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