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issued by pope

Martin V, 288; real
character of, 290 and n. 2
Basel, council of, new theory of papal

power established by the, 281
Basing, John, assists Grosseteste in

translating the Testaments of the
Twelve Patriarchs, 110; the disco-

verer of the manuscript atAthens,ib.
Bartolus, a writer on jurisprudence

attacked by Valla, 419
Bateman, Wm., bp. of Norwich and

founder of Trinity Hall, 240; his
character, 241; his funeral at
Avignon, ib. n. 1; his design in
the foundation of Trin. Hall, 242;
account of library presented by, to
Trin. Hall, 243; assistance given
by, to Gonville Hall, 244; alters

the name of the Hall, 245
Bayeux, Collége de, in Paris, &

foundation of the fourteenth cen.
tury, 128; designed for the study

of medicine and of the civil law, ib.
Beaufort, cardinal, bequeathed £1000

to King's College, 310; his attain.
ments as a canonist, ib.; his Ul.

tramontanism, ib. n. 1
Bec, monastery at, catalogue of its

library, 101; lands taken from to
found King's College, 305; lands
of, purchased by William of Wyke-

ham, ib. n. 3
Becon, Tho., bis testimony to the

value of Stafford's lectures, 567
Bede, the Venerable, his writings the

text-books of subsequent ages, 9;
a reputed doctor of divinity of the
university of Cambridge, 66; state
of learning in England subsequent

to the time of, 81
Bedell, special, attendant on the

master of glomery, 226, n. 1
Bedells, originally attended the

schools of different faculties, 144
Bedford Level, the, 330
Begging, a common practice with

students in the middle ages, 347;
restrictions imposed on the prac-
tice by the university authorities,

Benedictine era, the, 2
Benedict, St., monastery of, on Monte

Cassino, 5
Benedictines, the, culture of, 3;

schools of, 13; destruction of the
monasteries of in the tenth cen-
tury, 81; rapid extension of the
order of, under Cnut and Edward
the Confessor, 82; different prin-
cipal foundations of, ib.; growing
laxity of discipline among, 85;

motives to which the formation
of new branches of the order is
attributable, ib. and n. 3; degene-

racy of the whole order, 86
Benet College, Corpus Christi Col.

lege formerly so called, 249, n. 4
Benet's St., bells of, used in the

13th century to convene university

meetings, 299, n. 3
Berengar, view of, respecting the

Lord's Supper, 46; his controversy
with Lanfranc, 47; his mental
characteristics compared with
those of Lanfranc, 48; his sub-

mission to the Lateran Council, ib.
Bernard, St., of Chartres, character

of the school over which he pre-

sided, 57
Bernard, St., of Clairvaux, com-

plains of excessive devotion of the
clergy to the civil law, 39; alarm

of at the progress of enquiry, 58
Bessarion, cardinal, 403; his patrio.

tic zeal, ib.; his efforts to bring
about a union of the two churches,
ib.; his conversion to the western
Church, 404; his example produce

tive of little result, ib.
Beverley, town of, Fisher born at, 423
Bible, the, lecturers not allowed to

lecture on, until they had lectured

on the Sentences, 363, n. 2
Biblici ordinarii and cursores, 363
Bidellus, an officer in the university

of Bologna, 73
Bilney, Thos., testimony of to the

influence of Erasmus's Greek Test.,
556 ; his eccentric character, 560;
his account of his spiritual ex-
periences, ib.; his character, by
Latimer, 562; converts of, ib.;
his influence as a Norfolk man,
563; summoned before the chapter
at Westminster, 605; recants a
second time, 607; penance of, at
Paul's Cross, ib.; returns to Cam-
bridge, 608
Bishops, list of, in 1500, who had

been educated at Cambridge, 425
Blackstone, Sir R., inaccuracy of his

account of the early study of the

civil law, 209
Boethius, a text-book during the

Middle Ages, 21; the allegory in
the De Consolatione of, probably
in imitation of Martianus, 27; his
services to learning, ib.; his trea.
tise compared with that of Mar.
tianus, ib.; not a Christian, 28;
commentaries of, on the Topica of
Cicero used by Gerbert at Rheims,

44; the same as Manlius, ib, note bury, 100, n. 1; his criticism on
1; his commentary on the trans. early statute relating to hostels
lation of Porphyry by Victorinus, quoted, 220 n. 1
51; his translation of Porphyry, Bradwardine, Thomas, his De Causa
ib.; change in his philosophic Dei, 198; the treatise a source of
opinions, ib.; importance attached Calvinistic doctrine in the English
by, to the question respecting uni- Church, ib.; its eccentric method,
versals, ib.; difference in his views 199; the work criticised by Sir
with respect to universals as ex- Henry Savile, 199, n. 1'; referred
pressed in his two commentaries, to by Chaucer, ib.; edited by Savile,
53; his conclusions with respect to ib.; its extensive erudition, 200;
the question adverted to by Por- had access to Richard of Bury's
phyry, ib.; does not attempt to library, ib.; chaplain to the same,
decide between Plato and Aristotle, 203; apocryphal authors cited by,
ib.; reason, according to Cousin, ib. n. 1; compared with Occam,
why he adopted the Aristotelian 205, n. 1; styled by Lechler a pre-
theory, ib.; translations of Aris. nuntius Reformationis, ib.
totle by, how distinguished from Bresch, Jean, Essay on the Sentences
those of a later period, 93; passed by, 60, n. 2
for a Christian writer in the Mid. Brewer, professor, observations of,
dle Ages, 96; the philosopher and on the Latinity of mediæval
the theologian confounded in cata. writers, 171, n. 1; criticism of, on
logue of library at Christchurch, Erasmus's New Testament, 509
104; Chaucer's translation of the Bromyard, John, his Summa Prædi.
De Consolatione of, the commence- cantium, 293 ; a Dominican, ib.;

ment of the university library, 323 character of his work, 294; con-
Bologna, university of, the chief trasted with Pecock, ib.

school of civil law in Europe in Bruni, Leonardo, his services to the
the twelfth century, 71; official study of Aristotle, 398; his transla-
recognition of, by the emperor tions of the Ethics and the Poli.
Frederic 1, 72; provisions contain- tics, ib. ; his dedication of the
ed in charter of, ib.; constitution latter to the duke of Gloucester, 399
of, 73; compared with university Brucker, unsatisfactory decision of,
of Paris, 75; numbers at, in the with respect to the Latin transla.
thirteenth century, 130; professors tions of Aristotle, 92; condemna-
of civil law at, dressed as laymen, tion of the scholastic Aristotle by,123
210 ; first received a faculty of Bruliferius, the university forbidden
theology, 215

to study, 630
Bonaventura, commentary of, on the Bryan, John, fell. of King's, a pupil

Sentences, 62; a native of Tus- of Erasmus at Cambridge, 499;
cany, 113; character of the genius rejected the scholastic Aristotle,
of, 118; indifferent to Aristotle, ib.; takes the Greek text of Aris.
ib. n. 1

totle as the basis of his lectures,
Boniface viri, pope, defied by William 517; not an eminent Grecian, 520

of Occam, 187; rapacity of alienates Buckenham, prior of the Dominicans,
the English Franciscans, 194

sermon by, in reply to Latimer, 610
Booksellers, at Cambridge, required Buckmaster, Dr, fell. of Peterhouse,

to suppress heretical books, 500, n. letter of to Dr Edmunds on the
2; generally foreigners, ib.; licence feeling of the university in con-
of 1534 for, 626

nexion with the divorce, 621
Booth, Lawrence, chanc., raises the Buhle, theory of, that the medieval

funds for building arts schools and knowledge of Aristotle was derived
civil law schools, 360

from Arabic translations, 93
Bouquet, Dom, describes the bene- Bullock, Henry, fell. of Queens', a

fits of the system introduced by pupil and correspondent of Eras-
Charlemagne, 14

mus, 498; patronised by Wolsey, ib.;
Bourgogne, foundation of the Collége letter of to Erasmus, 512; oration
de, 129

of, on Wolsey's visit to Cambridge,
Bradshaw, Mr. H., his opinion with 546; grossness of his flattery, ib.;

respect to date of the catalogue of presides at the burning of Luther's
library at Christchurch, Canter. works at Cambridge, 571

Burbank, Wm., secretary to Wolsey, of, 20; considers portion to have

been written by Hirtius, ib.
Buridanus, his Quæstiones a good Caim's Castles, the residences of the

illustration of the common mode Mendicants, so called by Wyclif,
of lecturing, 359

Burley, Walter, defends the realistic Caius Auberinns, a lecturer Te.

doctrines at Oxford, 197; his Ex- rence at the university towards the
positio super Artem Veterem, ib.; close of the 15th century, 434
his statement that the site of Ox. Cam, the river, 329; route described
ford was selected by philosopherg in its course, ib.; its present point
from Greece on account of its of junction with the Ouse, ib.;
healthiness, 339 and n. 2 ; his Logic meaning of name, ib. n. 1; formerly
forbidden at Cambridge, 630

held by the town corporation of
Bury, Richard of, tutor to Edward the crown, 373

III when prince of Wales, 200; his Cambridge, the town of, totally de-
important services to his pupil, ib.; stroyed in A.D. 870, 81; and in
his subsequent career, 201; not a 1009, 82; ancient appearance of,
man of profound acquirements, 332; its gradual growth, ib.; why
ib.; his interview with Petrarch at chosen as a site of an university,
Avignon, ib.; he disappoints the 333; aspect of in the 15th century,
poet, 202; his knowledge of Greek, 375
ib.; his real merits, ib.; his mania Cambridge, university of, its earliest
for books, ib. n. 2; his wisdom in known legal recognition, 1; legends
book colleoting, 203; fate of his respecting early history of, 66;
library, ib.; his rules for the ma- scantiness of our information re-
nagement of Durham College li. specting the statutes of, before the
brary, ib.; the rules almost iden. college era, ib.; modelled on the
tical with those of the Sorbonne, university of Paris, 67; probable
204, n. 1; slight distinction be- origin of, 80; earliest legal recog-
tween the two, ib.; his Philobiblon, nition of the, 84; students from
ib. n. 2; his account of the stu- Paris settle in the, 107; presence
dents of his day, 206; on the de- of students from Paris at, 133;
generacy of the Mendicants, ib.; migration from the, to Northamp-
his declaration respecting the civi. ton, 135; first recognised as a stu-
lians, 211; his indifference to the dium generale in 1318, 145; ad-
canon law, ib.; his opinion of the vantages resulting from this recog-
university of Paris in his day, nition, 146; chancellor of, present
214; his testimony to the lethargy at council of Constance, 276; re-
that there prevailod, ib.

garded as deteriorating in theology
Bury St. Edmund's, contest at, be- in the fifteenth century, 315; ori.
tween the monks and the Francis- ginally only a grammar school,

340; period when the arts course
Busleiden, Jerome, founder of the was introduced at,\342), fables re-

collegium trilingue at Louvain, specting'early history of, retailed by

565; his family and character, ib. Fisher, 450; tribute paid by Erasmus
Byzantine logio, the, influence of, to its fame, 1507) progress of Greek
175; its presence in Duns Scotus, at, 511; declared by Erasmus in
180; important results that fol. 1516 to be able to compare with
lowed upon the introduction of, the most celebrated universities,
184; important results of, with 616; entire change at, $19; n.
respect to nominalism, 188; in- 2; favour shown by to the study
strumental in introducing the of Greek contrasted by More with
theory of the Suppositio, ib.; its the conduct of Oxford, 526; had
rapid spread in the 15th century,416 always outstripped Oxford, 534;

Wolsey constituted sole reviser of

the statutes of, 549; abject flattery

of letter of, to the cardinal, 550;
Caen, abbey of, lands taken from to contribution of colleges of to the
found King's College, 305

royal loan, 551, n.1; royal visits to,
Cæsar, Commentaries of, Lupus of 551; scholars from, invited by Wol-

Ferrières promises to send copy sey to Oxford, 652; less forward to

cans, 149

espouse new doctrines than Oxford, only portion of his logic studied
559; begins to take the lead in prior to the 12th century, 29
connexion with the Reformation, Cavendish, Wolsey's biographer, edu.
ib.; Luther's writings burnt at, cated at Cambridge, 545
571 ; question of the royal divorce Chalcidius, Latin translation of the
referred to, 613; conduct of, in Timæus by, 41
relation to the question, compared Chalcondyles, successor to Argyro.
by Mr. Froude with that of Oxford, pulos at Florence, 429; his edition
616; letter to from King Henry, of Homer, ib.; his Greek gram-
617; decision of, on the question,

mar, 430
criticised, 621; royal injunctions Champeaux, William of, opens a
to, 630

school of logic in Paris, 77, n. 1
Camerarius, testimony of, to fame of Chancellor of the cathedral at Paris,
Richard Croke at Leipsic, 527

his hostility to the university, 80
Canon law, study of, founded on the Chancellor, office of the, in the uni.

Decretum of Gratian, 36; simply versity, 140; his election biennial,
permitted at Merton College, 167; ib.; elected by the regents, ib.;
permitted but not obligatory at duties attached to the office, 141;
Gonville Hall, 240; how affected by his powers ecclesiastical in their
Occam's attack on the papal power, origin, ib.; originally not per-
259; four fellows allowed to study mitted to delegate all his duties to
at King's, 308; study of, simply the vice-chancellor, ib. ; his powers
permitted at Queens' College, 317; distinguished from those of the
forbidden at St. Catherine's Hall, regents, 142; first becomes vested
318; and at Jesus College, 322; with spiritual jurisdiction in the
admission of bachelors in, from university, 146; his authority as-
A.D. 1459 to A.D. 1499, 320; doctor serted by the Barnwell Process ex-
of, former requirements for degree clusive of all ecclesiastical jurisdic-
of, 364 ; lectures on and degrees in tion, 289
prohibited, 630

Chancellors, two at the university of
Canterbury, destruction of the library Bologna, 73

at, A.D. 1009, 82; both the monas- Charlemagne, fosters learning in
teries at, professed the Benedictine conjunction with Alcuin, 9; effects
rule, ib.; mode of life at monas. of his rule on the conception of
tery of St. Augustine at, described learning, 10; his Capitularies, 12;
by Giraldus Cambrensis, 87

his letter to Baugulfus, ib. ; in-
Canterbury Hall, Oxford, efforts of vites Alcuin over from England,

Simon Íslip at, 266; expulsion of 13; twofold character of his work
seculars from, ib.

in education, ib.; his mental acti.
Cardinal College, Oxford, foundation vity, 14; questions in grammar

of, 551; its princely revenues, ib.; propounded by, to Alcuin, 15; his
scholars from Cambridge placed

views in relation to learning com-
on the foundation, 552; founded pared with those of Alcuin, 17
on the site of St. Frideswide's Charters university, supposed loss
monastery, ib. n. 1; magnificence of, 81, n. 1
of the design, 601 and n. 1

Chicheley, archbp., directs the con.
Cards, playing at, allowed to fellows fiscation of the estates of the alien

at Christmas time, 609; always for. priories, 305
bidden to scholars, ib. n. 2

Christchurch, monastery of, Canter.
Carmelites, the, their house near bury, a mixed foundation, 100;
Queens' College, 139

distinguished from that of St. Au-
Cassiodorus, treatise of, a text-book gustine's, Canterbury, ib. n. 2;

during the Middle Ages, 21; his contrast presented in catalogue of
account of the Arithmetic of Boe. library at, with that of a hundred
thius, 28, n. 1; escapes the fate years later, 105; the monks of,
of Boethius under Theodoric, 29; nearly driven from the city by the
his Gothic History, 30; his Epi- Dominicans, 150
stles, ib.; his treatise De Artibus, ib.; Christchurch, Oxford, see Cardinal

copy of, at the library at Bec, 100 College
Categories of Aristotle, the, along Christ's College, foundation of, 446;

with the De Interpretatione, the endowments of given by Margaret

of Richmond, 447; original sta-
tutes of, 453; qualifications of
fellows at, 455; oath taken by fel.
lows of, ib.; power reserved by sta-
tutes of, of making alterations,
456, n. 3; error of dean Peacock
on this point, ib.; clause in oath
administered to master of, 458;
requirements for fellows at, 459;
admission of pensioners at, ib. ;
appointment of lecturer on Latin
literature at, ib.; lectures to be given
in long vacation at, 460; allowance

to fellows for commons at, ib.
Chrodegang, bp. of Metz, founder of

secular colleges in Lorraine, 160
Chrysoloras, Emmanuel, his charac-

ter, 391; he acquires the Latin
tongue, 392; his eminence as a
teacher of Greek, ib.; his Greek
Grammar, ib. and n. 2; his visit
to Rome, 393; his death at Con-
stance, 395; his funeral oration by

Julianus, 396
Chrysostom, St., disparagingly spoken

of by Erasmus, 501
Chubbes, Wm., author of a treatise

on logic, 425; an adviser of bp.
Alcock in the foundation of Jesus
College, 426
Cicero, Lupus of Ferrières asks for

the loan of the Rhetoric of, 20;
Topica of, expounded by Gerbert
at Rheims, 44; studied as a model
under Bernard of Chartres, 57;
styled by Niebuhr a θεός άγνωστος
in the Middle Ages, 96; numerous
treatises of, in the library at Bec,
in Normandy, in thirteenth cen-
tury, 104; Petrarch's model, 354;
orations of, known in the twelfth

and thirteenth centuries, 384, n. 2
Cistercian branch of the Benedictine

order, 85; testimony of Hugo, the
papal legate, to the motives of the
institution of the order, ib. n. 3;
order of the, satirised by Walter

Map, 86
Citramontuni, a division of the stu.

dents at the university of Bologna,

Civil law, study of, revived by Irne-

rius at Bologna, 36; extended by
Accursius, 37; at first regarded with
hostility by the Romish Church,
ib.; forbidden to the religious or.
ders, 38; banished from the uni.
versity of Paris, ib.; its relation to
the canon law explained by Savigny,
ib, n. 3; its general prevalence at
the close of the 12th century, 39;

the study of, often united with that
of the canon law in England, ib.;
studied by Lanfranc at Bologna,
47; why discouraged at Paris, 75;
periods during which the study
was encouraged or prohibited in
the university of Paris, ib. 1. 2;
none of the volumes of the, found
in the library at Christchurch, 104;
studied at the Collége de Bayeux
in Paris, 128; conditions under
which the study of, was permitted
at Merton College, 167; absorbing
attention to, in the 14th century,
208; its tendency to confound dis-
tinctions between laity and clergy,
209; inaccuracy of Blackstone's
account of the study, ib.; Reginald
Pecock on the evils resulting from
the study, ib.; importance of the
code, shewn by William of No-
garet, 211; the Avignonese popes
distinguished by their knowledge
of, ib.; study of, looked upon by
the artists and theologians at
Paris as a trade, 255, n. 1; evi-
dent desire of founders to check
the excessive attention paid, in
the 18th century, to the, 319;
spirit in which it was studied in
Italy entirely mercenary, ib.; ad-
missions of bachelors degrees
in, from A.D. 1459 to 1499, 320;
the study of, especially attacked

by the Humanists, 418
Clare College, foundation of, 250;

designed to repair the losses occa-
sioned by the pestilence, 251; libe-
rality of sentiment in the early
statutes of, ib.; conditions to be
observed in the election of fellows
at, 252; sizars at, ib.; its reputa-

tion in the 15th century, 314
Clement vii, pope, his opinion of the

theologians, 212
Clergy, the, their participation in

secular pursuits in the thirteenth

and fourteenth centuries, 165
Clerk, probably synonymous with

scholar, 84
Clerk, John, bp. of Bath and Wells,

harshness of, towards Barnes at his

trial, 579
Clerke (or Clark), John, one of the

Cambridge Reformers, 604, and n.1
Cluniac branch of the Benedictine

order, 85
Cnut, king, converts the canonry at

Bury St. Edmund's into a Bene-
dictine monastery, 149; favored
the creation of secular colleges, 160

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